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Full text of "Ériu : founded as the journal of the School of Irish Learning devoted to Irish philology and literature"

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ERIU 



ucr 



The Journal of the School of Irish 
Learning, Dubhn 



tUUlLO PA 



RUNG MEYER & JC»HN STRACKAN 



VOL. I— PART I 



DUBLIN 
SCJIOOL OF IRISH LEARNING, 38 CLARE STREET 

UOVGKS, tiuuia, & UU. UCIK, 104 OJKAlrTON STREET 



ji^n^ui 3"u*L..f'"--., i.- 



;sA 



CONTENTtt 



y.iW'iJirj^ )A^&i I i^ 



Till rv; fi ^iit*^!.uihvi v.rK. J If Twi*,i> 



f.d 



ij Ml. 1 1.11^ 



I M>' (La:*! MM HI vm I'l, i\t X* JBrJ*>U', 



Tn' vuami liUjiii the Loi iWi*4.\» 4i*A . 



1JJ3 



ERI U 



The Journal of the School of Irish 
Learning, Dublin 



EDITED BY 

KUNO MEYER & JOHN STRACHAN 



VOL. I 



DUBLIN 
SCHOOL OF IRISH LEARNING, a8 CLARE STREET 

AND 

HODGES, FIGGIS, & CO. Ltd., 104 GRAFTON STREET 

1904 



I^eprodaeed by ^hoto -Lithography 

by Jllex. Thorn & Co., Ltd , "Dublin 

J 941 

PRINTED AT THE 




By P0N80NBY A GIBBS 



PREFACE 



IN submitting the first number of Eriu to the public, the 
Editors wish, on behalf of the School, to thank all those 
who, by donations and subscriptions, have made it possible for 
an important part of the work of the School to be carried out 
during the first year of its existence. The School has been 
founded, in the first place, to train students in the scientific 
study of the Irish language, and in reading and interpreting 
Irish manuscripts. Its final aim is, with the help of students so 
trained, to investigate the history of the Irish language from 
the earliest times to the present^ay, and to open up, by means 
of texts and translations, the rich treasures of Irish literature. 
The present number contains the first-fruits of the studies of 
several students of the School. Its varied contents, including 
grammar, literature, and history, will give an indication in which 
directions the studies pursued in the School mainly lie. 

It is intended to bring out half-yearly numbers, two of 
which will form a volume. The next number, which is already 
in the Press, will contain the first instalment of an edition of 
the oldest version of the Tain Bo Cuailnge from the * Yellow 
Book of Lecan* and the *Lebor na hUidre.* 

K. M. 
J. S. 

July, 1904. 



Page 
I 

>3 
38 
43 

49 
66 



CONTENTS 

Atakta. John Strachan, 

The Burning of Finn's House. E. J. Gwynn, m.a., f.t.c.d, 

Comad MancMn L6ith, etc. Kuno Meyer, 

Colman mac Duach and Guaire. J. G. O'Keeffe, 

The Irish Substantive Verb. J. H. Lloyd, 

"Pangur Ban,'' etc. udtltlA t)'A1SUntS, 

Daniel hfia Liathaide's Advice to a Woman. ) 

Cdilte Cccinit. j Kuno Meyer, 6^ 

The Leabhar Oiris. R. I. Best, ... ... ... 74 

The Death of Conla. Kuno Meyer, ... ... .... 113 

Anecdoton. John Strachan, ... ... .. laa 

Cuchulinn and Conlaech. J. G. O'Keeffe, ... ... 123 

The Quarrel about the Loaf. T. P. O'Nowlan, m.a., ... ia8 

Anecdoton. John Strachan, ... ... ... 138 

Analogy in the Verbal System of Modern Irish. O. J. Beroin, 139 

The Infixed Pronoun in Middle Irish. John Strachan, ... 153 

The Boyish Exploits of Finn. Kuno Meyer, ... ... 180 

An Old-Irish Metrical Rule. John Strachan, ... ... 191 

A Collation of CriiA Gablach^ and a Treatise on Crd and 

Dibad. Kuno Meyer, ... ... ... 209 

The Rule of Patrick. J. G. O'Keeffe, ... ... 216 

Feilire Adamnain. M.E.Byrne, ... ... ... %%$ 



SUPPLEMENT 

Tain Bo Cuailnge. John Strachan & J. G. O'Keeffe, 1-32 



ATAKTA. 

I. THE NOMINATIVE PLURAL OF MASCULINE -U- STEMS. 

THE examples of this form cited in the Grammatica.Celtica* 
p. 240, exhibit a variety of endings : e^ -a, -de, -a, -/, 

-at. So far as I am aware, these forms have been hitherto 
treated as mere phonetic variations. Some of them are un- 
doubtedly such. Thus -e and -ae are identical in value, also -/ 
and -au Here the function of the a is to indicate that the 
preceding consonant is non-palatal. In such a case early O. Ir. 
wrote 'Cy -/*; in later O. Ir. there is a growing tendency to write 
'Oe -at. Further, there is no doubt that -a is a phonetic 
development of -ae. But what of -^, -ae on the one hand, and 
-/, -at on the other ? Are they identical in origin or are they 
not? Before this question can be answered with certainty, it 
is necessary to examine O. Ir. documents of different dates, 
to ascertain whether the two sets of forms are distributed 
equally, or approximately equally, in such documents, or whether 
one form predominates in earlier, the other in later, documents. 
To eliminate chance as far as possible, it is essential that docu- 
ments should be selected in which the instances are tolerably 
numerous. Such documents are to be found in the Wiirzburg 
and the Milan Glosses, the former of which collections can be 
proved to be considerably earlier than the latter. I give the 
instances which I have noted in these two texts ; it may be that 
I have overlooked some, but the collections will be found com- 
plete enough for our present purpose. 

Wiirzburg Glosses : — 

{a) -e, 'ce\ ferte 8ni, 24*5; pecthe 9^13, 11*9, 29*23, 28; 
gnime 26^8, 30^10, 31^30; [rf(og)e 27% moge 29*2 ; bisse 29*3 ; 
recte 29*16 ; gnimce 13*29, 20''2> 31^26 ; pecd(8 33^8. 

1 Cf. Thesaurus Palaeohibemicus, 11, pp. xiv sq. 
B 



2 J. STRACHAN 

{b) -a: pechtha-ni 2»6; gnbna 4*12, S»30, 32, 19^12, 29^2; 
cosnama 7*12 ; b^sa-sa 9^17, bha-si 16^*19; rf(rf«« 1 2* 11 ; moga-si 
27^17; senchassa 28*^23. 

(^) -I, -a/: pecthi 4*8, pecthi-si 25^*9, pecthi 26^11 ; /«(jf/ 
7'»io; bissi-si 9*17, ^/j/ 28^26, 3/^^/ ^1^13 ; s^tisin 9»i8 ; 
^«/ 2i»i6, 27^15 ; ^«/w/ 25*^23, 28^20; r/Zflj^' 5*^15 ; gnitnai 8^4, 
29*30. With a preceding palatal consonant: coisnimt^ 7*13 (by 
cosnama above), imchdinti 2^10 ; senchaissi} 31^*25 (i^y senchassa 
above), imbrdti 31^26. 

Milan Glosses : — 

(<?) -ae : gnimae 65*16. 

(^) -^ : gnima 116*5. After a palatal consonant : cosmailsea 
51*5. 

(^) -/, -a^': /^^/Af' 32*^15, 43*7, 7I®I2 ; tintudai 3*14 ; gnitnai 
14^15, 23«i5, 31^25, 42*21, 5i«i4, 68»2, 75*6, 94*4, 97*5, 99^ 
I07«i2, 112*7,9, I22«2, 4, 129*9; adradai /^6^io\ mesai 55*ii; 
siansai 94*3 ; pecthai 98*^5 ; bdsai ioo«i7 ; fertai 112*8 ; moltai 
136*8. With a preceding palatal consonant: imraiti 38*5; 
aimsi 127*25. 

In other O. Ir. documents I have noted only a few in- 
stances : — 

Book of Armagh : tuimthea 78*2. 

Stowe Spells : srothe. 

Carlsruhe Beda : brottae i8i*. 

Saint Gall Priscian : sothe 6d^\dty irchdilte 199*3, ^^^^ 1 11^*5, 
\/^%^^^y gnima 209*13, comchutrummaickthi-so 39*10. 

From a comparison of the distribution of the forms in Wb. 
and Ml. the inference is clear : the -^, -a forms make way for 
'iy -at forms ; in other words, the -^, -at forms are the later, the -e 
forms the earlier. This is the reverse of what is commonly 
taught. Thus Brugmann, Grundriss 1*241, starts from mogai as 
the normal form, and does not discuss the others. Let us see 
how he arrives at mogai. The Celtic form of the ending of the 
case was -oues (from Indo-Germanic -eues^ cf. Gaulish Lugoves. 
According to Brugmann, unaccented e became always i before it 
was lost; mogai h^ explains from '' *fnog(^u'\^s'\ with change of 

' The variation between cosnama and coisnimi (stem ^cosnimu-), senchassa and 
senchaissi (stem *senocessu') is strange, but there are yet many points in connexion 
with palatalization of consonants which need explanation. 



ATAKTA 3 

to ir It is to be noted that the only clear instance of such a 
change of a vanishing e to t which he quotes is the form tnogai, 
if his explanation were right Apart from this form he seems 
simply to reason from the fact that e in unaccented syllables 
became i\ e.g. berid from *beretu But besides mogai he brings no 
evidence that an ^ in a final syllable became t before it was lost 
And he has overlooked a piece of evidence to the contrary. 
'Ciiale, *he heard/ comes from *cuclozie\ in Wb. the form is 
'Ctiahy in Ml. -ciialaCy later -ciiala ; of -^ciialaiy which might have 
been expected if Brugmann were right, there is no trace. 
Against Brugmann's explanation, then, we have, in the first 
place, 'Ciiale ; in the second place, the historical sequence of the 
nominal forms ; for it is in the highest degree improbable that -at 
should have changed to -ae^ -a, and then back again to -at. 
Rather *mogoues became mogae^ and later moga. As the change 
of the -ae to -a had taken place in Wb., it follows that the final 
-e here was an opener sound than usual.^ 

What, then, of the forms in -i, -at} In them I would see the 
influence of -/- stems, e.g. cndmai n. pi. of cndim * bone.* The 
-/- and 'U- stems have influenced one another in other cases. In 
the gen. sg. the -i- stems seem to have taken the ending of the -u- 
stems; in the gen. pi. the -u- stems have taken tiie ending of the 
-/- stems.' In the nom. pi. we may suppose that the influence of 
'i- stems like cndmai^ in which the final palatal vowel was preceded 
by a non-palatal consonant, was especially strong. In later 
Irish mogai and cndmai became m^ga and cndma ; words like 
siiili^ siiiUy *eyes,' in which the vowel was preceded by a 
palatal consonant, did not prevent the regular development 
As we have seen, in some -«- stems the consonant preceding the 
final vowel was palatal. These, with the exception of tuimthea 
Lib. Ardm., irch&ilte Sg., cosmailsea ML, show -i\ they succumbed 
to the influence of sdili and the like. In the adjective the 

^ For otherwise the change of final ^e to -a in Wb. is very rare. See Celt. 
Zeitschr. IV. 51, where it should be added that 'glanta finds support in itarcerta 
1 2^22 and Usa iZ^ii^, 

2 If, as I hope to show elsewhere, in later Irish the ace. pi. of •«- stems was 
replaced by the nominative, this also maybe put down to the influence of -t- stems 
in which the nom. and ace. pi. fell phonetically together. The beginning of the 
change falls in the O. Ir. period. In Celt. Zeitschr. iv. 489, 1 called attention to 
the ace. ilgotha Sg. I97»ii. Cf. 2Xso pfcthi Ml. 46«*6, further gnima Ml. Si^i, 
9g<ii, iintuda Ml. 107^3, though there is always the possibility that a may be a 
scribal corruption of u, 

B 2 



4 J. STRACHAN 

plural of -«- stems has in the oldest Irish already assumed the 
inflexion of -u stems, e.g. ^7, * much/ nom. ace. pi. tli\ cf. 
sainemail^ n. pi. sainemlai Ml. 14^6, 23^15, ace. pi. sainemli 
Wb. 12^15. (But where the adjective is usied as a substantive 
Wb. has fudumne 5*^17, fudumncB 8^6 ; Ml. 81*4, 138^9 has 
fudumnai) 

2. THE ACCUSATIVE AND VOCATIVE PLURAL MASCULINE OF 
-O- ADJECTIVE STEMS. 

In adjectives like mdr^ marb, &c., there is in Mid. Ir. a 
difference of ending according as the word is used substantively, 
that is without an accompanying noun, or adjectively, as the 
attribute of a noun. In the former instance the ending is -u 
as in nouns, e.g. fedhachu^ * sinners '; in the latter the ending is 
-a, e.g. Jiru mdra. This distinction is not original, but has 
arisen within Irish itself ; in the attributive adjective the ending 
of the feminine and neuter has spread likewise to the masculine. 

How far, then, does the innovation go back? In 
Bezzenberger's Beitrage, xi. 99, Stokes cites r^tu ndiba from 
Sg. 33*, and in accordance therewith gives marba as the ace. 
and voc. pi. masc. of marb. In Celt. Zeitschr. iv. 64, I noted 
lucu arda Ml. 23*23. Since then I have made a more careful 
investigation of the subject. In Wb. I have discovered no 
instances of the ace. pi. of the attributive adjective ; instances 
of the voc. are a geinti hireschu 3*13, a Galatu burpu i9**4. In 
Ml. 'U appears in sacrilegos . . . motus (= Ir. cumscaigthiu m.), 
gl. deochratechu i6'i, uacuos conatiis (= Ir. aimsiu m.) casiisque 
[leg. cassosque), gl. madachu t. tuisledchu 26*8, inna mmessu 
firtanu 38^23 ; -a appears in lucu arda 23*23, motus furiales 
gl. bruthcha 16^18, casosque conatus gl. madacha i7'6, homines 
. . . sanctos gl. sainretha .i. noiba 37»>4. From Sg. I have noted 
no further instance. It may be said, then, that the change first 
appears towards the end of the eighth century, and is not then 
complete. Though the ace. does not happen to be found in 
Wb., it is improbable that it differed in form from the vocative.' 

1 In the nom. maicc cdima in Wb. 27i>i6, it seems hardly possible to avoid the 
supposition that cdima is a scribal error for cdim, due to the preceding cdimsa. 



ATAKTA 5 

3. ACCUSATIVE PLURAL MASCULINE OF ADJECTIVAL -10- 

STEMS. 
In adjectival use this form ends in -t] as in the fern, and 
neut. ; e.g. gnimu rechttdi^ from rechtide^ * legal ' : cf. Gramm. 
Celt.', 234 ; Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XI. loi. But it is not 
noticed there that in substantival use the ending is -iu as in the 
noun: tuicsiu Wb. 4^15, na derscaigthiu Ml. n^22y frisna 
remeperthiu 69*4. 

4. NOMINATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE PLURAL NEUTER OF 
ADJECTIVAL -lO- STEMS. 

Except in inna dorchCy * the darkness/ Ml. 54^20, 140^5, Sg. 
183^3, I l^«^ve noted no difference between the substantival and 
the adjectival form; both end in -i. Examples of the sub- 
stantival use are : inna remeperthi Ml. 23% inna cotarsnai 46*^9, 
inna nephanmandi 60^5, inna fortechtai 8 1*^1 5, inna mticnai 95*^5, 
inna cocui 96*^8, inna medonsmirdi 127^14, tnna caintinscantai 
131*^18, inna inchlidi 140^10; inna forliterdi Sg. 8''4, cetnidi 
48^5, inna briathardi 56^12, inna firneuturdldi 140*6. 

5. THE NOMINATIVE OF THE PRONOUN side. 
In the dat. and ace. this pronoun is fully accented : e.g. do 
*suidiUy la suide. The corresponding accented forms in the 
nom. and gen. would have been suide^ suidi, &c. But the 
forms of these cases are regularly enclitic ; hence we find side,^ 
&c. In the genitive I have discovered no exception to this. 
In the nominative there is a very interesting exception in 
olsuide^ *said he'; here the accent fell, not on oly but on the 
pronoun. My examples of olsuide are: ^^icfasa in cinaidl^ 
ollsuide (leg. olsuide) Cormac, s.v. Mugeme\ ''ad ddthar 
sund?" olsude Voyage of Bran, I. 47 ; '' ni ansa,'' olsoide Celt. 
Zeitschr. III. 254. 

6. THE PRONOUN SOM, sL 

In the Gaelic Journal for November, 1903, p. 428, note, I 
remarked that I had found no example of si after the copula 
followed by a feminine predicate, and quoted to the contrary 

* In Celt. Zeitschr. in. 56, I denied the use of side in the nom. sg. neut. — 
I now think wrongly. In Ml. 89<^io, side refers to Lat. pax = Ir. std n. ; and in the 
Glosses the gender is regularly determined by the gender of the corresponding Latin 
word. Cf. also indraic side, Cormac, s.v. Mugeme, 



6 J. STRACHAN 

madfochricc sam^ * if it be reward/ Wb. 2*26. That observation 
was based on material collected from the Wiirzburg Glosses. Of 
. 5/, which might have been expected, I have since then met with 
two instances in the St. Gall Priscian : namely, is miit si 17*3, 
and ts rann si 25^5. How the exception in Wb. is to be 
explained is not clear ; the material is too scanty. 

7. THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN. 

If we consider expressions like cid torbae ara torsata 7 cia 
gnim dungniat Ml. 120V, ^^<^ chenil n6 cesi aram Sg. I97**3, 
we see that in the feminine and the neuter (cid, ced = cehed) 
a demonstrative pronoun is fused with the interrogative. The 
question, then, is how far such an addition is obligatory. With 
a view to solving this question I have collected the material 
which I have found in the Old Irish Glosses, and I have further 
investigated a number of other old texts. The result is not 
wholly clear ; in some points texts preserved in later manu- 
scripts show certain deviations from the usage in the Glosses, 
with regard to some of which, however, it is not certain whether 
we have to deal with actual innovations, or whether such usages 
are wanting in the Glosses only by chance, simply because the 
particular types of expression happen not to be used there. I 
give the results of my investigation as far as I have been able 
to carry it, in the hope that it will lead to further observation 
on the part of others, and to a more precise determination of 
the usage. I give first the material from the Glosses, and after- 
wards material from other texts. 

(i.) The interrogative is not followed by a noun. 

{a) *Who?' (singular). Here cia is usual: e.g. cia conicc, 
Wb. 4^11, cia foUnfea Wb. 12^14, cia dobera Ml. 34^5, diis cia 
atrebea Ml. 35^24, cia dia cumachtaigther Sg. 209^30 ; cia de gl. 
uter Sg. 242*1. In a few instances cia is followed by 6\ quis 
.1. cia hi Ml. 46^17, 18, cia hi nundixnaigther-siu Ml. 75*9, ce hi 
roscrib Sg. 197*19. 

{b) ' What ? ' (neut. sg.). Here cid is regular : e.g. cid atobaig 
Wb. 19*10, cid asindisem Ml. 35*6, cid imruthrenaiged Ml. 
102*15, &c. But cia de Wb. 2fii. 

{c) 'Who are?' 'what are?' (plural). Here, of present 
time, citni is used : citni foruar Wb. 8^5, citni robatar 
Ml. 61^8. In Ml. 16^13, si quaeritur quae gentes congregatae 



ATAKTA 7 

sint, gl. cttne^ a noun corresponding to gentes has to be supplied 
after the pronoun. Of past time, ceptar hi Cormac, s.v. prull. 

(2.) The interrogative is followed by a noun. 

{a) The noun is masculine singular. The interrogative is 
cta\ dtis cia port Wb. 26^24, eta salmscribdtd conicfed s6n 
Ml. 14*6, cia forcenn doberthar Ml. 33*9, cia loc sainriud 
dia regtais Ml. 99^10, cia giiim dungniat Ml. 120^7, cia aiccent 
Sg. 26»6, cia randdatu Sg. 27*12. 

(3) The noun is feminine singular. The interrogative is 
cesi\ cessi aimser Ml. 24*10, cisi choniairle Ml. 34® 18, cisi 
aimser Ml. 97*5, cisi digal Ml. 100*5, ^^^ aimser Sg. 26*6, cisi 
rann Sg. 27*13, cesi aram Sg. 197^3, cisi chiall Sg. 217*2. 

(f) The noun is neuter singular. The interrogative is cedy 
cid : cetorad (= ced torad) Wb. 3^29, cetorbe (= ced torbe) 
Wb. 1 2*5, ced torbe Wb. 13^6, 7, 19^8, cid torbae ara torsata 
Ml. 120V, cid tortid Ml. I2i^i ^y cidechor {^ cid dechor) Sg. 23*2 
cid/olad sluindes Sg. 25^17, cid chenH Sg. 197^3, cid aes n-esci 
BCr. 32*9, cid Ide sechtmaine BCr. 32*^6, 7, 9, ^^df /o^rf imbi 
Computus Vat 20, cid lae sechtmaine Computus Nanc. I., cid 
aes n-escai Comput. Nanc. 2. 

{d) The noun is plural. The interrogative is citnd : assindet 
citni cumacte Wb. 6*9, citni briathra robatar Ml. 61^, ci\{\ni 
fochainn Ml. 101*3. 

As might have been expected from their formation, cisi and 
cid are used only with feminines and neuters respectively. 
With cia the accompanying noun is prevalently masculine. In 
certain phrases, however, it is followed by a noun of another 
gender. With indas n., 'state,' it gives cindas (=Mod. Ir. 
cionntif) Wb. 6^13, 8*^11, 13^20, &c.; cindas on Sg. 18*6, cindas 
mbias Sg. 40'i5, 3\so cia indas rundgdbsat Ml. 55^1. With 
miit f. it gives ce miit Wb. 33*1, 34*5, Sg. 25^16, ciammM 
Ml. 25% 26*10, 138*^12.^ So cia dii^ 'where,' Ml. 407, cia 
airm^ Wb. 12*18.* In a couple of instances ce, cia is found 

1 Cf. Celt. Zeitschr. iv. 57. 

' That dn was fern, is indicated by the fern, hi suidi Ml. 27*10. 

3 That airm was fem. in Mid. Ir. is seen from cisi airm, quoted by "Windisch 
s.v. : cf. also ind airm Wb. 4^26 (where Ascoli suggests airmttiu). But 
citnarmandj LU. 134^38, shows the inflexion of a neut. -«- stem. 

* As to cia airet Wb. 25**!, cia aret Ml. 32*22, the phrases inderet sa Ml. 
114^14, innheret sin Sg. 148*5 show that, at least, the word is not neuter, as Ascoli 
says. He evidently infers this from the phrase is ed a erat\ but for the neut. ed 
cf. the phrase ni hed a miit, * not only.* 



8 J. STRACHAN 

corresponding to an accusative fern. : quam caritatem gl. ce seirc 
VVb. 14^15, quam vineam (= \x. fine f.) gl. cia Ml. 102^6 ; these 
seem to be artificial modes of expressing the Latin ; cf. cinni sin 
frisnaiccai siu to translate * quem praestulare ? ' PCr. 57^^ Ce^ 
cia also appear in verbal phrases: e.g. cia bd ammet Ml. 61^28, 
ciabed ammet Ml. 39*13, ciarric, etc., Gramm. Celt* 355. 

By reason of phonetic changes the formal distinctions of 
gender inherited from the parent language became lost in Irish. 
In the singular a new feminine and neuter were formed by 
adding the feminine and neuter pronouns for * she ' and * it ' to 
the interrogative ; in the plural no need was felt to distinguish 
gender, just as no need was felt in d * they.' As to cia it seems 
to be simply the Irish form corresponding to Welsh pwy, * who.' 
It is altogether improbable that it contains the pronoun e^ * he ' ; 
if cekd, cia hdw^xQ earlier than cia^ such forms might be expected 
to occur in Wb. When special forms had been devised for the 
feminine and neuter, cia might be reserved for masculine use. 
Where cia appears with a feminine or neuter, we have a survival 
in stereotyped phrases of an older and freer usage. 

The usage may be further illustrated from some other old 
texts, 

O. I. Psalter' : — cia torbatu 261, cia Hntud 329 ; cisi erndil 61, 
cisi gntiis 76, But in cia hainmind libuir 6, 415 cia is followed 
by the neut. In ciaso ainm 46, ciasoordd 196 appears a form not 
found in O. Ir. It seems to come from cia + so (= inso).^ 

Tdin B6 Cuailnge (LU.): — cia fil sund 62*31, cia tin told 
57^30, ciafer 69*37 ; cissi slabrai 62^32 ; ced leth 6n 61^24, ced 
sliab inso thall 62*4, ced mag ani thall 62*9, ced leth ragthar 
69*40 ; cadrm (= ce airm) itd 68' 18, similarly edit atd 64*15, edit 
imbdi 65*3 1. Note also cd tdi-siu,^ * who art thou ? ' 74*32, cia de, 
* which of the two things?' 62^33, 44. Cia stands before a 
neuter in cia do chomainm-siu SS^io, cia tK ainm-seo 59^5, cia 
fainm-siu 70*43, cia his in gillai sin 58^24.* 

* In cia chruth^ * how,' cia chuiriy * when,'£:jflis a dative. For c/, cia^ followed 
by a preposition and a case, see Gramm. Celt.'* 357. 

2 Ed. K. Meyer, in Hibemica Minora. 

*Cf. ciasa (v. 1. cisi) comairle Ir. Text. Ii. 2, 192, itncomarcar cicLSO II. 2, 192, 
ciasu anmann ii. 2, 195. 

* Cia taid^ * who are ye ? * Ir. Text. ii. 2, 194. 

* Cia camd ngel di^^i is probably an error for cia camn gel. At least I have 
no further evidence that cam is neuter. For cia fotd a run 57^29 YBL. has 
correctly cid. 



ATAKTA 9 

Togal Bruidne Dd Derga* : — cid rcdcs riand § 31 ; cisi 
snillsc (v. 1. cia soillse) § 66 ; cid m (leg. a) fnaiin (v. 1. cia 
fnaivi so) § 56 ; ^^^ anisiu § 26 ; a/;/^'' z^^« § Si ; citneisidv 
(v. 1. ^^rtfe /<2/ side) % 61. C/a before a neuter : ^/Vz ^m;;/ sidi 
% 28 ; «<? ainin do mnd § 39 ; cia do choinainm-siti § 61. 

Tripartite Life : — is ciimiabairt cia crocann 74, ced belrai 128, 
^^V/ /J^ 150. On p. 150 cidsi delb is an error for cisi delb. 

In some of the instances quoted above we have seen m/, 
cid replaced by cia. Similarly cia log rombia Celt. Zeitschr. 
IV. 44, cia haiscid (v. 1. cissi aiscid) Ir. Text. II. i, 192. In Mid. 
Jr. cia becomes the general form before all nouns : cf. Atkinson, 
Passions and Homilies, 582. Such a generalization would be 
helped by the decay of the neuter gender, which seems to fall 
before 1000 A.D. It is precisely this tendency to replace cid 
by cia which, in old texts preserved in MSS. of the eleventh 
century and later, makes it so difficult to determine, in many 
instances, whether cia represents an O. Ir. usage which by 
chance is not found in the Glosses, or whether cia has replaced 
an earlier cid. For example, in the Sagas, so far as I have 
noticed, we have always cia fainm-siu^ &c., never cid fainm- 
sin. 

In O. Ir. there is another interrogative sg. cote, cate, pi. 
coteet, cateet of all genders. Some examples are given in 
Gramm. Celtl, 356. Others are: cote prima gratia, *in what 
consists prima gratia}* VVb. 14^19, cate ind irnigde cen 
ch7imsanad^ *what is meant by prayer without ceasing?' Wb. 
25^23 ; cateat omnia asbeirsom Wb. 31*7 ; quae est ista sententia? 
gl. cate hdixnigedar Ml. 80*^2 ; quod est, gl. cate dixnigedar 
Ml. 103*^24. Cotey &c., vary between the sense of * where?' 
(e.g. Wb. 13^25) and *what?' Thus, ced torbe dtinni a cesme 
(Wb. 13V) means *what is the profit to us of what we 
suffer?' The answer would be issed a thorbe^ &c. Cote mo 
thorbcsc diiib (Wb. 12^36) means * in what way am I of 
any profit to you ? ' Examples from later texts are : cate a 
lefhcoinorgg Cormac, s.v. prull ; cote far n-airle^ ' what is the 
nature of your counsel ? ' LU, 19^26 ; adubairt Patraic : 
cateat ?' * P. said : " what may they be ?" ' Trip. L. 54. In the 
Sagas it often means * where? ' e.g. LU. 6^^7, 69''38, 70' r6, 39 ; 

1 Ed. Stokes. 

^ These instances indicate that citne was not confined to indirect interrogation, 
as Pedersen, KZ. xxxv, 390, seems to suppose. 



10 J. STRACHAN - 

in this sense it is often written cdte, apparently through 
association with edit. 

8. THE SINGULAR OF THE PRESENT INDICATIVE ACTIVE IN 
VERBAL STEMS ENDING IN ASPIRATED t AND d. 

These forms have been touched upon in the Gaelic Journal 
for January, 1904, p. 467. As the facts and the explanation 
of them were there given very briefly, it may not be unprofitable 
to treat the subject again at somewhat greater length. 

The peculiarity of the three persons of the singular of the 
present indicative active of such verbs is that final / appears in 
them where, in accordance with the normal inflexion of the 
verb, final fh or d (i.e. aspirated d) might have been expected. 
Examples are : — 

Sg. I : doduit {tO'de-fed-) gl. sis to, Sg. 77*4, 152^1 ; asindiut 
(esS'ind'fed-) gl. obsero PCr. 60^3 ; ariieut-sa (ar-neth-) ' expecto * 
VVb. 1 4' 1 8, araneu^'Sa Wh. 2'^2T \ fotimmdiriut {fo-to-imvi-de' 
reth") gl. suffio Sg. 185^3. 

But with -///, 'd\ assafiud [ess-fed-) gl. exsero Sg. 221^4; 
tnneuth {md-neth-) Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus II. 42, 1. 11, 
cf. the partly illegible verbs ib. 11. 11, 16; arriuth (air-reth-) 
gl. adorior PCr. 6o''6. 

Sg. 2 : — doad'bit[-bed'), 'thou showest,* Sg. I59'*2. 

Sg. I'r—doad-bat, 'shows,' Wb. 10^21, Ml. 15*2, Sg. 27^15; 
d-ah'diat (to dodiut) Sg. 8*9 ; adfet" {ad-fed-) ' sets forth,' Ml. 
31^19, 62%. 84^4, 87*1, 89^16, 99^9, 111% 123^4, Sg. I03'i, in^fH 
*indicat' Ml. I4''i2, 86^10, asslndet, -aisndet VVb. 6*9, iriS, 
19^14, Ml. 23^12, 40^20. 42^18, 42*^20, S4''i2, 20, 64^19, "^7^1, 
9S'^3, 100^8, 101*3, I03''i ; dociiat, -dichet [di'£0-feth-\ * can go,' 
Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, ii. 420 ; doinfet ifo-m-feth-) * spirat,' 
'inspirat,* Wb. 4^3, 4, Ml. 41^^17 ; dofuarat, -diurat {di-od-reth-Y 
'remanet' Sg. I2''3, Ml. 72*'i7; duetar-rat 'includit' Ml. 30*^6, 
^^;2/^/«r-r^/'comprehendit' Sg. 2^"2y do-d-iarftio-rat' s\j^sq(\}x\Xmx' 
Ml. 21*^3 ; dotiat, -tuit (to-to-tud-, -to-tud-) * falls ' frequent. But 
with -///, -d ', no-su-^m'd * beseeches them' Wb. 25**; -Piazd 
* breaks' Ml. 51^9, iio^io, 115*^12 ; in-reith Ml. 19*^13,48*3 

The explanation suggested is as follows : — Before Sy th and 

1 The radical part of the verb is fed- (or feth- ?), cf. the subjunctive -fessam. 
In the present we hnd /ed' j fiad- . Fed- would seem to be a reduplicated present 
stem, but the precise nature of the reduplication is not very clear. 

2 Cf. Sarauw, Irske Studier, 72 



ATAKTA II 

aspirated d become /,* e.g. ni rni/wgdifsam \Vb. i6'22 b}* in- 
m-thogaitha 4" 27 ; ro-n-moitseyn Wb. 17*13 from vioidim = Mod, 
If. m^onoim ; a butt sent from a buith sem Sg. 2i6''2 ; mchmtsa 
from in chruth-sa Sg. 111*5. Where ///, d are written — e.g. 
arruneithset, in chruth-sa^ a butth-sovi — it is only an etymological 
spelling. Now the verb is often followed by the affixed pro- 
nouns 'Sey 'SU, 'Som, -si. Before these /A, d/i would become /. 
And the /-forms came to be used where there is no affixed 
pronoun. It is only in the present that such a generalization of 
the /-forms is found. In the preterite the aspirated forms have 
prevailed, e.g. rordith. 

In the present of simple verbs, so far as appears from the few 
examples, the / did not spread. Here absolute forms like 
guidid^ viatdid, if nothing else, would have prevented the spread 
of /. In compound verbs the change is not complete : cf. 
assa/iud by dodiut^ inneuth by arneut-sa, where the variation 
seems to be arbitrary. A priori it is not improbable that the 
change to / took place only where all the three persons ended 
in a dental, e.g. *doadbut, doadbit, doadbat ; unfortunately the 
fragmentary character of the evidence makes it impossible 
either to prove or to disprove this ; arriuth, inreith by sg. 2. 
ararethi Wb. lends a little support to the assumption. 

9. O. IR. iola, ^ula, *PERITUS, EXPERTUS.' 
Examples of the word are int dis eula Wb. 3^4, is iola side 
Wb. 1*4, is he side as iola Wb. 4^1, 6^25 ; na bad eola inarcintaib 
Wb. 33^21. In Gramm. Celt' 809 it is regarded as coming from 
an adj. stem eulac- \ similarly Ascoli, Glossarium liv. But no 
other example is quoted of such an adjectival formation ; and 
perhaps the form is to be explained in another way. 

The use of the genitive as the equivalent of an attributive 
adjective is common in all stages of Irish. O. Ir. examples are 
trcbaire chollno « trebaire cholniae Wb. 3^30, indocbdil talman = 
indocbdil talviandi Wb. 23^21. Such a genitive is also used as 
a predicate after the copula, e.g. nitat torbi, * they are not of 
profit/ *thcy are not profitable,' Wb. 11^17^ ni bdi lib, * ye 
deem it not good' (lit. * of good ') Wb. 11^4,^ is cuil 'it is evil' 
(lit, 'ofevir) YBL. 91^8 

• Cf. Pcdersen, Aspirationen 161. 

^ l\\ the same Gloss occurs ani as torbce^ 'that which is profitable,' lit. 'that 
which is profit.' 

^ The noun bde^ * good,' is also used predicatively in the nom. e.g. hore ndrbu 
bae la Iiidiu cretem Wb. 5^12. 



12 J. STRACHAN 

In the same way cola might be the genitive of a noun coL 
which is used predicatively in inn col diiib a dindUuclias LL. 
IS2''9. In Mid. In the genitive of col is iuil, e.g. LL. iS7'^42; 
but that may be the same change of declension as is seen in 
Mid. Ir. peccaid - O. Ir. pectho. In Mid. Ir. aneoil^ aniiiil is 
used adjectivally in phrases like tir n-anedily * a strange land/ cf. 
Meyer, Contrib. to Irish Lexicography, 99. 

10. — Indtnnt'Se * TALIS.' 

Examples of indinni-sco in the sense of * such ' have been 
noted by Sarauw, Irske Studier, 138, e.g. hua glosnathiu ind 
inni seo, gl. tali filo, Ml. 72^8 ; sechis eregem ind inni se, gl. talis 
causatio, Ml. 90^8, Sarauw also notes cm inni, gl. qualiter, Ml. 
1 23*^8. He rightly refers the word to tune, * sense, quality.'' 
Cia inni would be a dative like cia criith, ' how ? * In the same 
way indinni'Seo can be explained only as a dative like inchruth- 
sin, * in that way.' 

II. — Indidy Inndch, 

In LU. 56^25 we read ' cid dogcntar friil V or AililL * inndch 
viaith a n-anad nach a techt, * what is to be done to them ?' said 
Ailill, * since neither their staying nor their going pleases.' The 
meaning conjecturally ascribed to inndch here is supported by 
other passages : — 

inad' (leg. indid) gilla oc amulchach tar/as du7i9i, * since 
it is a young beardless lad that has appeared to us,* YBL. 
92^37. 

inid^ mo inathair 7 mo atliair 7 mo secht ndcrhrathair 
orlabair-si, * since it is my mother and my father and my seven 
brothers that ye have slain,* LU. 88*18. 

cid atchi dund inda^ Jisid? * what seest thou for us, since thou 
art a wizard ? ' YBL. 9S'46. 

In origin these forms contain the copula preceded by in-, * in 
which.' Cf., for the sense, O. Ir. isindi, *in that,* e.g. isindi ar- 
n-dam-roichliS'Se, Ml 74*^7 ; isindi ro-n-dann-icais-niy Ml. 89*6. 

J. STRACHAX. 



' Cf. Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus, w. 75, note. 

' Other texts have inid^ itttan, 

3 V. 11. indif iniit^ hininad. Tog. Brud. Da Derga, ed. Stokes, § 81 

^ LU. 86»29 has massat. 



THE BURNING OF FINN'S HOUSE. 

THE main incident of this ballad is told briefly in the Acallam 
na Senorach: see Silva Gadclica, i. 124. In that passage 
the provocation given to Garaid is differently described : he has 
refused to play chess with the women, who thereupon insult 
him : was not Garaid left behind just to make fire for them and 
play chess with them, because he had lost his vigour and his 
power to throw the spear? In return for the taunt Garaid 
" makes fire " for them with a vengeance. In this version the 
place assigned for the holocaust is Drumcree, in West Meath. 
It is transferred to the great Hall of Tara in the Highland 
ballad printed by J. F. Campbell, Leabliar na Fciniie (p. 177, 
col. 2), which tells the story in much the same form as the 
version here edited, but in different words. See also the Losga 
Taura in the Rev. J. Smith's Ancient Poems of Ossian, 1787, 
p. ISO. 

Quite a different account of the death of Garaid's son Aod 
is given in a poem beginning 

Is aoibhinn Sliabh Ctia rod c/os, 

of which there are copies in two MSS. of the eighteenth century, 
R. I. A. 23 L 34, p. 291, and 23 L 22, p. 260. This ballad takes 
up the story of Aod*s quarrel with Muc Smaile at the point 
where it is dropped in the Acallam, I. T. iv., line 2009. Muc 
Smaile had killed Aod's uncle Goll mac Moma, and had refused 
to give an ertc that Aod considered sufficient. Aod seeks 
him out at Sliabh Cua, and kills him in single combat : where- 
upon he is surrounded, with a handful of the Clann Morna, by 
six hundred of Muc Smaile's men, all of whom are slain in the 
fic^ht that follows, except their leader Fionn mac Cubhain. But 
Aod has been twice wounded ; * clouds of weakness ' fall on 
him ; the sea comes in, he is unable to stir, and is drowned by 
the rising tide — 

Nir chumaic dhd a bheag no a mhdr 

acht a bheith dha'f^achain do tJdr^ 

gur bdidh an tonn Aodh an digh 

on trdigh nior sgaoil aoinfear dibh. 



14 E. J. GWYNN 

I have collated tnree MSS. in the Royal Irish Academy — 
23 A 47 (p. 118), called here A ; 23 C 26 (p. 208), called here 
B ; and 23 O 32 (p. 119), called here C. Mr. J. H. Lloyd has 
been kind enough to lend me his transcript of C, and also of 
an oral version taken down by him in Glengesh, Co. Donegal. 
This latter is fundamentally the same as the text here printed, 
but has been greatly corrupted in the process of transmission. 

I owe to Mr. Lloyd also several suggestions as to the inter- 
pretation of the text, besides the note printed at the end of this 
contribution. 

I have adopted the text of A as my basis ; whenever I have 
departed from it to introduce readings from B, or conjectures of 
my own, the change is recorded in the notes ; in a few cases 
marks of length, &c., have been silently added ; but I have not 
attempted to reduce the spelling to uniformity : there is really 
no standard which one can apply ; though perhaps it would 
have been better to correct the confusion oibudk and ba, I have 
given B's variants when they have any significance, but I have 
not thought it worth while, as a rule, to record C's readings, 
except when they support A or B. 

Neither have I attempted to regularise the metre : in most 
cases where it departs from the normal seven-syllable line, it can 
be rectified by slurring such words as agus, or the verbal particle 
do ; but there remain a good many in which it would be 
necessary to rewrite the line. Where the rhyme is wanting, 
corruption of the text may be assumed ; but it is not so easy to 
say when lines apparently hypermetric really indicate a change 
to the modern pronunciation : thus in 38 and 79 tompughadh is 
a dissyllable rhyming with ditn^ as in the spoken Irish of to-day. 

I have preferred to print the Irish text without any marks of 
quotation, punctuation, &c. The translation is studiously plain 
and literal. A short glossary is appended, containing such 
words as are not given in Windisch's Worterbuch, Atkinson's 
Glossary to the Passions and Homilies, nor Meyer's Contribu- 
tions in the Archiv fiir Celtische Lexicographie (ACL). 



THE BURNING OF FINN'S HOUSE r^ 



Glossary. 

aibhiiSy 176, * boasting,' O'R. : cf. AitbeAfAc te )\Aiweif, Poems of G. ua 

Donnchadha, ed. Diuiieen, line 203. 
armaigh, 192, * carnage *; armach^ * slaughter,* O'R. : dr-mag^ * battle-field/ ACL. 
bathadhatm ? 255, * I drown '; but see note. 

bruithchintf 18, 121, apparently for hruighin\ Old-Ir. hrudin (dat. sp. oihruden). 
coihche^ 77, 81, usually * bride- gift '; here * ransom.' 
coimfher, 12, * mate.' 

comitghar, 15, * proximity,' Three Shafts; here concrete, * neighbours.' 
conddhach, yo, s: con/adach (.?), 'furious,* IT iv. Index ; Three Shafts ; but see note. 
coftdnaidh, 50, ? for connaidh, g. s. of connady * fuel,' \Vi. 
copdn^ 144, * cup,' O'R. 
cotun^ 130, 'shield,* O'Don. Suppl. 
criothfhuary ^\y * shivering': see note. 
croimhlind, 210, perhaps = cro'lindy *pool of blood': cf. crolindech^ Wi ; but 

probably a place-name. 
cuaily pi. cualay 52, * faggot,' RC xii. 64, ZCP ii. 225. 
cuannay 84, *neat,' * elegant,' a common modem word. 
cumanftf 72, 74, 'fellowship' {communio)y Rev. Celt. 12, 319: hence in modern 

poetry Move,* O'Daly's Poets of Munster, 83, et passim. 
cumus, 76, * power'; commus'Wi. 

decat'r, pi. decra, 60, * difficulty,' Rev. Celt, ii, 131 ; here * hardf^hip.* 
^agcosgaradhy 103, 'havoc,' related to coscraim, * I destroy' (VVi;, as €comlond to 

comlond, 
ech diola (i*), 133, * horse-stock,' * horse for sale' (?) : cf. ech dile^ Wi. 
fdthay 32, pi. oifdthy 'poem,' Metr. Gloss (.'). 
feithechy 179, ' sinewy,' O'R. ; fiith^ Wi. 
fesda^ 175, 'now,' iox fechUsa. 

Jionnadf 183, verbal noun, ixom fionnaitn^ 'I flay,* O'R. 
fuachty 250, 'cold,' Wi. {uacht) ; here 'numbness.* 
fuinnsioity 52, 'ash,' O'R. : cf. unnius, gen, unsen : King and Hermit. 

geallainty 81, ' I pledge '; here * I accept a pledge *: see note. 

giir-ethachy 232, 'fierce vassal (or giant),' for giir'athach (KM). 

g^rg^^^ 54 ? 

iomguifty 164, ' agony,' O'R. ; immguin^ ' slaying,' Wi. 

Idithrechy i, 6, 8, ' ruins,' O'R. ; Idthrachy ♦ site,* Wi. 

fniodhuaill, 43, ' dislike '; miodhuily Three Shafts, O'R. 

oirdinid, 1 12, pi. of orda^ 'fragment,' O'R. ; hence oirdnihhy ?plinters.' O'R. ; 

ordu^ ' portion,' IT iv., pi. oirdne. 
postQy 19, 'post,' O'R. metaph. 'support, guardian': cf. Stokes. Value of Irish 
Annals, 130. 

preabainty 33, 'I kick,' &c., O'R. ; here * I jump, start up.' 

sialay 3, 'seal,' O'R. ; here seemingly 'impress, traces.' 

sedlady 119, * travail *; ben sedlta a ben siuily IT iii. 226. 

sgabaly 132, ' helmet,' O'R. {scabal) : cf. scaboly ' caldron,' AVi. 

sgtgey 47, 'jeering,' Cath. Finntr. Index, O'R. 

sost, 41, ' silence ' ; related to tostjSLS socht to tocht. ' 

suandfty 150, dimin. oisuariy 'sleep*; here seemingly the name of -omc insti iment 
of music. 

toirchinty 28, 'stupor'; toirchim suairiy Oss. iii. 54, Fragm. Anual^ 24. 

tditedn, 112, ' conflagration,' O'R. 

uamha{?)y 177, 183, &c., 'cave'; dat. uamhaigh (for uamhdiJh}): cf. AVi., s. v. 
liam. 



i6 E. J. GWYNN 



u6iueAn ui$e vinti. 

met)^i]\ lioin a. n-oiioic-fse^t^ 

lTleA.1-^ tiom x>o beic 111 ^|\ pn 5 

Ct^nn ttlojiTio. y^ Li 5 \ y^ lecc 
cug^if conitotnni a. Li.ic|\ec 

X)o ]A^t) AiLbe cuimin Linn 

511 ^if A.n A1C ^ by^jcA.]! pnn 10 

tJ-^ cciget) -^oinnec za<]\ \.e\\ 

ni yA.5fA.t) ben t)inn 'ja. coiihf*e|\ 

'Oo ]A-6.t)f^c x}^ mnA 50 pop 

]\e liinjin •o-McjiL A.n ]uo5 

6 n^c ):uiL coni5A.|\ t)A.]i 5c6i|\ 15 

pe^^c^m congn^iti 6^]\ |"e-^n6i]\ 

l/Cigem 5^i|\ CA.CA. g^n ceiLg 

):^n inb]Aiiiccim ^^La^icjiL fpoiLL-oeipg 

50 b^rec-MTiA.oi'o ca< pofc^ 1]" F^^Vr 

•OA.]! byoix^ -6. n-i^c Cipenn 20 

S^t^Mt) m-^c TTloiAnA. L-^oc Lonn 
•OA gcLtun^ret) gAiji ^^gconiLonn 
■00 citic]:A.'6 5A.n ceiLg fon 5^1^ 
Y "OO beA^yicmjet) Leif -^]a Luc5^i]\ 



I. annsin^ sin AB ; //V)//i C : perhaps t's truagh sin. 2. dernas seems to 

imply that Garaid is speaking ; but Mr. Lloyd tells me that this form is occasionally 
used in Donegal as pret. passive instead oi deamadh. 3. siala^ *seal/ 

seems here to mean * vestiges.* 5. f/i«z/a] B , aohha A; saoth C. 

7. clann^c/anna ABC. 9. do rddh"] do radha KB. Ailbhe] Finn*> 

wife : see IT iv. Index. 12. ga coimhfhet^ aige coimhfher A ; aga fear BC. 



THE BURNING OF FINN'S HOUSE 17 



THE BURNING OF FINN'S HOUSE. 

Sad is it here, O ruined keep ! where was wrought that destruction : 
here remain your traces: we remember those tidings of 
evil. 



A grievous sight to me to see thee in this plight, O ruin, once 
glorious, crowned with brightness ! The Clann Morna, 
who lie under headstones in the grave, thou hast brought 
to bareness, O ruin ! 

Said Ailbe, we remember : " Perilous the place where we find 
ourselves : if anyone should come over sea, he would not 
leave a woman of us with her mate." 



Said the women truly to the king's daughter white of skin : 
" Since there are no neighbours to do us right, let us see 
what help our elder can afford. 

" Let us raise a cry of battle without craft, throughout the white- 
rodded red-satined hostel, till we see what stay is best 
to support us in the land of Erin. 



" Garaid mac Morna, impetuous hero, if he should hear the cry of 
unequal combat, would come at the cry without craft, and 
our laughter would be stirred at him. 



16. perhaps * let us look for help to the old man.' 17. gan cheilg] * though 

there is really no treachery to fear *: but go ceilg, * craftily,' would give better seniL 
18. bruithchiml^buitchim Pl-j bruighinC: cf. 121. i^,fichamaour\fecamaoidKy 
feicethtnaoid B. a n^aith Eirenn\ is dar ccongmhdUf &c., BC. 23. ga^^ 

cheilg'] i.e. innocently, unsuspiciously. 24.] Sdo deantaoi lets nr 

luthgair BC. 

C 



i8 E. J. GWYNN 

Cengl^m ^ pontic Y ^ F^^^ 25 

•00 c^ob n^ bjAtiigne 50 t)occ 
CO r»^c ciubjA^t) ^ |A6i|t linn 
6 c^|tlA. 'n^ fuAin coijACim 

'Oo cer»5t^'0A|i n^ mr»^ 50 po|i 

m^c Tno|ir»^ b^ m6\\ ^n gnioni 30 

Y -00 leigf ec 5Ai|i c^t^ ja^ti coija 

•OA.jA bf ^cA^ib A'6b^|i 'oob|i6in 

•pl^e^b^f 5^.^ ^it) |tif^n 5^i|i 

pi^gbtif folc Y ^ peoil 50 cniini 

•oocti^i'6 fon^ mriAib ^m^c 35 

r»to|t bf ^c pn t)^ mbeic 'oionif-6.c 

At)tibA.i|ic "o^ 5cu|t f A.r» •OUT! 

■oob e cuiAUf 5^11 lomptijA'o 

b^jt ngi^ii^ itiAjAi'o 'o^oib but) r»i]t 

bi^it) pb ^|A rh^i-oin b^jt ccctiaI 40 

A fer»6it\ cj^ion bi-fe ^v fof c 
leig-fe •6t3inne at) cej^fg 
'oot)6A.Ti-'p^ mio'otiA.ill A|A pn 
cjMOcpjAjA mn^ t)' eif a foilce 

Ci^ A.c-&imfe ^m fen6i]t c|a6ic 45 

If f A.t)^ 6 jlA^c^f mo fgeic 
•oijedl^T) ojAuib b^^jA fgige 

5A.bA.f n-^ tiini cu^ig conn^i'6 50 

•00 b^^in f^n 5C01II 5 An cf6nA 
nA.01 ngUA^tA piinnponA. imcjAen^ 

25. A similar trick was played on Curoi mac Dare by Blathnait : ZCP 3, 42. 
27. a riir linn] This reading is suggested to me by Dr. Atkinson, dr re ar 
linn AC, *a slaughter in our time,* which is not very intelligible; gdir ri na 
linn B. 28. suain toirchim : suan thoirchim AB : suan totrchim C. 

31. Uigset] 'j do leigset AB ; doUig siad C. 32. fdthaih] fdtha : A. In BC 

the line reads ddibh sion dob ddhbhar dubkbhrdin, 36. nior bhfdth\ : of. Atk., 

Keating, Appendix iii., note t . sin] BC : om. A. 38. dobudh f\ AB ; dob i C. 
39. magaidK] maga AB. 40. bhar\ ionn bhar C. For the idiom, cf. ZCP ii. 379. 
41. sost] AB ; tost C. 42. ad fori do: C has do: * let us teach thee.' 



THE BURNING OF FINN'S HOUSE 19 

"Let us bind his hair and his beard tight to the side of the hostel, 
since he chances to be sound asleep, so that he should not 
wreak his will on us." 



The women bound in sooth mac Morna (great was the deed) : 
they raised the cry of battle without reason : for our lays 
it was cause of grief. 

Up started Garaid at the cry : he left his hair and his flesh right 
to the bone : he went forth among the women : no cause 
had they to be proud. 

He said, as he drove them into the dun^ that it should be a 
journey with no returning :— " Your mocking cry shall 
be your shame : ye shall be a bonfire by morning." 

"Withered elder, hold thy peace ! let us alone with your teaching." 
(I shall cause horror thereat, a shudder as of a woman 
after her washing.) 

" Feeble elder though I be — it is long since I gripped my shield — 
I will avenge on you your mockery; I will kindle the torch's 
head." 

Garaid arose and went forth from the house : he took in hand 
the woodman's axe : he cut in the wood, 'tis past denial, 
nine stout faggots of ash. 



43-44.] The poet speaks in parenthesis. 43. dodhiansa is a misspelling of 

doghiansay i fut. B has hiadh sinnefemtha dhod riir a seanoir chalma piirthrHn, 
44. criothfhuar\ the dotted / in AC shows that the word is regarded as 'a 
compound: O'R has criothfhuair^ * chilly.' The noun occurs in its original 
form crithur, Salt, na R. 8202: the adj. crithre in B. Mag Rath, p. no. 
foilce] AC, iox foilcthe, gives no rhyme : perhaps there was another form /otlcsin. 
Dr. Strachan suggests th^it foilce is gen. ot/olCf * a wash,* LU 58 a 14: and that for 
ar sin in 43 should be read arse^ * therefore.* I do not know whether this word is 
found in relatively modem Irish. 46. gklacas] do glacas AB. 47. digheoladh : 
the metre shows that the word was already pronounced as a dissyllable. 50. tuaigh 
chonnaidh'\ tuadh chondnaidh A ; tuadhcomaidh B ; truaidhe C. 52. fuinnsiona 
imthrinay A : fuinnsion treana BC, perhaps rightly, nguala (or gctia la, pi. ofcuail, 

C 2 



20 E. J. GWYNN 

pA.'otiijef cine fA^n C15 m6\\ 

6r\ lAf 50 foice ^ Stijijon 

•ooctii|t m6|i-t)6ic A.|t A.n cec 55 

ti^ojib § -Ml -penoiii c|i6cM|iec 

lA.'OA.f fecc n-ooiffe cije finn 

•6a. cciinig A. m6i|i-'6eA.c|^^ 60 

"Leig tni-pe ^m-6.c A.]t ni'A.c^i|i, 
A.]t in$er» ui Coinn c^A.t)CA.t:MC, 
ofm f6iTi If A.|i btii*6e^cA.f pnn 
^ $^1^^1*6 tiA.fA.it foilcfinn 

til teisfCT) cu A.mA.c A.]t c* a^ca.!]! 65 

A. injen ui Coinn ddA.'ocA.CA.id 
Of c f An nA. A.f btii'deA.cA.f pnn 
cuf A. A.niA.c nocA. teijpnn 

"Leig-fe ben ConA.in A.n A.15 

A.mA.c If ben CA.oitce A.n conA.t)A.ic 70 

If ben niic Heice A.btif 

ctimA.nn cteice nocA. n-oef nuf 

UA.f A.niA.c A. ben ihic Heice 

m^v A.it tA.c ctiTnA.nn cteice 

6 nA.c fuit mA.c Heice A.btif 75 

ni bfuitim fein •60m ctmitif 

5A.b coibce A. $A.f A.ix) nA. njtonn 

A.f "oeis-injen Cof mA.ic 111 Coinn 

tA.n •ooif n "OA. bfuit f A.n -otin 

•00 teijen tec 5A.n lomptiSA.'o 80 

54. dn] 6na A. g^rgdn] I do not know this word. BC have for 

ihisline 6 thinntedn go soiche a tnheadon^ &c. 58. chuir^ B ; om. A ; dochuirQ\ 
glais nom. for ace. 60. m6ir dheacra] It is not clear whether this refers to the 
sufferings of the women or Garaid's subsequent punishment. C has deacradk : 
Dr. Strachan suggests deachradh^ <£ury.' 62. C omits sit here and at 

66, which mends the metre : but the speaker, Finn's wife, AUbhe, was daughter of 
Cormac, grandson of Conn. 68. nocha\ ni K, Uigfinn\ UigfeadC. 

70. The metre is wrong: for chonddhaich, which 1 do not understand, we 
should perhaps read chondichy < happy, prosperous,' Atk. PH. BC have ox hen 
Condin amach na deaghaidk^ which does not rhyme 71. Mac Reithex also 



THE BURNING OF FINN'S HOUSE 21 

He kindled a fire in the great house, from the floor to the 
ceiling (?) : he set the house in a great blaze : that old man 
had no mercy. 



He shut the seven doors of Finn's house : he fastened seven 
locks on every door-post ; he makes a fire to kill them : 
hence came their sore sufferings. 

" Let me out for my father's sake ! " said the daughter of Conn 
the Hundred-fighter's grandson ; " for my own sake, and 
to earn the thanks of Finn, O noble, fair-haired Garaid ! " 

"I will not let thee out for thy father's sake, O daughter of 
Conn the Hundredfighter's grandson ; nor for thine own 
sake, nor to earn the thanks of Finn, will I let thee 
out." 

" Let out the wife of Conan of the conflict, and the wife of 
prosperous Caoilte and the wife of Mac Reithe here — 
I have known no furtive love." 



" Come forth, O wife of Mac Reithe, if furtive love be thy 
desire : since Mac Reithe is not here I myself have not 
the power." 



** Accept a price, O Garaid of the great deeds ! " said the noble 
daughter of Cormac ua Cuinn ; " the full of thy fist of all 
that is in the dun to be granted thee without revoking." 



called CtL Maige, Ir. Text. 4, line 553. 72. ndentus] dernuis AB ; but the 

words seem to belong to Mac Reithe's wife. I owe to Mr. Lloyd the explanation of 
the phrase cumann cleithe (celim), * secret amour.' He reminds me that, in the Ballad 
of the Mantle (ed. Stem ZCP ii, 2, 294), this woman is the only one who successfully 
undergoes the ordeal of chastity. In C, 71-74 run thus: is bean mhic an 

Reithe mas dil lead cumainn cleithe. Tair amach a bhean mhic an Reithe dbhus 
cumann cleithe nocha ndearthnas, 76. dom chumus] Garaid taunts the 

chaste wife : she must wait for her husband's return : Garaid himself is too old 
for love-making. 79. Idn doirn] Idn durrainn C, * your full share ' (urrand), 

80. leigen"] leigfinn B. 



22 E. J. GWYNN 

X)o 5eA.ll S^r-^^"^ coibce c6^\\ 
•oon^ mn^ib 51011 5ti|i coiti-mII t)6ib 
50 bfec^ •ot^^t 6 5^c tnn^oi 
*n^ 5IA.1C ctiA^nriA. 'oon ce^.'o-ninA.oi 

O •o'cor»n^i|ic 5^1^^^*^ i^^t^ ^^ti 85 

A. |AA.ib A.fni5 -00 clA^nntJib |ti5 
^ Ti'01^15 x)^ -o-^tA. 5A.n 5tif 
•00 i^t) 50 ■OAti^ A.n "ooiiuf 

nA.t\A.b beo 5^1^^^'o 50 h\\^t 

6 CACA.oi-fe A.fci5 50 ce^nn 90 

m^ tei5enn •ouine ^fcec 

HA •ouine ^m^c '6a. bfuil A.nn 

Jtti-Mpgef S-^r^^*^ ^P^ stenn 

mty\\ bi A.n ri5 A.5 ctiicem 

A. r»5ler»n Cua^ic -pA.n tTltiniA.ir» A^muig 95 

•00 co'otJit 'ha. '6e5A.it)-pn 

1oTi5TiA.t) A.n r»i CA.|t|:^f •oa.tti 

•00 |iA.it) ponn peinne 5^0'^A.t 

5A.i|i con If bA.n if 'OA.oine 

•6a. lof5A.'6 Y A.5 eA.5cA.01ne 100 

C|\eA.t) A.n ce6-fo cu5A.inn A.niA.f 
DO f -6.1*6 ponn ftA.ic nA. bpA.nn 
If ceo eA.5cof5A.f CA. '6a. cuf 
no ci5e •6a. 5eA.f lof5A.'6 

UtJ5A.mA.f t6im ion5A.ncA.c -6.15 105 

f A.5bA.mA.oi'o A.f feit5 5A.C 6.11^0 
'f ni bftiA.t\A.mA.f •6A.f ccigcib foif 
A.CC bun 5A.C cleice a. ccA.lnitJin 

X)o cuiiA 5A.C fef cf A.nn a. fleige 

fA.n mbA.ncfA.cc if fA.n moif cine no 

Y ni bftiA.f A.'OA.f -DA. mnA.ib 5f a.'6a.c 

A.CC oifoini-o 'oubA. c6iceA.in 

81. geallaim seems to mean sometimes,. *I exact a pledge,* *I accept a price.* 
Thus, in the dindsenchas of Findglais, RC xv. 448, Is i rogell Coinculainn surely 
means * she took a pledge of Cuchulainn ' : not, as Dr. Stokes renders, * she pro- 
mised ' : so Keating, in telling the story, says naisgis air Ucht, * she bound him to 
come ' (Trin. Coll. H. 5. 26, p. 79). 83. b/eca] hfeacaidh B ; hfeiceadh 

C. Garaid*s object is to see how many of the women are in the house, 
84. mnaot^ nith B ; nidh C. 90. I print B*s reading. A has 6 chuir si 

cdch na chenn ; C reads 6 cuir si catha na cceann, which I cannot translate. None 



THE BURNING OF FINN'S HOUSE 23 

Garaid accepted a fair price from the women (yet kept not his 
promise to them), till he saw a lock of hair from each 
woman in the shapely palm of the chief lady. 

As soon as Garaid, never mild of mood, saw how many of the 
princely families were within, once the powerless throng was 
gathered, he shut the door boldly. 

" May Garaid live no longer till the day of doom, since ye are 
fast inside, if he lets a soul in or a soul out, of all that are 
there." 



Garaid made haste into the glen, as the house was falling ; in 
Glen Cuaich away in Munster slept he thereafter. 



" A strange thing has been revealed to me," said Finn of 
the Fiann of the Gaels ; " the outcry of dogs and women 
and men a-burning and a-wailing." 

" What is yon smoke that comes towards us from the west ? " 
said Finn, prince of the Fianna : " it is the smoke of havoc 
a-doing, or of a house cruelly burned." 

We made a wondrous leap for battle ; on all sides we leave our 
chase ; and we found of our houses eastward nought save 
the stump of each stake in earth. 

. Each man thrust the shaft of his spear among the women-folk, 
amidst the burning heap : aad they found of their winsome 
wives nought save fragments black and charred. 

of the three gives a rhyme to hrdth, 94. hht\ do bhi A. 96. 'na 

dheghaidh'Stn] go medhonlan B ; gcr meadhon laoi ghlan C. 97. The 

scene changes. tarfds] atdarfds K, 98. Gaodhal] gan on, &c., BC. 

99. ban'\ Uim B. loi. chugainn] chugaibh AB. 104. gearlosgadk] 

losgadh ar daoinibh A, against the rhyme. 106. gach dird"] uile do 

dhianamh A, against the rhyme and metre. ill. ghrddhacK^ gruadh- 

grddhach (?) B ; gruagack C. But these readings are against grammar and metre : 
itsAdha grdd^mndibh, 112. oirdini£\ oirthnibh'By dirdinibhC; rt&dotrdng. 

dubhd] beaga BC. tditedin] toitedn K\ thotdinB; tuatdinC. 



24 E. J. GWYNN 

nio|t bAf ctiefo^ '00 ctiitA.i'6 

-^ ^A.5 -oo cuniMt) ^ ninA 115 

Lt15A.1t) 5§A.]t TtiAc l/UcojAtnAin 

n^ jAA^ib fionn n^ f^inne 

'ha. becA.i'o 56 bi 'OA. h6if e 

neitc mtiA. fe6tcA. f a n-A. c6ile 

ni t^Mb fA.Ti bpl-MC f^inne 120 

l/Oifjteji A^nnpii mbittiipn fiA.]t 
ben If |:eA.|Ap 'oobi A.5 pionn |aia.iti 

Ailbe AttJinn 5|AtiA.i'6b|iec 

"Oo loifjet) A.nn t)-^ eA.c pnn 125 

^5^r ^ c-^t^bA.t) A^^tt) A^oibmn 
but) m6\\ efh^ -mi cige 
t)o niA.c Ctini-Mlt Atnitiine 

X)o toifjcd ceA.t) fgiA^c t)UA.lA.c 

If ceA.t) coctin C4ScbuA.t)A.c 130 

If "OA. ce^^t) ttiicf ec if "oa ceA.t) t-Min 

If "6^. c^A.t) f5A.b-6.l If cAcb^f f 

X)o loifget) c^A.t> ec "oioIa. 

ipfy CA^cuib ^n Aift)-|ti05A. 

5onA. n-ticc-6.cuib gloine 135 

5011^. fpiMitiib 6p-*6Aite 

'Oo toifget) c|ti c^At) cuiteAn con 

f A mop An efb^w lA.'O-f An 

Ve gAjiAit) A mbfuijin ^Mon 

t)o conuib Aitle thic CuitiAill 140 

'Oo toifget) c|ii ceAt) cifoe m6\i 
■00 coimeAt)Ac Aifigit) if oi^t 

•00 toif 50*6 Y ^^ ^peA5 A f At) 

c|ii c^At) cof n 'f cf 1 c^At) cop An 

117. niraibh'] niorbhiK, ti8. bhethatdk] bhetha, &c. AB. 

1 19. mndseolta] cf. 6^ ^«V/, Ir. T. iii. 226. 121. bruighin'\ bruithchim A. 

124. aluimt] BC add (t^A. 131. is (i)] om. BC. dhd{2)1 om. BC. 



THE BURNING OF FINN'S HOUSE 25 

That death which Lugaid found, it was no seemly death for a 
hero, to die of grief for his wife — ^keen Lugaid son of 
Luchorman. 



Finn of the Fiann was alive no longer, though he lived after- 
ward : the strength of a travailing woman was not in the 
chief of the Fiann among his comrades. 

There was burned in that hostel in the west the best wife Finn 
ever had: bright was her cheek and her hand — ^beautiful 
dapple-cheeked Ailbe, 



There were burned there Finn's two horses and his high splendid 
car : great was the household loss for the son of Cumall of 
Almain. 



There were burned a hundred shields cunningly wrought and a 
hundred conquering targes and two hundred corslets and 
two hundred blades and two hundred mail caps and 
helmets. 

There was burned a stud of a hundred horses, of horses belonging 
to the over-kingship, with their breast-ornament of crystal, 
with their gilded bridles. 



There were burned by Garaid in Finn's hostel three hundred 
whelps of mac Cumaill's beautiful dogs, a great loss were 
they. 

There were burned three hundred great chests for hoarding 
silver and gold : there were burned — and it is no lie to say 
it — three hundred horns and three hundred cups. 



133. diola] dioladh AB ; minghlan C : cf. ech dile Wi. 136. gofia'\ 

comidh A. dr'dhaithe] drduightheBC. 142. airgidisdir] cUrgiodis 

6r &c. AC. 144. corn\ corrdn B ; corann C. 



26 E. J. GWYNN 

'Oo'bei|tini b|AiA.CA.]t t^m 'Oi^ 145 

f-itn ctoi-deth ^gtif yi^m fgi^c 

•oeic jc^A.t) TnA.]t t/UJA.i'b tAini5eA.t 

t)o toif5et> A.nn cj^tiic tDAiite 

■DO toifge'o fu^tiAn SA^igne 150 

At! r^n 'oo feinnd ia^t) 5^.11 geif 

fiA.nn^ Pnn -oo ccbl^ teif 

Xyo toifge'd cjAi c^-cT) fen6i]t fetig 

•00 itiog-rriA^icib "Pi^nti 6i|Aenn 

■00 clA^nntiib J-pi 05611 iTiMlle IS5 

•00 clA^nntiib b]iio5mA.fA. b-^oifgne 

'Oo toifje^ t\^S c6A.t) CA^illec 

fA.n mb|ttii5iTi AlA^inti A.jv'obl^'o^d 

If ^tc]tom mA.c 1^15 f A. teic 

^|t niA^c CutTiA^itt Atni^iTie 160 

t)o toifge'b cf^ c6A.t) ingen tn-6.ol 
bu-o folti-poA. ucc A.5tif cA^ob : 
but) i6.ttiinTi 6^n bA.nc|AA.cc CAin 
•6^ Ibifget) If •6a. n-ioni5A.in 

tl^oi ti-oi'6ce •ouinne iA.]tf A.n 165 

If pnne ^5 to^tgA^if lodc $A.f A.'d 

Annpn gc^f ]tuic 6f Cf A^oibliA^c 

TnA.]t donnA.|tcA.'o^]t 6. c6ite 

jAf M-o If "pionn tiA. "P^inne 170 

vS^Y f A. c^tmA. A^it 5A.6 cA.f An 

-6.1115A.it ctigf A.C A^ctntif -in 

S5AC tiA^inne if A.icif of c ^ fiji 
( ^ l^^\i6^^'6 5-M]tb jnuifgil 

■DO toif5if A.]t mni. fefOA. 175 

•ouic if A.ibeif A. c]toiiYiceA.fDA. 

149. cruit Dhaire, A Daigre cruitire is mentioned in the Acallam : see IT iv. 
6079 ; also in another Ossianic poem in RIA 33 L 34, p. 293, line 24. I know 
nothing of the suandn Saigne, 150. do loisgedh'] doloisgedh ann A. 

151. do seinntt^ do seinnthighe X; do sheinnthigh B. 152. chodhlaiox 

chodhladh, 153. seng is an adjective constantly applied to warriors, and 

means here perhaps rather *wiry,* * lithe' than *lean.' 156. hrioghmhara 



THE BURNING OF FINN'S HOUSE 27 

I pledge my word before God, by my sword and my shield, that 
there died of grief for their wives three hundred like white- 
handed Lugaid. 



There was burned there the harp of Daire : there was burned 
the lulling pipe of Saigen : when they were played, without 
a spell, the Fianna of Finn fell asleep thereat 

There were burned there three hundred lithe elders of the 
princely nobles of the Fianna of Erin, both of the Clann 
Griogoil and of the vigorous Clann Baoisgne. 

There were burned three hundred old women, fair and famous 
in the hostel (the princelings are nurtured apart) to the 
loss of mac Cumaill of Almain. 

There were burned three hundred shorn maidens, that were 
brightest of bosom and side : lovely were the pure women 
folk that were burning in agony. 

Nine nights we spent thereafter and we on Garaid's track : we 
found Garaid, grey and fierce, in the rock above Craobh- 
liath. 



When they saw each other — Garaid and Finn of the Fianna, 
the two that were boldest on any path — bitterly they set to 
chiding. 

•* Hate and reproach on thee from us, thou fierce white-bearded 
Garaid ! thou hast burnt our women but now : their sore 
suffering is thy boast. 

Baoisgne] Baoisgne brioghmhara A ; mera brioghmhara, &c. BC. 158. As 

bruighen is fern., the adjectives must refer to the caUligh. 159. fa 

leithl fale AB. I cannot make grammar of the line as it stands : read perhaps 
eUtronn, g. pi. of altru ACL, * and nurses of the princelings.' 162. solusda] 

solas A. 163, 4, cdin, iomgdin B. 165. dhtiinne"] dhtiinn A. 167. gairbh' 
liath] an gharbhghnimh C ; gairbhdian B. 169. chonnarcadar] ckonnarcamarB. 
172. amgar] angarB, 173. sgdth] sgiathBC, aithis] faithchios BC, 



28 E. J. GWYNN 

■0110115 itoni6]t -oVji fttiA.5A.1b 

5A.bA.i'6 A.11 feicec pontiA.c 

If CA.b]tA.i'6 A.niA.c A.ti feiTifionTiA.d 180 

6f cl5 f^n A.ci •6oni feit5 
A. '6ei5niic CtitTiA.itt A.if m'6ent5 
CA.]! ipn tiA.niA.15 •6A.ni fionnA.t) 
If 5A.'b 50 cjttiA.i'o mofeitifiontiA. 

t)o f A-d "fionn flA.ic f^inne f^il 185 

CA.bf A.it) 5^r^i'<^ tib A. lAini 

'o^A.TiA.i'o A. ttiige If A. tecc 

niA.]t -oo loif5e6 leif A.n bA.nc]tA.cc 

t)ei<hieniA.]t if ptce c6a.'o 

odcA.f A.5tif f § pf '6§A.5 IQCT 

■oo cuic te 5A.f A.!*© f A.n tiA.niA.15 

ni6|i A.n c-A.fniA.15 A.or»tiA.if e 

tf e f A.t) bi S^f'^i'o 5^n biA.*© 

Ctl5 tif COf tlA.lt) "dA. f5iA.c 

T)o cuif tA.ni f-6. n-A. bf oinne bA.in 195 

If ci.ini5 A.niA.c 'ha. A.oiiA.f A.n 

in^A.n cttiice ti6 5iif e 

Y 5A.n A. coit T)Voirir»i •6a. i.itte 

r\S f A.lb A.f 5A.f A.1'6 5A.f b 

50 bfecA. A.T1 bA.ncfA.cc t-6.nniA.fb 200 

1TlA.f t)o connA.if c 5A.f A.it) 5A.fb 
A.n bA.ncfA.dc toif5ce tA.nniA.fb 
t§i5ef 5A.if e 6f a. 5aonn 
t)o ctof fA. pA.nntiib 6if enn 

Aoibinn tiom bA.f mbeic niA.f pn 205 

A. bA.nCfA.CC •OO f ^.-6 5A.f A.1'6 

lonntif nA.c 5nA.c6cA.i6 pb 50 buA.n 
fonA.niA.'6 f A. f en6if ti.ncf iiA.5 

177. tiagaidhi tiageadh C. 184. ironical: the crad trick played by the 

women had left Garaid hairless. 185. do rddh"] da radha A. 186. a] or, 

&c., BC. 187. d^anatdh'] dianaidhe A. 189. fithche ciad should mean 

• twenty hundred * : but here it seems to stand for JUhche or chiad. 192- f*or 

an t-armaighl as mdr tharmhoigh B ; badh mhdrdn tdr C. 195. do chuir 



THE BURNING OF FINN'S HOUSE 29 

" Go ye from us into the cave, a great company of our hosts ! 
seize the sinewy shaggy fellow, and fetch out the old 
fox." 



" Since it is thyself that is on my trail, brave son of Cumall of 
the red weapons, come thou into the cave to flay me, and 
take firm hold of my old hairs ! " 

Said Finn, prince of the Fianna of Ireland : *^ Bring with you 
Garaid in your keeping : make ye his bed and his bier 
where the women-folk were burnt by him ! *' 

A hundred and thirty men, sixteen, and eight fell by Garaid's 
hand in the cave : great was the carnage for one time. 



So long was Garaid without food that he made a cast of his 
shield from him : he put a hand under his hoary breast, and 
came forth, alone. 

Desire of sport or laughter or inclination to ought were it never 
so pleasant was not in fierce Garaid till he saw the women 
folk dead and stark. 



When fierce Garaid saw the women burned, dead and stark, he 
let fly a peal of laughter over them to be heard among the 
Fianna throughout Erin, 

" Pleasant it is to me to find you thus, O women ! " said Garaid : 
" that you may learn for good not to mock at a miserable 
old man." 

&c., in sign of submission. bhdin] bhdn ABC. 196. ^na 

aonardn] naonardn AB ; cumardn C. SCO, 202. Idn marbK] marhh B. 

201. do chonnairc\ chonnairc A. 202. loisgthe] loisgidhthe Sec. AB. 

C substitutes, for 201, 2, bhur tnarb amuith is matt Horn fHn \ do radh gara 
ndr mhaith mUmt, 203. a gcionn\ achennA. 204. do chlos] budhchlosB. 
206. do rddh] do radha A : cf. 9, 185. 



30 E. J. GWYNN 

l^l^jitiim 'oVtctiinje o|tc a. pnn 

•00 jtAt) g^^i^i'd 6 C|toimtiiin 210 

5 AH mo nil tie itioja A.n mot) 
50 c|iAC ei|A5e a|a r»-A.ni^|iAC 

If tec ^x) A.cctiir»5e pn ti<i.im 

•00 iiA-o mA.c CutTi-Mlt -6.|imiitiA.i'6 

gAn t)o niitle ^\{ ah triAijin 215 

50 cpAC eij^se A|i mAi-om 

gAjtAix) AH omce pn 5AH biAX) 
If •6a coimeAt) "oo bi ah IpiAHn 
Ag ^if je "ooH 5f 61H 50 HIOC 

/OO 6Attl15 gAjtAlt) fAH ^A-OAC 220 

tDo CaIuiS jAf Alt) OH bfeiHH 

Y Hiojt bfef -00 Hec "oiob a f ^im 

JAH pOf ACA Af CAinitllH Cf OITTl 
CAf 5Ab jAf Alt) 6 t/lACjtOITri 

tJAf ftlAb UulcOH "OO 50 flOf 225 

50 f 'd.iHij UtiAi5 Inbiof 

6 ttlAIJ InblOf 5Af Alt) HA HgloHH 
tJCAH If "OATTIHA DeAf tf OTTl 

50 triAg AH Hoit) CAf 5AC f AOH 

50 'OiJH ITIaCA ha TYlOfHAOTTl 23O 

50 CAf H Cite iHgiHe 6ct)AC 
gtuAipgef 5^P^^'o jeif-ecAC 

50 HIaj ah Doill beo *ha f eim 
Iaith ioeif le *Ouh ah Laoic Leic 

CAftA A HgteHH beACAlH blHH 235 

IaITTI f e CeHH t/OCA t/1ACf oith 

lAff AH t)6 50 tlAft) Of TTltllf 
t)0 $Af Alt) 5A|Ab niAtACt)tllb 

ceit) fAH tiAniAi5 t)o l^im 

COt)ltlf AHH 5^r^1'0 JAIf bl^lC 240 

210. 6 Chroimlmn\ an Chroimhghlinn C. 215. maighin\ ed. maige AB ; 

mdgh so C. 222. nior bhfes : cf. Atk., Keating, Glossary: this habit of 



THE BURNING OF FINN'S HOUSE 31 

" I beg a boon of thee, O Finn !" said Garaid of Crumlin : " that 
thou slay me not — great the task — till the hour of dawn 
to-morrow." 



** Thou hast thy boon from me," said the son of Cumaill of the 
red weapons : " that I should not slay thee in this place till 
the hour of dawn to-morrow." 



Garaid was without food that night, and the Fiann guarding 
him ; at sunrise in the early morning Garaid stole away 
covertly. 

Garaid stole away from the Fiann, and none of them knew of 
his going : they knew not whither on the wide earth Garaid 
from Liatruim had gone. 

Over Sliabh Tulchon he went in truth till he reached Tuag 
Inbir : from Tuag Inbir went Garaid of the exploits (alas ! 
it is cause for tearful heaviness) — 



To Mag an Roid across all ways, to Dun Macha of the potent 
saints, to the Cam of Eile daughter of Echaid hastened 
Garaid the fierce vassal . 



To Mag an Bhoill bheo in his flight, his right hand towards 
Dun an Laoich Leith: he happened on melodious Glenn 
Beacain, close by the head of Loch Liatruim. 



Afterwards he reached a height over the sea — fierce black- 
browed Garaid : he entered the cavern with a leap : there 
fierce grey Garaid fell asleep. 

Ttgaxding /eas as an adj. may have arisen from a confusion between niorbh feasach 
and niorfess, 224. cdr\ ca hdit ar A. 228. A has Gharaid : perhaps for 

do G, 233. hhe6] heo A. na rHm : perhaps rather * of the races.' 



32 E. J. GWYNN 

I6i5fec fA\) ti-MftA.15 5i.i|t cA^c-^ 
A 00*01-^ Y^ cotoIa. tieniciiACA 

CoTnitAigef Ao-o if gA.ji-M'o g^-^jt 245 

fA.n iiATTiA.15 fA lo-MTiti-^ ■oeA.^t 
5U|t b-Mti A. cetiti "6-6. A.CA.i|t 
fA 5tiioni ti-^cmA.11 -Mi-Mcnit) 

'Oon ti^iTTi pn 'oo TTiA.|tb 5-^T^'^^'o 

■oo tioti fUA.<5c If 'OO lion s-^t-^jt 250 

fuit ^A.jt-^'o 'oocti-M'6 f A.ti tAith 

bu-b coip 5-6.0 s-^t-^it "00 5A.bAit 

tAitii5 Aot» ATnA.c 'tiA. |t6iTn 

ni bfU-M|t f § ■otiitie "6011 bf^itin 

bA'bA.f 6 f§in f A.ti bf -6.1111150 ti-6. ccotin 255 

Ao'd f-6. 'OA.TTinA. ■o^A.jiriiom 

A-bttiicceii gA.jiA.i'o if Ao-o 

-6.|1 ftlOf -Ml CU-MTl C-^ob |ie C-6.ob 

C|ie fmu-MnoA.'o ojijica. 5-6.6 n-u-Mii 

If citin tno dfoioe Y -6.f C|ii3-6.5 260 

A5 pn •6tiic -^ lii.'0|i-6.i5 f5^^l 
If Tn6 Oifin 50 n-iom-^t) ti-6-6.cc 
C|io rTi6i'o 00 fnini -b-^ tu-^-b 
If cititi mo Of 01*60 Y -^r C11U-6.5. 

UtiiiA.5. 



242. gur chruinnighedarl go ttangadar BC. 243. Uigsef] leigetar B ; 

leigid C. chatha\ om. BC. 244.] A has netnhthrdth ; B nemhthrdith : I read 
nemhthrdtha, though this also is a bad rhyme ; C reads a chodla sin nior chodla 
sdmh, 248. anaichnur\ annatthnid, &c., AB ; anaithid C. 249 Garaidh"] A has 



THE BURNING OF FINN'S HOUSE 33 

Garaid was never ware of the Fiann till they gathered from 
east and west : they raised a battle-cry in the cavern : an 
unseasonable sleep was his. 



Aod and keen Garaid encountered in the cavern — it was cause 
of tears : and Aod struck off his father's head : it was a 
horrid unheard-of deed. 



For the hand that slew Garaidh, which numbness and disease 
have filled — the blood of Garaidh has stained that hand — 
it were meet to catch all diseases. 



Aod fled away ; he met no man of the Fianna ; he drowned 
himself in the sea-waves : Aod was cause of heavy grief. 



Garaid and Aod are buried by the bay's verge, side by side : 
sad and sorrowful is my heart with thinking on them every 
hour. 



Here is a tale for thee, O Patrick ! I am Oisin of the many 
crimes : through the greatness of my grief in telling of them 
sad and sorrowful is my heart. 



Garadh (the genitive) ; B reads athair, 250. I doubt whether do lion can 

bear tiie meaning given. 251. Garadh'\ GharaidhK, 255. hddha5\ 

bdthadhas A ; bddhthus B ; bathos C. 256. Aodh"] as daodha B ; aoda C. 

259. smuaineadh'] smaoine A. 261. a Phadraig\ om. A. 263. miinK\ 

ed. nim A ; ghnidhm B. C writes for 263-4, is ionann is ninth dam beith da 
luaidh I is rothinn mo chroidhe fd amhluadh. 



[ 34 ] 



NOTE. 



Mr. J. H. Lloyd has kindly supplied me with the air to which 
the oral version obtained by him was chanted, together with the 
commentary printed below. 



(C6iceAn Cije l^nti.) 



jUAf -o. 
{| s ; m I 8 ; m 



8 . m 



S. t. T)0 gl^Af . 



^ 



^ 



4= 



ri\UA£ Ann 
1^5 - r« 



pn, A 
beAfi Con 



Laic - -peAd 

Am An 



tif, tllA|\ 



[\ 8 ; m I 8 



m 



m 



d I d^:-., s 



8 






A nt)eAt\ - nAf An 
beAn ^AOit - ce Hiic 



Ain - 5cif : A - CAit) f onn - a 
n6n - Ain : If beAn ttlic Hei 



{| 8 ; m I 8 ;-. m I 8 ; m I 8 ; m I d ; d 1) 



Ijjftt J 1 1 


H=^ 


,,_ 


hd — H 


I J 1 1 


• 


tfp^ ^ — «— 


^■'^ — 1 


— 1 


^ i— 


—^ — ^ 


d d 



bAt\ f^A - Ia; ItleAb - Ai^A tiom 
te 1 bpif; Ctim - Ann ctei 



A nt)iAoi6 - fJ^A - Ia. 
ce n^ <>eA)\ - nAf. 



"Uoi-O Sauai-O." 

COaIca niAt\ t)o gAb ^Awonn 65 IUac An $oitt An ce6t.) 
5l6Af t). 

{I 8 ; m I 8 ; m I 8 . 8 i m I 8 .'-.m } 



i 



1^ 



B 



teig A - niA6 beAn Con - Am An Ai$, HA 



THE BURNING OF FINN'S HOUSE 



35 



P J J I ^' 



m I 8 . 8 : m.m | d ; d | d^:-.,8 | T; m } 



^ 



beAti ^Aoit-ce lMo<> a' 



— * — # 
C|i6 - tiAti : 



beAti 



Iflic 



I 



I 8 i-.m I 8 



m 



8 . 8 



I d : d 1} 



^ 



^ 



y f 



nei 



coi^A ; 



CiitM - Aiiti ctei - ce tit teA\C f<. 



" The poems known as Ossianic or Fenian are sung to airs 
which are quite unique in the native music of Ireland, whereof 
they undoubtedly form the most ancient class. In his Preface 
to TAe Ancient Music of Ireland^ Dublin, 1840, Edward Bunting 
remarks : * The extreme antiquity of the first class, consisting of 
caoinans or dirges, and of airs to which Ossianic and other very 
old poems are sung, is proved as well by the originality of their 
structure (being neither perfect recitative nor perfect melody) 
as by the fact of their being still sung with the same words in 
different parts of the country, these words in many instances 
corresponding exactly with poems of an extremely early date 
preserved in ancient manuscripts'; and again: * The Ossianic airs 
have been noted down from persons, singing very old fragments 
of this class of poems, both in Scotland and Ireland/ He says 
further : * Satisfied, on these grounds, that the airs of the first 
class are all of very great antiquity, the editor has taken pains to 
examine and analyze their structure ; and the result has been 
that in them he can trace a characteristic style which prevails 
more or less throughout all genuine Irish music, and constitutes 
the true test by which to distinguish our native melodies from 
those of all other countries/ 

" Neither Bunting nor any other musician appears to have 
noted down the air of the present poem. It is much simpler and 
more monotonous than any other recorded of the same class. 
Whether this should tell in favour of a higher antiquity or not, 
I leave to more competent — to musical — authorities to decide. 
I have thoroughly satisfied myself that this air is associated with 
the words of the poem ; for Eamonn 6g Mac an Ghoill (AngHce 
Magill), who sang the poem (fifty-five stanzas) frequently for me, 

D 2 



36 J. H. LLOYD 

told me that both his father and grandfather had the very same 
tradition. 

" It is not, however, so much through a desire to preserve an 
ancient relic of the kind that I hand this air into the safe-keeping 
of Mr. Gwynn, but rather with the hope that it may throw light 
on the ancient method of reading poems in deibhidhe metre (in 
the present case dgldchas). There can be no doubt but that 
musical accentuation is more enduring than prosodic stress. The 
latter is always liable to suffer alteration even from the mere 
shifting of accent due to a more recent pronunciation of a word, 
an extreme case of which in Connacht, for instance, would be 
such as A.n c-^^ri, which must have been preceded by ^.n 

" Not so with the musical stress. Airs certainly do get cor- 
rupted and altered in course of time ; but it will be found that 
their accentuation, which is really vital to them, is scarcely ever 
lost Should this ever take place, and the air suffer corruption 
also in other ways, the result would practically be an entirely 
different tune. This, I think, should act as a powerful check on 
corruption of musical accentuation. 

" It is better, however, that such questions should be left for 
musicians to discuss. Our concern here is merely with ^t^om 
Sa.Ia^i'o ' as a means of ascertaining original prosodic accent 

" Probably no two stanzas of the reciter's version of the words 
were quite alike as regards the number of syllables, so much do 
these poems suffer through oral transmission. He often had as 
many as ten syllables, sometimes even twelve, in a line. Hence 
his singing of the stanzas differed slightly with each, owing to the 
necessity of either crowding in a redundancy, or slurring a paucity 
of syllables. As a specimen of his method I give one stanza 
exactly as sung. 

" The correct heptasyllabic version of the same stanza, and also 
of the opening one, are set to another form of the air. This 
form is that heard when the air is lilted, being thus without any 
corrupted lines to break up its proper time ; such also is the 
impression made on one's ear after hearing the poem sung 
throughout. It will be seen that there is here a thorough agree- 
ment between bars and syllables, that is, fourteen bars (« twenty- 
eight notes) = twenty-eight syllables. This agreement is all 
the more remarkable on account of the music having been 



THE BURNING OF FINN'S HOUSE 37 

preserved in recent times quite independently of any metrical 
tradition. 

" The theoretic juxtaposition of music and words now made 
gives some extraordinary results. It is only necessary to point 
to -^CAit), of which the first syllable, in all probability, always 
unaccented in ordinary pronunciation, bears the stress, whilst the 
second syllable, no doubt never otherwise than long and accented, 
is unstressed ! If the setting be right, we can only infer that 
ancient Irish prosody recognised an artificial method of accen- 
tuation, this view being to some extent corroborated by the 
highly artificial nature of many of the metres employed, of 
which, last but not least, we may place the kind of deibhidhe 
scaoilte in which our poem is written." 



COMAD MANCHIN LEITH. 

THE only copy of the following poem which I know of is 
found on p. 95 of 23. N. 10 (formerly Betham 145), a paper 
manuscript in the Royal Irish Academy. It was written by a 
scribe named Aodh at Baile in Chumine (now Ballycummin 
House, over Loch Bo Deirge on the Shannon) in the house of 
John O'Mulconry, as appears from the following entries : — 

p. 48. At the end of a copy of the Aipgitir Chrdbaid: Finit 
dsnen o Aodh forsan aipgi/^r sin- Baile in Chuimine m'airm a 
n-ailt tSeain hi Maoilconaire. 

p. 66. Aodh sin 7 Dia Hum. 

p. yy. In satharn rfa bfeil in Tailgienn anieua. Miesie Aoudh. 
Bauilei in Chuoiminei muo mheiandaot a n-ailt Sheiaauin hf 
MhAouilchounauoierei. 7 daur muo dheurou is truaogh in ries 
sin adchlouaim adhon Semuos mhauc Muoiries ag imtheaoucht 
doun Spained amailde fri na tseitche 7 fri na chlaouind fous. 
7 is eadh is daomhna . . . cheimnighthe dhouiu adhon do 
nembhfhaghuai[l] . . e onna wtdthdMh fein {id est Geroit .i. iarla). 
7 is eadh douruimnim-si gurop olc fuaoir* .... The end of 
the entry has disappeared with the edge of the paper. 

Manchfn Ldith (i.e. of Llath), to whom the poem is ascribed, 
was founder of the monastery which is from him called Liath 
Manchdin, now Lemanaghan, in the King's County. According 
to the Annals, he died in 665, from the plague called tn Buide 
Conatll, The language of the poem dates, perhaps, from the 
ninth century. The same manuscript contains another poem 
ascribed to Manchfn. It is entitled Anmchairdes Manchain 
Leith, and begins : 

Nech atcobra dul ar nemh. atacosna in flaith 
seched rfagail [in]na naem. tathai eolus maith. 

\ 

» The Saturday before the feast of the Adzehead (i.e. St. Patrick) to-day. I 
am Aodh. Baile in Chumine is my place in the house of John O'Mulconry. And 
by my God's doom ! pitiful is the story I hear, viz. that James Mac Munis is going 
to Spain together with his wife and with his children also. And the cause of their 
going is his not having found . . . from his own brother, viz. Earl Gerald. And 
this is what I think, that he has found evil ... . 



COMAD MANCHIN LEITH 39 

What the exact meaning of comad in the title of the poem 
may be I do not know.* O'Reilly has the meaning * elegy ' ; 
but the word more usually denotes the second or closing couplet 
of a quatrain. See O'Donovan's Grammar, p. 413. 

The metre in which the poem is written varies in the single 
quatrains and couplets between the scheme 7* + 5* (i.e. cumasc 
etir randaigecht mdir 7 lethrandaigecht), 7' + S\ 7^-^$^^ while the 
sixth stanza shows the metre 6* + S\ 



COMAD MANCH//^ LEITH ANNSO. 

1. Diithracar, a mate De bl, a rl suthain sen, 

bothan derruid dit[h]rabha comad hi mo t^r^b. Du. 

2. Huisin treglas tanuide do buith ina taib, 

linn glan do nig[e] peacda tria rath spirta' naimh. Du. 

3. Fidbuid aluinn imfoccus impe do cech leith 

re haltrom ^n [n-]ilgothach ria clithar dia cleith. Du. 

4. Deisebair re tesogad, sruthan dar a laind, 

talam toga co m^id rath ba maith da gach clainn. Du. 

5. Huathad oclaoch innide, innesem al-lln,^ 

it e umle irlataidh d'urguidi ind Righ. Du. 

6. Ceit[h]re trir, tri cet[h]ruir, cuibde re ga^A les, 

da seiser i n-ecluis ittr tuaith* is tes. Du. 

7. Se desa do \miorct^. imum-sa fadein, 

i[c] guide tre bithu sfr in Rig ruithness grein. Du. 

8. Eclais aibinn anartach, atreb De do nim, 

_ sutrall soillsi lar sin uass sctlptuir glain gil. Du. 

9. Oenteg[d]ais do aithigid fri deit[h]ide cuirp, 

cen druid[e], cen indladuth, cen imradud uilc. Du. 

10. Is e trebad nogebainn, dogegainn cin cleith, 

fir-caindenn cumra, cerca, bradain, breca, beich. Du. 

11. M' [fjolortadh brait ocus bidh on Rlgh is cain clu, 

mo bith-se im suide re re [ic] guide De in nach du. Du. 

' The word also occurs in the title of another poem printed infra on p. 41. 
* spirat MS. « illin MS. * tuaidh MS. 



40 KUNO MEYER 



Translation. 

1. I wish, O Son of the living God, O ancient eternal King, for 

a hidden little hut in the wilderness, that it may be my 
dwelling. 

2. An all-grey* lithe little lark to be by its side, a clear pool to 

wash away sins through the grace of the Holy Spirit. 

3. Quite near, a beautiful wood around it on every side, to 

nurse many-voiced birds, hiding it with its shelter. 

4. A southern aspect* for warmth, a little brook across its 

floor,' a choice land with many gracious gifts such as be 
good for every plant. 

5. A few men of sense — we will tell their number — humble and 

obedient, to pray to the King : — 

6. Four times three, three times four, fit for every need, twice 

six in the church, both north and south. 

7. Six pairs besides myself, praying for ever the King who 

makes the sun shine. 

8. A pleasant church and with the linen altar-cloth, a dwelling 

for God from Heaven ; then, a shining candle above the 
pure white Scriptures. 

9. One house for all to go to for the care of the body, without 

ribaldry,* without boasting (?),* without thought of evil. 

10. This is the husbandry I would take, I would choose and 

will not hide it : fragrant leek, hens, salmon, trout, bees. 

11. Raiment and food enough for me from the King of fair 

fame, and I to be sitting for a while praying God in every 
place. 

KUNO MEYER. 



^tri'glas^ *very grey,' the intensive prefix tre^ answering to Welsh try-. 
CO ndema tromchiaich treglais, LL. 96 a 11. 

2 deisebair or desebar seems to denote the position of the sun in the south, ' a 
south aspect.' Cf. tairisidh a mhdthair 'na h6enar ina lubhghort fria deiseabhair 
na gr^ne, Lism. Lives, 1. 1884. desebar gr^ine .i. inat ina deasloebhar ngr€ine, 
O'Dav. 705. 

3 landf f., * a floor, ground,' as in the compound ith'lann, 

« druidey as I would emend druidy I take as the abstract of dniith^ * a buffoon.' 
^ This is a mere guess at the meaning of indlddud. 



COMAD CROICHE CRIST 41 

COMAD CROICHE CRIST ANNSO SIS. 

MS. 23. N. 10, p. 94. 

1. Creidim-si CWi/ israeracht occus roces crann croiche, 

ocus roboi tri laithi [i]san adhnucol cloichi. Cretem. 

2. Dursan do taoib mate Muire ocus dia balluib bdnaib 

a guin CO laigin biraig* i cinaid pecuid Adaim. C. 

3. Tan* rocrochadh mac Muire doluid temel tarsan mbith, 

in grian imclaomcla [a] dath, talum nl anadh do chrith, 
Cre. 

4. In gnim dorinne ludas ba liach ocus ba galgat, 

tria saint ocus tria formad mac De do reicc ar argat. Cre. 

5. Airet robui mac Muire hi corp co mbetuib buada' 

indar ra muintir nime nocho_tesarba uada.* Cre. 

6. Cech dochruide rodamair 5 sll Adaim cin teirci 

is diar scarad fri Aiibul, mairg idsum nachatcreidfe. C. 

7. A gein, a bathais, a* crochadh, [a] adnocul cin gleitin, 

a eiserge, a* fresgabail, a tudhacht coir a creitim. 

Cre. Cr. I. S. R. 



Translation. 
This is the comad of the cross of Christ. 

1. I believe in Christ who has arisen and suffered the tree of 

the cross, and who was three days in the stone sepulchre. 

2. Sad for the side of Mary's Son and for His white limbs to 

be wounded with a pointed latice for the guilt of Adam's 
sin ! 

3. When the Son of Mary was crucified, darkness went over 

the world, the sun changed his colour, the earth did not 
cease from trembling. 

1 mbiraid MS. « intan MS. ' buadaib MS. ^ uadaibh MS. « i MS. 



42 KUNO MEYER, COMAD CROICHE CRIST 

4. The deed which Judas did was a sorrow and a crime/ 

through greed and through envy to sell the Son of God 
for silver. 

5. While the Son of Mary was in the body with deeds of glory 

it seemed to the hosts of Heaven that He was not absent 
from them. 

6. Every hardship which He suffered from the race of Adam 

with harshness, 'twas to part us from the Devil. Woe 
then to him who will not believe in Him ! 

7. His birth, His baptism, His crucifixion, His burial without 

strife,* His resurrection, His ascension, His advent — it is 
right to believe in them. 

KUNO MEYER. 



^For this meaning of galgat compare the following passages: — doringni 
galgait iarsein Cellach mac Cormaic do guin, LL. 35 a 42. doringni mor de 
galgat, ib. 44 a 32. m6r n-essad, m6r ndirsan, m6r ngalgat, ib. 123 a 20. Cf. also 
0*Mulc. 689 and Corm. Tr. 90, both of whom seem to connect the word with gol^ 
* lament.' 

^ gleten, f., 'strife, battle,' .i. gle6, O'Cl. gleden gluair glainidi claidium, 
Cog. 180, 9 ; ace. torged gletiit, LL. 181 a 14. cia rosgndthaig gletin ng6ir, 
ib. 138 a 16. du. nom. d4 gletin Dromma Crieich, ib. 151 b 17. 



COLMAN MAC DUACH AND GUAIRE. 

THE following tale, taken from the Yellow Book of Lecan 
(col. 796 of Codex, p. 133 a of Facsimile), is one of a 
groups of interesting (ales in which Guaire, a seventh-century king 
of Connaught, proverbial for his hospitality, is the central figure. 
The version here given is the only one of which I am aware ; 
and though copied probably in the fourteenth century, the tale 
in its original form may be assigned, on linguistic grounds,' to 
the Old- Irish period, that is, perhaps, to the tenth century. 
Keating, in his History,^ gives a summary of the tale, which 
differs but little from that given here. His account concludes 
with the following : — " The fact that the five miles of road 
between Durlus and the wilderness was called Boihar na mias^ 
i.e. the road of the dishes, seems to support the truth of this 
tale." In the Acta Sanctorum there is a Latin version which 
agrees in some respects with the present version, and in some 
with that given by Keating. 

J. G. O'KEEFFE. 



* E.g. King and Hermit, by K. Meyer, Ph.D., Nutt, 1901 ; Battle of Cam 
Conaillf CZ. iii. 203-219; Guaire and Mac Telene in YBL, p. 133 h and Harl. 
5280, fol. 25 a. See also the Mionanndla in Silva Gadelica, vol. i., p. 396, and 
vol. ii., p. 431. 

2 E.g. the neuter biad and the ^tipontntfochesatJiar, 

3 O'Mahony's translation, p. 437. 



44 J. G. O'KEEFFE 



COLMAN MAC DUACH AND GUAIRE. 

Colman mac Duach, diata Cell meic Duach, dochoid i 
ndlthrobaib i mBoirind Connacht 7 oen-maccleireach leis inn- 
aimsir Guaire Aidne. Aigen 7 biel leo. Secht mbliadm, doib 
isin dithrub cen tuara bid 5 dune, cen acallaim duine. Eclass 
le5 ina caille 7 praintech. Croccind na n-allta is ed etach nobid 
impu. Biror 7 us^^ 7 lusrad na cailli is ed nochaithdis. In 
maccleirech, is e ba hairchindech 7 ba secnap 7 ba ferrthigis 7 
ba coic isin praindtig. 

" Maith," or Colman, dia Case far celebrad, " is coir degurd 
do denam ann indiu. Caisc m5r andso 7 atat int oes uird uile 
ann issinn eclais .i. misse 7 int archindeach 7 int esp^^ 7 in 
sacart. Lat-so immorro na huile cowse olchena. Is coir dun 
larum degurd do denam ar bar mbelaib. Is coir duib-si A\diu 
maith do denam frinde isin laithiu-sea indiu Isu Christ meic De 
bl." 

" Rotbia maith, a clerigh," or in maccleireach, " 7 dena na 
hurdu CO maith. Acht co nderntar, regthair romut dochum 
praindtigi. Ata maith and, nl c5ir a cleith ar ind aes graid J. 
arib-se lor n-6es* cumtha .i. tanic Ion lim-sa don proindtig, 7 
berbtaig^r lim-sa ar losaib na caille co mhdi hinmar, 7 biaid ar 
do chind inn-irlaime." 

Dognither 5n in proicept 7 int aifreand co digrais. Cele- 
berthair medon lai. Tiagair don proindtig. 

" Is mithigh i n-anmain De do thaed do laim,'* or in mac- 
cleireach. 

" Is cet," or' se. 

** Dob^r e^" or e-seom. 

Tucadh do-som larum in sere. 

Is ann tucad a chuidig do Guaire i nDerlus. M5r tra a 
chuidigh-sidhe .i. cuach Guaire. Muc 7 ag dob^rthea and, 
ceithri drolaim ass, 7 da sab foe da breith ar a belaib, .i. da airig 
tuile do chach. 

'MS. foranoes. 

2 Corrected into ar. 

^ Conjectural reading, the MS. has dob-e. 



COLMAN MAC DUACH AND GUAIRE 45 



Translation. 

Colman Mac Duach, from whom Kilmacduach is named, 
went into a wilderness in the Burren of Connaught, and a single 
clerk with him, in the time of Guaire of Aidne. They took 
with them a cooking-pan and an axe. Seven years they were 
in the wilderness without getting a meal of food from anyone, 
without converse with anyone. They had a church and a 
refectory in the forest. For clothing they had the skins of wild 
beasts ; and they fared on watercress, water, and the herbs of the 
forest. The clerk was erenagh, vice-abbot, steward, and cook in 
the refectory. 

Said Colman on Easter Sunday after mass : " It is meet to 
perform the proper service to-day. Easter it is, and all the 
ordained are in the church, that is to say, myself and the erenagh, 
the bishop and the priest. All other functions, however, are 
yours. It behoves us to perform the service well in your 
presence. It behoves ^e?« to serve us well on this day of Jesus 
Christ, Son of the living God." 

" You will be well served, O cleric," said the clerk. " Let you 
perform the service properly; and as soon as that is done we will 
proceed before you to the refectory. There is good cheer therein ; 
and it is not right to conceal it from the ordained, that is, from 
you, my companions. Food has come to me in the refectory ; 
and I have boiled it with herbs of the forest, so that is a savoury 
dish, and it will be ready before you." 

The sermon is delivered, the mass is performed diligently, 
the mid-day service is over, and they go to the refectory. 

" It is time, in God's name, for you to take food (?)," said the 
clerk. 

" It is permitted," said he [Colman]. 

" I will give it." 

The food was then brought to him. 

At the same time Guaire was given his ration in Derlus. 
Great, verily, was his ration, namely, " the bowl of Guaire." A 
pig and a bull-calf were put into it ; four rings were on it and 
two shafts under it to carry it along before him, so that all 
should get their share. 



46 J. G. O'KEEFFE 

'* Maith Xra,'' or Guaire, " robadambuideach-sa do Christ 
CTjmhd nech lasmbad oc dll' occorso do cheli De nochaithed ; ar 
fcgi^btha dam-sa a n-irdail-se." 

A mbadar and, fochesathar in cuach' uaidhib for ind leas, 
Oaif^hair a eich do Guairiu, Na da aingel imon cuach .1 iar 
Maf${ Aidnc siar co foro;;/ad in cuach ar belaib Cholmain meic 
Jjiiach ina praindtig. 

** Maith/' or in maccleirech. " ata sund luag th*ainmne-seo. 
Taith iarum a ndothidnacht Dia duid." 

" Natho/' or seiscm, " co fesamar can as tucad," 7 adbered- 
s^im turum la doicsiu in chuaich : 

•• A chiiachain, 
cid dotuca dar Luai/te ? ** 

U. darnln fid ,1 LQaiwc ainm an feada.) 

" A ernai[g]thi dogni-seo dofug," ar int aingel, " 7 eslabra 

GOalre/' 

h and tanic G&aire istech. 

" Dobroacht, a cleirchiu," ar Guaire. 

** HrjH irt Ufa dodroid," ar in Colmdn, 

" (ja hcrct ataid' sund, a cleirchiu ?" ar Guaire. 

" Ccthrachait n-aidche ataam and 7 sec/a mblisuina" 

** In mithig duib a ndoroided* duib do thomailt" [p. 133^]. 

" (^la atangladar ? " or Colman. " Inn e Guaire ? " 

" In h 7 \n uad doroided a mblad 7 is cet duib a thomailt, 7 

aft^j mo chorp-»a 7 m'anim duid 7 do Dla 7 mo sil 7 mo sem*ed 

CO bfiith/' 

*' Malth/' or in cleirech, " rodbe a luagh la Dla." 
Dobcrthar arnabarach co mbadar ar Durl«^, 7 doberthar doib 

tri fichlt loilgcch cotid^ mbligreoraib 7 [con]a mbuachaillib co 

mbatar ar Aoxus in proindtigi. 

Conidh isin maigin sin rofothaighedh Cell meic Duach, 

condsid Icis Aidhne uile 7 clann Guaire meic Colmain ossin 

amach co brath. Finit. 

* oc dil added in margin. ' MS. atait. 

* MS. c^uacA. * MS. anddoroided. 



COLMAN MAC DUACH AND GUAIRE 47 

Said Guaire : " I should be thankful to Christ if there were 
one who [is wont] to satisfy the hunger of a man of God to 
eat it, for an equivalent would be got for me." 

Thereupon the cup moves from them into the yard ; two 
angels around it [bore it] through the plain of Aidne westward, 
until it was deposited in front of Colman Mac Duach in his 
refectory. 

** Well," said the clerk, " here is the reward of thy abstinence ; 
eat therefore what God has sent thee." 

" Not so," said he, " until we know from whom it has come " ; 
and then looking at the bowl, he said : 

*«01itUebowl, 
What brought thee over Luaine ? " 

(That is, over the wood, viz., Luaine is the name of the wood.) 
" The prayer thou makest for it," said the angel, " has brought 

it, and the liberality of Guaire." 
Just then Guaire came in. 
" It has reached you, O cleric," said Guaire. 
" Perchance it is God who has sent it," said Colman. 
" How long have ye been here, ye clerics ? " said Guaire. 
" Forty nights have we been here and seven years." 
" It is time for ye to eat what God has sent ye." 
" Who is addressing us ? " said Colman ; " is it Guaire ? " 
" It is ; and it is from him the food was sent, and ye are at 

liberty to eat it .; and here is my body and my soul to you and 

to God and my seed and race till Doom." 

" Well," said the cleric, " may God reward you for it." 

On the morrow they are taken to Derlus, and three score 

milch cows with their milkers and their cow-boys are brought to 

them, so that they were in front of the refectory. 

So that in that place was built the church of Mac Duach, to 

which all Aidne and the offspring of Guaire, son of Colman, 

belong till Doom. 



48 J. G. O'KEEFFE, COLffiLAX AND GUAIRZ 



NOTES. 

degitrd"^ take urd to be the \riic^ ortto of the sorice. 

caisc MK»r— faster Sunday, as distrngaBhed fzom /tuMchaisCj the Sunday after Easter, 
ffuddm^idi'Sae one of the canomcalhoiiES : called also sest and etsrmdk. 
^griftaigpr'-^OT berbaigther ? 

<i^ /Aa»^ <i> ^">» — The usual mramng of tteht do Idurn is ' to go to < rmff wiriii .* 
** The priest raises his hamt inahsnhitioiu'* Reeves* '* Caldces,'* p. 84. But 
see Rev. Cdt. ix., p. 24, JoiiOat do Idim occomn atframm,^ ' tbey w luL to 
cammnnion at the mass * Agnin, cor Icamha aire .2. dui do jiiijiMbii , 
"R V 18. Can t his meaning be extended to ojnliuary t*ating ? The coBtext 
(if there be no onusskm from the MS.) regnirea some such meaning. 
. j^,p£ ^ fUl occorso. — The whole of this sentence is obsinme to me as it stands. 
The meaning is^ no donbt, that if the food woe giren to a ceU De^ God. 
^pould provide an equivalent portioo. HHsr. rrwtf^xt requires a word like 
^ to be inserted aftor lasn^fod, 
.^ ,^ ^ M«iziZ— * an equivalent,* ' as much as * : see '* Fasaons and Himnifies^."^ 
^<2^-0. Ir. tol, f. gen- tuUe^ * wfll, pleuuie, deare ' ; hence ' portion^ shaze.*^ St3I 

used in this sense hi Mayo : ta mo thud agtam^ * I have enough.* 
>g ,^.iiVp ^Thc T ti""*^ of Gnaire is &nmd in many places in the vicinity of Klnvuua, Co- 
Galway e,g, Dungaaire Castle, and the townlands of Dimgoiy Wiest aod 
X>onff>ry F^^*" The annals recor d his death in the 3fear 662 aj>. 
^,,^«--Knownas0ii'«a:*«ic*-4tti« Itisintftt 

(jiocesc of KJImacdoa^ barony of KHtartmi, Co. Galway. Curtanroe, in 
the pariih of Abbey, in the batniy of Buzrfii, Co. Clare, appears to kxve 
been the reffldence of O'Hcyne, chief of in Fiachrach. 
2>«r/itf— This, diereffldenccofGufflrc,wasmthevicimtyofKinvarra. The fiat of 

Dnrtas occupkd die ate of the adstmg castle of Dunguane. 
© ^.,«,j^Xhe present nanc of the b»ony<m the south shore of Galway Bay; itwas 
comprised in die andentt&tfrict of C7i\fiaofoT^ The ' wadenie«* 

to which St. Cohnan retired was atnated at the base of the huge cfiff oi 
Ccnaille, m the paridi of Ou^itmama, quite dose to the Gahray border. 
Cenaille is the loftiest of die Burrcn Mountains^ Acconfing to Fatiicr 
Fahev whose book. The History and Antiquities of the Dioase of 
jr;/W«tf/A, deals with die whole of dns mtasstmg district, die Ana^ 
of Cenaille, even at the present day, is one of angular lonelmesB. BoAmrna 
mias, mentioned by Keatmg and Colgan, is die present name of the roed 
which leads to die ruined oratory of St. Cohnan. 



THE IMPERSONAL PASSIVE FORMS OF THE 
IRISH SUBSTANTIVE VERB. 

SOME time ago I happened to read an article in the New 
Ireland Review that astonished me very much. Therein 
the very existence of the forms whose description heads my 
paper \yas denied. If I remember aright, they were alluded to as 
a monstrosity or an impossibility. Should the writer of the 
article deign to glance at the great list — by no means exhaustive — 
which I give below, I feel sure that his opinion will change ; at 
least, reason should compel him to change it It is very strange 
that "a native speaker" should deny the existence of grammatical 
forms which have always been a part — nay, a vital part — of the 
language. Indeed, they have to this day been found so necessary 
that nothing is more usual in the mouths of the Irish-speaking 
people, whatsoever their dialect be. Their use is a true test of 
the good speaker of Irish. Those who do not use them really 
think rather in an English than an Irish mould. 

The history of these forms is here traced from the earliest 
literary remains, through all the intermediate stages, down to 
the present spoken dialects. A few remarks on the contents of 
each column will not be out of place. 

The volume of extant O. Ir. literature is not sufficient to 
furnish us with a complete paradigm. Hence many forms 
appear with an asterisk. 

The great bulk of Mid. In, as is well known, remains un- 
edited. As progress is made, some, at least, of the asterisked 
forms may be found to occur.* 

As many early modern texts also still lie in MS., the pre- 
ceding remark applies again to their period. Moreover, owing 
to limitations of time, my acquaintance with the literature of the 
three periods I have mentioned has as yet been very meagre — in 

^ Since writing the above, I have noticed that examples of some tenses are 
abundant in Mid. Ir. 



50 J. H. LLOYD 

O. and Mid. Ir., indeed, infinitesimal. No one need be surprised 
should he find that I have used an asterisk where such was 
unnecessary. 

The East Munster, or Deisi, dialect is spoken in County 
Waterford and the adjoining portions of the Counties of Cork, 
Tipperary, and Kilkenny. • Very few specimens of it having 
appeared in print, I have not very many examples to offer. 
Two of the tenses occur in the writings of natives of County 
Waterford, in the bac knumbers of the GaelU Joumal\ but the 
orthography : ni " biceA^ji '* b^.o-b^.c t)ioTn, * I am jpot thanked '; 
"beici-oe" b^.o'OA.c "oioc, *you would be thankedf is apparently 
due to literary convention.* 

Thanks to the great literary activity of several natives of 
West Munster (West Cork and Kerry), examples are abundant 
in that dialect. The Rev. P. O'Leary, P.P., is easily first, his 
championship of the form, under the name of the " autonomous 
verb," being known to all. To him are our thanks especially 
due for having drawn public attention to the present common 
sigfnification and employment of the passive voice of all verbs, 
transitive or intransitive. I regret not having been able to 
quote more extensively from his admirable 1TlioTi-cA.inc, as I 
have found that his spelling represents, in the majority of 
cases, literary convention rather than actual spoken usage. 
The most reliable examples occur in the late Patrick O'Leary's 
Sj^A.tui'beA.cc Ct3i5e tTluniA.n. 

The Rev. J. M. O'Reilly — in my opinion the best writer that 
Connacht has produced for some time past — is my chief authority 
for the use of the forms in the West Being a scholar, he 
naturally conforms, to a considerable extent, to a standard ; but, 
from correspondence with him, I find that the instances quoted 
from his djAi^it) are in accord with the dialect of North Connacht 
(County Mayo, with portions of the Counties of Sligo and Ros- 
common). He writes to me as follows (from Tourmakeady, 
County Mayo) : — ^^ I have verified every form of the enclosed 
within the week among the various relays of workmen employed 
at a parochial building here. But I tell you this only to make 
you content that they are among the * people ' — Father O'Leary's 

1 1 should add here, however, that Prof. Strachan, having made inquiries of 
Dr. Henebry, states : •*' According to Dr. Henebry, both forms are right." 



THE IRISH SUBSTANTIVE VERB 51 

* native speakers/ who mean autonomously — for myself, of 
course, they are as familiar to me as fresh air and water ; but 
that was not what you wanted." This I have thought it neces- 
sary to quote for the special benefit of the contributor to the 
New Ireland Review^ who is also a Mayo man. 

The heading " Ulster " here scarcely means other than West 
Ulster (County Donegal), in which part of the country all the 
forms are constantly in the mouths of the native people, as 
constantly as in Munster. From East Ulster I have merely one 
solitary example (under 2), and even that not quite certain. 
This want may be due to the usage cA pA.'o = caca.|a, &c., which 
exists there. Yet I have met two other undoubtedly impersonal 
passive forms in that dialect, viz., ciocf A.it)e (Mon., Tyrone) ; 
C10CCA.01 (Omeath), from ^151111, and fCUA.n^.'o (= fCAonAt) P 
= fCA.'OA.'o), in niojA fcuA.n^t) teo, *they halted not' (Neilson's 
Dial,, p. 74, 8), tii]i fcu^n^t) piu, Z.f, Celt Pk,, Band ii., 154, 13. 

In Scotland these forms would appear to be in very common 
use. The Naigheachdan of Mac Talla never fails to employ 
them. This I do not wonder at, for impersonal passive forms are, 
like man sagt »nd on dit, pre-eminently " news-words." The 
examples I give are from two random numbers of Mac TcUla. 
The writer of the Naigheachdan, whilst deserving of all praise 
for his idiomatic bent in this respect, is hopelessly astray when- 
ever he attempts the relative construction, with antecedent, and 
followed by verbal noun. He is not alone in this blunder ; for 
one day I was surprised to see, in the leading article of An 
Cl^i'oeA.rTi Sotuif, the following, or a similar phrase, staring me 
in the face : " A.n ni-o a.caca|a A.5 •oe-MiATti," such having really no 
coherent sense, as t>n ni-o does not stand in any grammatical 
relation, or connexion, whatever with what follows it It is to 
be hoped that my quotations from the great Scottish writer 
Carsuel, and from the " Passions and Homilies," will show the 
writers of both Mac Talla and An Cl^.i'oeA.ni Sottiif the error of 
their ways. 

I now come to the forms themselves. In arranging the 
subjoined list, and numbering the contents thereof, I have been 
guided rather by a modern standpoint, as this appeared to me 
the most suitable for all the members of a comparative table of 
the kind. It was no easy task to arrange all to correspond ; for 
usage in the Irish verb has shifted enormously, and is still 

E 2 



52 J. H. LLOYD 

shifting. Etymological considerations will naturally be found 
to have prevailed. The forms in square brackets are indicative 
forms that have invaded subjunctive usage, owing to a general 
tendency in Mod. Ir. The only really distinct subjunctive form 
now commonly used is the present tense (with ro-), which is 
more often employed optatively than otherwise.* Quotations 
from Scottish writers under the third column appear in Roman 
type. 



Examples. 

In order to show clearly the kind of phraseology and idioms 
in which the impersonal passive is used, I have in some cases 
given more of the text than was absolutely necessary. Also, in 
quoting from published texts, I do not always follow the exact 
words of the translations, 

O. Ir. 3. CA.ch^|A : — Adre no-pridchtm diib-si^ is hed ddthar 
(i. e. dtdthar for n-tathar) dom^ * because I preach to you, there- 
fore I am in evil plight,* Wb. 21 c 9 ; w hed ddthar diin^ * therefore 
we are in evil plight,' ib, 28 d 4. * 

3. and 4. *plce]i : — cf, •oo-plceiA cucuc on ^115 "00 coi^ciAAt) 
•DO cije 7 'DOC b|\ic cuci ^p eijin, ' people are at hand to thee 
from the king to wreck thy house and to bring thee to him by 
force,* YBL 91 b 29 ('oo-plce]i, from 'oo-pl, *is at hand,' cpd. 
vb.). 

4. c-d.ch^]! : — If cuf A. injion hi t)tilf A.ine oca CAch^.]! 'o*1A|^- 
jAA.i'o^ f echnon he|^en'o 7 Alp^n, *thou art the daughter of Ua 
Dulsaine for whom there is searching throughout Ireland and 
Scotland,' Betham MS. 23, No. 10, p. y6, 1. 16, R. I. A. (S^^riAf 
Co^iTTiAic, voce p^ull). 

5. bichi]i : — htiare is hi fochtdib bithir hi suidib^ * since it is 
in tribulation that men are for them,' Ml. 56 b 15 ; ocus bithir oca 
horairiy * and men watch him,' Cor. Gloss., voce Imb^^f po]iofnA.i. 

5. bichejA : — is and asgniintar in char ait ^ intan m-bither in 
periculis, * then friends are known, when men are in perictUisl 
Ml. 108 b 4. 

5. |\tibchA.]i : — air miit ind huachta ni rubthar indtb, 

1 S tHo|\ AifigcAf |\iAtfi * |\AbceA|\ ' Y^ d^ilpti. "OeiixceAix * |\AbceA|\ * Agtif 
•jtAbAt) ' ntiAif A t>6iiiceA|\ gtifte." — Letter from Father 0*Leaiy. 

' [Other MSS. point to occa tdthar cuinchid as the original text. — ^J. S.] 



THE IRISH SUBSTANTIVE VERB 53 

* through the greatness of the cold, no one may be (= dwell) in 
them/ Ml. 94 b 23. 

6. boch^ : — poi'oi'o Cucut^int) A.1che]l|^^ch t^oeg "oi^ py ci^s 
cjtuc mbochA ipn •oun^t) octi|" im bo beo fe^ t)^ec, 'Cuchulaind 
sends Loeg again to learn what way things were in the camp 
and whether Ferbaeth was alive/ YBL 31a 50-52. 

6. boch (rel.): — c^tn both oc taisbenad naflede dSib, 'while the 
feast was being spread for them/ Fled Bricrend, 12, 30 ; ciin both 
oc aurgnom dStb^ ' while they were being prepared for/ ib., 70, 8. 
[Altered from O. Ir. ciin m-bothae.] 

6. |io-boch : — ts hed ro-m-both dom, * this is why I have been 
in evil plight/ Wb. 23 a 24 ; is hed inso ro-m-both dossom^ * this is 
why they were angry with him/ ib. 19 ap; atnal ro-both and, 

* how things were/ Fled Bricrend, 16, 22 ; gin ro^m-both ar in 
Tdin Bd Ciiailgni i nHirinn^ * whilst they were engaged in the 
cow spoil of Cuailgne in Ireland/ U^in bo f^i-^ich, 47, 31 ; ba 
maiih ro-m-bothfriu, *they were treated well/ ib., 57, 20 [cf, i^w 
C|i-6<c c^inicc lon^m p^ioinnigce •ooriA. ft65Aib, 7 ]io boc A.5 poinn 
7 ^5 f0ccA.1t foiitA^, * when the time came for the troops to dine, 
and food was divided and distributed among them,' Ann. F. M., 
A.D. 1554 ; also Trip. L., 32, 6]. 

6. lAo-boT) : — ba dSchu km s6n, is hed ro-m-bod ddib, * that 
seems to me more likely, that is why it was ill with them,' Wb. 
5 b3i. [This is a mere orthographical variety.] 

13. bechi]i : — cia bethir oc far n-ingrim, * though they be 
a-persecuting you/ Wb. 5 d 33. 

13. beche|\ : — cene mbether in hac uita, * while we are in hoc 
uital MI. 107 d 8 : sechib grdd i mbether and, * whatsoever the 
condition be in which one is/ Wb. 10 a 18. 

N,B, — Examples from texts other than the Glosses show a 
Mid. Ir. colouring due to the transcribers. 

Mid. Ir. 3. -^c-6<ch^]i : — cindus atdthar annsin indiii? * how 
are things over there to-day?' Ais. M. Cong., 61, i ; nach do 
^nuintir an fhir atdthar do chrochad duit-st ? are you not [one] 
of the people of the man who is being crucified ? * Pass, and 
Hom., 3172^; amal atdthar ann, *as is now the case/ Togail 
Troi, 420, in Irische Texte, Zw. S., i Heft. 



^ Mistranslated thus : * of the man who is being crucified by thecy ' in Glossary, 
p. 906. 



54 J. H. LLOYD 

3. plceii : — dndus filter lat indtil ? * how is it with you 
to-day?' Ais. M. Cong., 31, 25. 

5. biche]i i-'C^in hither oc a cUnam^ 'while it is being done/ 
Pass, and Horn., 7441. 

6. bA-ouf : — ecus feib rosiacht in sluagtech saindrud i m-bddus 
oc tindl na sldg^ *and as he came to the very meeting-house 
where the hosts were being assembled/ Ais. M. Cong., 43, 22. 

6. b^f : — ni bds remi riatn ni is messu, * things never were 
worse before/ Ais. M. Cong., 61, 3 ; intan iarom bds oca anacul^ 
* when he was being protected/ N. to C6ir Anmann, Ir. Text. 

7. |Ao-bAf : — iss and ro-hds oc a cdiniud andy *it is then 
they were being keened there/ Fled Bricrend, 90, 1 1 ; intan tra 
TO'bds occ tabuirt grdid espuic fair^ * now when they were con- 
ferring the rank of a bishop on him/ Lives of the Saints from 
the Book of Lismore, 237 ; ro-bds oc iarraid form co ndematis 
idpurta do na deeib^ *it was being sought from them to offer 
sacrifices to the gods/ Pass, and Hom., 2342 ; bSitraferele do^n 
popul ludaide ro-bds d*iarraid fdn cuma citna^ * there was also 
another man of the Jewish people who was being sought after in 
the same way/ Pass, and Hom., 2929; co-nd-ro-gluais in hed 
ro-m-bds 'con batheis^ * so that it moved not as long as they were 
at the baptism/ S. na R., 7563-4 ; |io-bA.f t)no ic inibei|AC eigne 
f o|^ luce n^ c|\ice, * now oppression was being exercised over the 
people of the country/ Vit. Moling (O'Don., p. 255). 

7. |^Abtlf : — dofhirinde imorro na nu-fhiadnaise ice a rabtis 
tairchetul and in baithes^ ' but baptism belongs to the reality of 
the New Testament which they had been prophesying therein,' 
Pass, and Hom., 5768-9 ; in foscad ir-rabus ann^ * the shadow 
wherein they abode,' Trip. L., 6, 5. 

10. bechejA : — ocus ni bether co brdth, * and never shall be till 
doom/ Ais. M. Cong., 61, 4 (see under b^f). 

11. no-beche : — ro-boi tea gellad di nobeihe dia rUr^ * he was 
promising her that everything should be according to her will,' 
Togail Troi, 533 (Ir. T., Zw. S., i Heft). 

13. beit:i|A (= *bechi|\) : — ua.i|\ noco cA.i]iifenn •oitfe in 
cunnA|icA. int)li5chi5 6 beitiji oca osfu^ic^et), * for the legality 
of the unlawful contract cannot stand good when it is opposed/ 
Senchuf ITlop, ii. 382. (An emendation has been made in this 
passage.) 

13. berhu]i: — cein betup oca 1061111111, 'while it is being done/ 



THE IRISH SUBSTANTIVE VERB 55 

Senchuf 1TI6]i, ii. 36 (bis) ; cen becut^ oca. tegitii' cti|\tib fli^n, 

* as long as it is under cure until it is well/ ib. ii. 64 ; tti a^iiaiuc 
becuit oc-d. teguf , ' while it is under cure/ ib. ii. 68. 

Early Modern. — i. *biceA|A : — [biot)CA.|A t)'i. 'oc-6.|t|AA.in5 ^ 
gconintii'oe, *let us be drawing theip always/ Aif. A.n Ar^jA 
Pa'o^ia.is til DptA^in, P. and P. of Munster, 316, 22. This should 
rather be classified under Munster ; but as the example is from 
the later literature, and the piece in which it occurs not pro- 
fessedly dialectic, it is perhaps better included here.] 

3. at&thar : — urrnuidhe oile rointh tsearmdin and so atdthar 
do ghndthugadh an Albain^ * another prayer before sermon which 
is being used in Scotland,' Carsuel's Foirm na Nurrnuidheadh, 
54, I, &c. ; olc atdtha^ ann sin, * things are in a bad way with 
thee (///. over there)/ Voyage of Bran, 63, 23. 

4. fiiiler : — as an tenguidh choitchinn ina bfuiler ag sgriohhadh, 

* from the common language in which they are writing,' Book of 
Clanranald, in Rev. Celt, 176, 7. 

5. biceA.|A : — ^t)A feA.bA.f 7 biceA.|\ tiom, * however well I am 
treated/ Ue^^cc 7 ImceA^cc A.n $iottA. tJeA.c-M|\, G. J., No. 1 14, 
484 a 20 ; 5A.n ts pof -6.156 juja cum ts b^if ts b1ce-6.|\, * knowifig 
not that it is for his death/ Prov. 7, 23, in Bedell's Bible ; anuair 
hither ac dealugud an Sir 7 an mtanaigh, * when men separate the 
gold and the ore/ Gaelic Maundeville, 240, 138. 

6. '00 b^i^ : — uair do bds ac clodh Oisin ann^ * for Oisin was 
being overthrown therein/ Cath Finntrdga, 630. 

6. do bfighas : — do bdghas ag denamh marbha ortha at gach 
taobhy *they were being slain on every side/ Book of CI., 188, 6. 

6. "00 bicocuf : — aonnuf t)o bicocuf -6.5A.1b -6.nn P * how did 
ye fare there?' U6]i. *6. 7 $., 5, 20; t)o bicocuf 50 tiia.ic, *we 
fared well/ ib. 5, 21 ; -00 bicocuf 50 hole, 'we tared ill/ ib. 

5, 24. 

10. beA.c6.|\ : — beA.CA.|A '50m c-^oine-^'6 coi-oce, * I shall ever 
be lamented/ Oss. Poem in G. J., Jan., 1899 ; bethther co maith 
ris, 'they will be good to him/ Gaelic Maundeville, 256, 171. 

11. t)o beici : — nA.c piit -oa cjteine •oo beici A.5 ^ cu|i ^.m^c, 
' that it doesn't matter how forcibly one would be ejecting him/ 
U|Ai b. -6.n b., 99, 5 (in Appendix ix. wrongly referred to as 29, 5, 
and form erroneously described as 'imperf.'). 

E. Munster. — 4. fuitce^.]! : — ni'lce^|\ A.5 molA.'o n-6. ty-^ 
ciAwety-b pli'oeA.ccA. -6.n $e6.|\A.lcM5 A.nnfo, *we are not praising 



56 J. H. LLOYD 

or dispraising Fitzgerald's poetry here/ Introduction to t)i.ncA. 
|DiA]\^i|^ itlic 5©-^l^^i^^> by R. A. Foley (in Press). 

5. b'ioc^]i : — ^^\ye^ymo "oiccitt ni .bice^^it (pr. biocA|A)bA.ox)A.c 
t)iom, * I do my best, but no thanks do I get/ G. J. No. 35. 

6. "00 biot) : — ^biot) ^n^-iTiAic "oi, *she was very well treated' 
(R. A. Foley) ; b'lce^t) ^5 cvi]\ cp^ob "oe ConrnA^t) n^ S^^'oitge 
^]i bun, *a branch of the Gaelic League was being established/ 
An Sl6ibce-6<n^c, Hcol^i^, 1903, 19 b 12; nti^nA ^ biot) "oA 
feol^t) cum pubA.1l, *when he was being led away/ An Sleib- 
ce^nA^c, Hcot^i^, 1903, 17 b 7. 

7. lA^b^t) : — ce^p p 5U]i 1 "ocij tliob^i^it) ^ bi i^e 7 50 
|i^b^t) "OA ceilc uijiiie, * she thought he was in Robertas house, 
and that he was being hidden from her/ An SleibccAn^c, 
tlcolMg, 1903, 19 a 7 ; ni ^i-^b^t)^]! 1 bp^t) 50 ^i^bA^t) Jb^\\ a. 
t)c6i]i, * they were not long (so) until they were being pursued,' 
ib. 15 b I. 

15. "00 beici : — ^.guf beici-oe bA.o'OAC -oioc, 'and you would 
be thanked/ G. ].^ passim, 

W. MUNSTER. 2. c-6.ca.ia: — c-6.cA.|t a.]i -00 ci, 'people are lying 
in wait for you ; c-6.ca.]i im* •6ia.i'6 50 'oiA.n A.noif, * I am being 
pursued closely now/ An buA.iceA.f, 54, 26 ; ca.ca.]i cugA^mn, * we 
are being approached,* ib., 65, 19 ; c-6.CA.ti a.|i t)o c6i|i 50 ce, 'you 
are being pursued hotly/ Ca.ca.i]i Con|ioi, 34, y [ca.ca.|i 50 tha.ic 
leif, ' he is treated well/ O'Don., p. 254], 

2. CA.CA.tif: — c-6vCA.tif 'a. •oeA.nA.ni, ' it is being done' (S, Cork). 

3. A.c-6.CA.ti : — ni fCA.'OA.ti-f a. cionnuf mA.ti A.CA.CA.ti a.ca. A.noit% 
I do not know how things are with them now,' S5. C. m., 

91 y. 

3. c-6.cA.ti : — cionnuf c-6.cA.ti A.5A.C ? .1. cionnut" ca.oi ? S5. C. TP 
112, 17; cionnuf CA.CA.ti teA.c ? .1. cionnui a.ca. •oA.oine -ouic — 
bpuiliT) olc no mA.ic "ouic ? ib., 112, 18. 

3. c-6.cA.tif: — cionnut" ci.cA.tif A.5A.C? 'how are you faring?' 

S5. c. in, 31, 1. 

3. CA.CA.f : — CA. pof nA.c 'ooTTi-f A. CA.cA.f 'o'-6. fA.5A.1nc, * who 
knows but that she is being left for me?' S5. C. tTl., 93, 8. 

4. fuilceA.ti : — A.n bfuitceA.ti cu5A.m ? * is anyone going to 
be at me ? ' 1Tlion-CA.inc, I., 27 ; ceA.fbA.ncA.ti "oom 50 btnntceA.tt 
A^ti •00 ci, 'it is clear to me that some persons are lying in wait 
for you/ tTlAcpngm X)uib, 16 x. 

4. finlciof : — mA.ti 'oeiticiof n-6.fuilciofti6-niA.ic A.5, A.n gcuit) 



THE IRISH SUBSTANTIVE VERB 57 

If f eA]i]i A.CA. A^nnfut), ' for it is said that the best of them there 
are not faring very well/ S5. C. tTl., 34, 7. 

6. t)obiocA.f (•oobiceA.f): — mA^\\ ^ bioc^f ^]i a. ^.c^nt ^loimi-p, 
*as was the case with his father before him/ IHa^cI:. X)., 18, 30 ; 
ATI Ia a biccA^f A.5 cujA 6<r\ cfeATTouine, * the day the old man 
was being buried/ fionn 7 Loitc-^n, 54, 9; A.n t-6. a. bice^-p a.' cup, 

* the day she was being buried/ ib., 54, 18 ; bice/yf 50 ttia^ic linn, 

* things went well with us/ An b., 83, 18. 

6. "DO bioc^pf : — ^t)'pA.pfui5 cionnuf -00 biocA^pf ^.156, * he 
asked how he fared/ S5. C. tTl., 30,4 ; nu^ip bioc/ypf ^5 j^bAil 
CA.|t ^n mbocAinin, * when the cottage was being passed/ ib., 77^ 
23 ; nuA.ip ceA.nslA.t) ^n X>^\X bocc 7 bioc^pf ^p bpuAC e ca.i- 
te^^m 1 5coiTtileA.CAn n-^ ceineA.t) •oeipge, * when the poor Dall 
was bound, and he was about to be cast into the middle of the 
blazing fire/ ib., 81, 2. 

7. jAA^bcAf : — ^n |\A.bcA.f ^5 jt^co^c ope in-oiu ? * was there 
anyone calling you to-day?' mion-CA.inc, I., 27; cpom ^n Ste^.- 
g^nAC -^p se^p^n 50 CA^ngc^^p^c 50 p^bc^p po-cpuAit) Aip, 

* Shelbourne began to complain peevishly that he was being 
treated too harshly/ VOa^c f. t)., 15, 21. 

7. p-cbc^pf : — ^fit c6ip-mAipe-6.c 50 p^bc^pp 1 n-^ coni-Mp 
fein teif , * he thought right or wrong that somebody was lying 
in wait for himself also,' S5. C. tTl., 76, 17. 

10. be^p^p : — bei'op-ft.p cug^c, 'they will be at you/ tTlion- 
cA.inc, I, 26. 

10. beipe^p : — ^n mbeicpe^p A.5 cup ipce^^c ^p ttlA.c Pnjin 
IDuib A^p b^ll, * will Mac Finghin Duib be encroached on by- 
and-by?' ttl^c IT. T)., 18, 29; n'l beit)pe^p t)iA.n ope, * people, 
authorities, &c., won't be severe on you/ G. J., ttli n^ tlcot^s, 
1899 (James Fenton, Kerry) ; bei'opeA.p niop •oeine ^p mo ci, 

* they will be more sharply in wait for me/ An b., 54, 28. 

11. •00 beip-oe: — ni bei-op-oe tJi^n A.ip, * he would not be 
severely treated' (J. Fenton, G. J., mi r\6^ not)lA5, 1899); 
x)o beit>fi otl^ni ATn^pAC, * we would be ready to-morrow/ 
Tnion-cA.inc, I., 26. 

12. beip-oe: — cugA.'OA.p i:A.Tn-6.lt eite "o'-d. leA.fA.x) 50 pA.ib pe 
-^5 buippe^^c A.5UP ^5 beicij ni-6.p te^^nb tomnoccuisce 50 
mbei'op'oe -6.5 a piA.pc-6.1l le pl^^ic, *they spent another while 
pounding him until he was roaring and bawling like a naked 
child whom one would be beating with a rod,' S5. C. m., 25, 7; 



S8 J. H. LLOYD 

c-^ 'fiof -Mge 50 m-Mc riA bei'op'oe lAd-btn-oe^c -oe, *he knows 
well that we would not be too thankful to him/ C-6.ca.iii Conpoi, 
35, 25. 

13. [beipe-6.|i] : — ni yjb^v^^ 50 mbeit)fA.ii -6.5 b^ieic -6.i|a, * he '11 
soon be caught' (letter from Fr. 0*L.). 

14. jiMbc^it :— " ^p -00 c6i|A 50 ii/ybce^ii !" 'pursuing to you ! ' 
(letter from Fr. O'Leary). 

15. t)o beici : — 50 'ocioq:-Mt)e -6.|a -6.n ci^i^ipg mA.iiA.f -00 beici 
^5 S^l^-^i^ ^^K^ ^^ TToo|AUf ACA., * that people would come to the 
threshold when they would be passing their door/ S5. C. m., 

77y 19. 

16. beicci : — le he^gl^ 50 mbeicci a.|a n^ mA.]ibcA.ib niA.ot^ 
lei CI 'DA 'oe-^fgA.ib, * for fear that people would be constantly 
blaming her (/^'/. would be on the bald killings with her ?) as a 
result of it/ Sg. C. tn., 18, 16. 

16. beici : — ^f^oile^f 50 mbeici(t)e) 'n--o.|i rroi^it) 50 CA.pAi'o, 

* I thought that somebody would be after us quickly/ An buA.i- 
ce^f, 58, II. 

S. CONNACHT. — 3, ca'p : — nA.c fp^ii'oeA.nilA.cc 7 fe-6.|i^nitACC 
CA^Y A.5 lA.jAit^i'o cti]i inf r\^ 'OA.oinibP 'is not this the aim, to 
inspire the people with spirit and manliness?' tnion.coTh|t-6.t),p.7S. 

5. bice-6.|A : — ^biceA.|A "oa hoib]iiU5A.'6 m6^\\ pn no 50 n'oeA.ncA.p 
mien mioctog -oi, * it is so worked until it is reduced to pulp/ 
'OiA^tiiuit) 'Oonn, in An Cl^.i'oeA.ni Sottiif, Jan. 9, 1904. 

6. biceA.f: — A.n tuA^c ^ bice^f a. f-i5A.1t A.|t CA.lA.ni, * the 
price which was being got for land/ btiA.CA.illin UuA.ice, in An 
C. S., SA.rTiA.in 28, 1903. 

8. bici : — mtinA. bf aja.*© nA. ci5eA.]inA.i a.cc ciof CU15 mbtiA.'onA. 
t)eA.5 Anoif 6 n^ cun6ncA.ib, beA.t) A.n oi|\eA.t) a.ca. if bici 
A. f AjAit inf nA. btiA.t)A.ncA.ib a.ca cA.icce, * if the [land]lords 
only got fifteen years* rent now from the tenants, they would 
have as much as used to be got in past years/ X)iA.|initii'o t)onn, 
in An C. S., SA.rTiA.in 28, 1903. 

10. beipeA.|t : — X)o p6i|i TnA.|i beiofCAjt A.5 bA.inc teA.f A.fCA., 

* according as people will be deriving benefit from them/ ITIion- 
cotTi|iA'6, in HeA.rtntA.'o, 2nd par. 

11. beici: — bA.t> ceA.pc uirhut n^ mbtiA.t)A.ncA. a. tA.s'oujA.'o 
50 mA.ic f A. cA.nt5pnc a. beici a. cA.bA.ifc 'oo'n ci5eA.fnA., *the 
number of years should be well reduced in the offer being made 
to the landlord/ 'OiA.f mui-o 'Oonn, in An C. S., SA.mA.in 28, 1903. 



THE IRISH SUBSTANTIVE VERB 59 

12. beifTde : — m't p-^'d^c 6 6iotitia.ititi 50 cp-iig ti-6.c tiibeic- 
p'oe A.nn {le^. ^5) qti^dc -6.^ 'Li-Mn, 'there is no hunt from the 
Shannon to the shore that people would not be talking about 
Leeam/ Dr. Hyde's Raftery, 164, 6. 

N. CONNACHT. — 2. c-i^c^jt : — c-^c-6.|A '5A. f5tM3'oti§-6.'6, * they 
are being examined/ Fr. O'Reilly's djiiit) of cionn cuiitp f^r\ 
Ac-^^t 6 5t^^^^^> An Cl^it)eA.th Soluif, Oct. 3, 1903. 

5. biceA.|A : — n^ mA^jt f-6.oitce-6.|A b'1ceA.|^, *not as is thought it 
he's* (* be's* « do things be, does it happen), proverb quoted in 
b|tAic|Ae ^|aIai|a, a story given in Dr. Hyde's Religious Songs of 
Contiachtj published in the New Ireland Review. (The Munster 
form of the proverb is ni TnA.|A ^ fA.oitce-6.|t a. aTince-6.p ; and in 
Ulster it is ni m^i^ f-6.oitce-6.|A biof.) 

6. biceA.]t : — nu-M|A a connA.ic geA^jidit) fyx\ c-6a.5c6i|a bice^^ji 
A. t)6^nA.'6, * when Gerrot saw the wrong that was being done/ 
be^cA. Ao-OA. til II61II, prize piece of Comp. lo of 1903 
Oireachtas (in Press) ; tiuA^ip ^ bice^^p t'L n-iotn|A^'6, •oubA.ijAc 
feA^^t ^Ti b^it) te bA.itt-'oe-^|t5 50 nlb-^ b^tt 'oe ftiocc Hi 
'Oonin-Mll 6, * when they were being rowed, the boatman said to 
Baill-dearg that he was one of the progeny of O'Donnell/ ib. ; 
cunteA.t) -MTiug-^ A. •oc|Aeopui'6ce 7 bice^ji '5^ gciob^iV 6 -iji'OAn 
50 hifleATi 7 6 1-6.5 50 bojA^c 1 TTOO|ACA.'o-6.f n a. hoit)ce, * their gfuides 
were set astray, and they were being knocked about from high 
land to low land and from hollow to bog in the darkness of the 
night/ ib. ; ni.]t b*ion5A.ncA.i5e *x\h. pn A.n cuf buinne bice-6.|\ a^ 
cvi\i f-6.01 ceA.n5A.1t) 7 qiei'oeA.ni 6itife 1 n-0ite-6.n r\6< HA^oni ? 
* wasn't the foundation (lit. beginning of edifice) which was being 
laid for the tongue and faith of Elizabeth stranger still (lit, than 
that) ?' ib. ; ^.guf mA.p A^guiiin, bice^jt te f6 c^a-o A.q\A. b^^inc 
A.f i:A.tA.ni n^ 'ociteA.b coif m\ tlif5e 'Ouib te t)unpui|ic tTlouncioi 
7 ChA^ptemonc a. beA.cu§A.'6, * and in addition, 100 acres were to 
be taken from the tribal lands beside the Blackwater for the 
support of the forts of Mountjoy and Charlemont,' ib. ; ^guf t)e 
'bA]t]t A.n ioTn|i-ii'6 pn biceA.|i te n-A. n5A.bA.1t, *and on account 
of that talk they were going to be arrested/ ib. 

7. |iA.bcA.|i : — hinnp5eA.t) 'oo Ago 6 116itt jioiiti |i6 50 |iA.bcA.ii 
te n-A. 5A.bA.1t, * Hugh O'Neill was told beforehand that he was 
to be arrested/ beA.CA. Aooa. Hi 116itt ; TnA.tA ceA.p f6 50 |iA.bcA.p 

^ Cf. La If fi6e '$A ^dobikit a|\ Ati bf Aifp^e ; also in be^CA Aoi&a tl{ tl^ill. 



6o J. H. LLOYD 

^5 'oe^.n^TTi e^5c6i^ q\Ai'6ce A.p Ao-b, *for he thought that 
galling injustices were being done to Aodh/ ib. 

9. bin : — ni bici A.5 pjit te ca.'o^i'o u^i-o put) 6 foin AtiiA^c, 

* nothing would he (used to be) expected from him (that man) 
thenceforward; Fr. O'Reilly's d^iAit). 

10. b^i-oce^ii :— CA ^n 1pe^|^ 7 ^n be^n -Mioif ^5 cu|^ ^icne 
A.p ^ ceile 7 p^oi ce^nn CA^m^itt b6it>ce-6.|A t)'-^ bpofA.'d, *the 
man and the woman are now making one another's acquaint* 
ance, and in a while their marriage will be taking place,' G. J., 
No. 112, p. 63. 

10. b6it)feA.|\ : — be1•6fe^|^ A.5 c^inc a.|a '* $^^^^5 <^'fi 
cCliA^bATi," " B'^^'^^^S ^ •ot^ccA.f/' 7 ^5 cA.ice^ni t>]iocnieAf <^j\ 
g^etnlg "ti-d. ScotAiiti," *" Irish from the cradle" and "Irish 
from heredity " (native Irish) will be talked about, and disesteem 
will be cast on the Irish " of the scholars," ' Fr. O'Reilly's 6|tAit>. 
Ulster. I- bice^jt : — bice-6^i\ ^.5 g^b^^it -oo, nu^^ip ^ twcf^y 
r6 c^rtc, * let it (the work) be a-doing, when he (the inspector) 
comes round ' ; bice^^p A.5 cdgAil n^ gcloc fee ^y ^' be^Uc, 
nuAir ^ tiocf Af re CA^itc, * let these stones be being lifted out of 
the way, when he comes round' (this and the preceding example 
are from Mr. James Ward of Tory Island). 

2. CAC/^tt : — c^cA^it -6.5 mt^iTie-^'o riA. ce^DgA.t) 50 m^ic in 
l^olc^cA. ATI CeA.tAnioinn, 'the language is being well taught in 
the schools of Termon,' Se/^muf VOc^c ^.n b^itt-o, Prog, of Proc., 
Ar-o-reir, 1903 ; ci^c/^r ^5 ^e/^S^TS T^^^r ^^ h^re^tin in rsoiL 
^Th^in ^r re rse^c^* **^ history of Ireland is being taught in 
one out of six schools,' ib. ; CAC^it '5^^ ce^B^rS ^"r "^ rS^t^^c/y 
ro huite, *it is being taught in all the schools,' ib. ; cacaj^ A.5 
nitiineAt>'nA 5Aet)il5e /^r r^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 5^ ^^^^ r^ cre^ccth^in, 

* the Irish language is being taught for two hours and a half in 
the week,' ib.; CAC^it ^5 buinc /^n fr^ir, 'the hay is being 
mowed,' Craig's Gr., p. 108 ; c^^c^it t)'^ mbuinc, ' they are being 
due' ib.; c^e^r ^5 ^^^^t^» '^''^^ signifies that there are a 
number ofpeopU working ' (P. M'Creanor of Maghera, Co. Deny, 
in a letter from Mr. Louis Walsh). 

4 ruile^iA :— Y^ itie^r^^^ 5^1^ ^^f^ ^" F^^l^ ^5 ^ ofuite/yti 
'r/^ com 'n/^ t)ei*, * I think that you are the young man after 
whom they are in pursuit (or who is being pursued),' Peter 
Walsh's p/^n ^p ^x\ b^ile 'mo coni/i.111, in Cli.i|ire/i.c xx^ 
nS^eoe^l, Cuit) III. 



THE IRISH SUBSTANTIVE VERB 6i 

6. biceA.|A : — biceA.|A A.5 cu^ n^ bpp6-6.CAi, * the potatoes were 
being set/ G. J., TTli tiA. Ho-oI^s, 1899, p. 63 ; *tia bice^jt le 
f-^tJA. 50 te6|A jtoinie pn, * than was the case for a long time 
enough before that/ S. tH. -mi X). (see above) ; bice^]^ -6.5 bumc 
HA bpit^ACA^i, * the potatoes were being dug/ Craig's Gr., p. 108 ; 
biceA.|A le ni6 th-^^ib^'b, ' I was going to be killed ' fheard from 
Mr. James Ward in conversation). 

7. pA.bcA.it : — 50 |AA.bcA.|A -6.5 lA.bA.i|AC 1 bf ^t) niof mo 5Aet)il5', 

* that far more Irish was being spoken/ S. m. -mi b. (see above). 

8. biti : — ^biti A.5 'oeA.nA.Th A^rTi]iA.n -6.]i A.n b^le f ' ^.g^nne, 

* songs used to be a-making in our townland (or place)/ Mr. Neece 
M*Coal, resident in Donegal (heard in conversation with him). 

9. bici : — 50*0 cu^'^e {pron.f jo-cuise) nA]i f^n cu mA^jA bi 'oo 
'OA.oini Y^ti -6.1c riAC mVici t>'-6. puA.gA.t) ? * why didn't you remain 
along with your people where they used not to be hunted?' 
(a line of the ist stanza of the ballad on the execution of James 
Murphy, as obtained from a native of Kilcar, Co. Donegal). 

10. beit)t:eA.]i : — ni b^i-bceA^ji 'o'a mbuinc 50 'oeo, 'they will 
never be a-digging/ Craig's Gr., p. 108. 

11. beip-oe : — beip-oe x>'^ p-d.i'oc, * people would be saying/ 
G. J., ITIi riA. tlo'olA.g, 1899, p. 63 (used in conversation by 
Eamonn 6g Mac an Ghoill, a native of Glengesh, Co. Donegal). 

14. jA^bcA.^ : — 50 ii-6.bc-6.p 'o'-i bu^lA^x) 1 nibA|A^c, *may he be 
getting a beating to-morrow ' (from Mr. James Ward) ; 50 ]iAb- 
c^|t v'^ •oog^t) A|t teA.cA.c-^ tomA. •oeA]!^^ 1 bfiop-iocc^lA lypmn, 

* may he be a-buming on the bare red flags of the very bottom 
of hell * (a curse current in Tory Island and elsewhere in Co. 
Donegal). 

16. beici : — mu\\ mbeici 50 ttia^ic -od, n'l jaa.ca.'O fe A.nn, * if 
he were not well treated, he would not go there ' (from Mr. B. 
O'Keeney, a native of the parish of Ardara, Co. Donegal) ; 'oa 
mbeici ^5 b^^inc ^r, b-ft^t) 501^1*0 50 mbei'oeA.'o ye ]i-6.icce, * if we 
were taking out of it, it would soon be spent/ G. J., Aib]ieAn, 
1898, p. 192 b 40; '0i-6.b^l f^S^l^c 6^ 'oeAnfM'oe •oe, "da nibeici 
^5 'o6i]ice^'6 teiginn ifce-6.c 1 n--6. cionn le polui]\, *no priest 
would ever be made of him, even if learning were being poured 
into his head with a water-funnel (fiUer or tun-dish) ' (heard 
by Mr. James Ward somewhere in the Glenfinn district, Co. 
Donegal). 

Scotland. 2. thiltar : — tAd^ar ag gearain gu mbr, * much 



62 J. H. LLOYD 

complaint is being made/ Mac Talla, Naigheachdan^ Ogust 8, 
1902. 

3. afhittar : — na tuarasdail a tkdtar cl pdtgheadh^ ib. (con- 
istruction ungrammatical) = Ir. n^ ctiA.]iA.fCA.il ^ci^cA^ji t)o -oiot, 
* the salaries which are being paid ' ; aon de no biastan sin a iMtar 
d faicinn (also ungrammatical), 'one of those serpents that 
people see/ M, T,, lulaidh 25, 1902. (The Scottish scholars do 
not now appear to know the construction required in relative 
clauses like these, though Carsuel did thoroughly, v. Early 
Modem). 

4. (Oeileflir : — ach thit e ro-choltach gu bheilear (= bhfeilear) 
ann an iomadh cearna a* fds suarach uime^ * but it is too evident 
that in many places people are getting indifferent about it/ M, 7^., 
Ogust 8, 1902 ; cha *n eilear (^fheilear) idir a' deanamh tdir air 
na ban-sgolairean, * no one at all is blaming the female teachers,' 
ib. 

5. bithear: — ^^ MicheaV 'm bithear d faighinn litir an 
drdsda 's a rithist, * " Michael " from whom a letter is received 
now and again ' (» * occasionally *), M. Z., lulaidh 25, 1902. 

6. bhittar : — am feadh *s a bkdiar ^ga ghiulain, * whilst He 
was being carried/ M. Z., Ogust 8, 1902. 

13. bithear: — cha bhithear saor pheacadh, * there wanteth 
not sin,' Highland Society's Diet., I., 26, (* Subjunctive ' would 
be the classification of Scottish grammarians in this case, but it 
may really be an example of 5). 



Additional Notes. 

O. Ir. 6. ro-both, ro-bod : — This appears to have its modem 
reflex in t)o bico of the Deisi dialect, through ^ro-bad^ *rO'bdd\ 
cf. I sing, act, •00 b^T6A.f ; ist pL, •00 bi.mM|\, &c., of the early 
modern period, now •00 biof, t)o biomA.i|i, &c. 

14, rubthar: — Prof. Strachan, in a communication to me, 
remarks: "If, in the indicative, nubc^n could come from -f obicep, 
it might come in the subjunctive from -nobecep. One would 
certainly have expected in both -]itiibceii ; but I have come 
across a good deal that is strange in the palatalization and 
depalatalization of consonants. The whole matter wants a 
thorough investigation." 



THE IRISH SUBSTANTIVE VERB 63 

Mid. Ir. 6. ro-b&s : — from this comes the modern form •00 
biot:-6.T ('00 bit:e-6.f), through *rO'bddus^ ^ro^bdthas (see remark 
on ro'both). The -s is due to the influence of the forms found in 
dental stems, e. g. ro-fesSy do-cuas^ &c. 

Early Modern. 4. failer: — a coincidence, as will be seen, 
with one of the forms used in West Ulster. 

5. *bici]i \ As I have noted the occurrence of absolute 
9. *be^t:M]i I forms of other verbs in texts belonging to 

13. *beici]i / the end of the sixteenth century, I am 
obliged to include these in the paradigm. 

E. MUNSTER. 2. c^CA^n, which coincides with the Scottish 
form, belongs especially to the Dungarvan district, where ci. = 
Sc. thd also occurs. U^f^ji is heard there too, but belongs 
rather to other portions of the old Deisi territory ; with it cf. the 
Co. Waterford surname Simeon, which is pronounced S]iufAn 
and anglicised Byewater. U^c ^^ is used in portion of East Cork. 

6. biot), and 7. ii^bAt) are pronounced respectively biog, 
]i/^bA5. Should the O. Ir. form of the latter turn up, it could 
scarcely differ ; for ro-both^ ro-bod clearly point to an enclitic form 
*robady ^rubad^ or *rabad, 

W. MUNSTER. The forms in -]if belong to South Munster 
(Berehaven, Skibbereen, &c., districts). They arise in two ways : 
(i) by the addition of-]" to -]i forms, (2) by the insertion of -|v- 
in -f forms. Sometimes in (i) the f usurps the place of the -f- 
al together, as in CAC^f for c^ca]i. This, however, does not 
extend to i and 5. As to fuilceA.]i, c after t is not aspirated in 
West Kerry. 

14. ]iAibcAn : — The -b- is fully pronounced in South Munster, 
not slurred over as is usually the case ; ]iA.ib-,/r(?«. rev, as in the 
active voice. 

5. CONNACHT. We find here a preference for unaspirated 
slender c in bice^ji, bici, &c. ; hence in 16 one would expect 
beici (beicci), as in South Munster. 

6. bix)ceA]i is pronounced bife^ji, owing to a peculiarity of 
the dialect, which is rather fond of giving x) and 5 the sound of 
b, and consequently making •6c, gc «» f in sound, e, g. 5uit)e 
pron. gtiibe, enoeAn pron. eibe^n, c^i^g^t) pron. cp^b, cojjcA 
pron. copA., x)0]iiii5ce pron. •o|iuife, &c. The -t). of bi-oce^ii is 
probably the echo of that of the early mod. •00 bioocuf. 

7. |\Mbce^p pron. ]i^i]reA.]^ (nei]re^]i). 



64 J. H. LLOYD 

N. CONNACHT — The c-forms are all from Fr. O'Reilly, who 
may be said to reside on the borderland between N. and S. 
Connacht. As to 6 and 7, he writes as follows: — "biceA.f 
and biceA^ji, ]t^bc^f (roughl/^uss) and ji/^bcA.]! {rougher) mean 
exactly the same, and are used indiscriminately here (in Mount 
Partry), a very fine Irish-speaking district. I have tested them 
specially in several district villages of people, and with the oddest 
and out-of-the-wayest sort of folk. What they would say is, that 
they were exactly the same — as, of course, I knew well — ^word, 
^5^r ^^ tTiiniti5A.t) ce-6.'on^ tec, ^cc guji fe-6.]i|i Le 'ope^m -oe n^ 
•o-6.oinib le^5^n -6.cu, A^guf te •o^oinib eite -6.n te^5-6.n eile." 

Ulster. — Here we find the -]i substituted altogether for -f 
in 6 and 7. It is heard also in ctiAX)c^n, fti-6.'6c-6.]t = -00 cu-6.t)c-6.f , 
O. Ir. tDo-chu^-p. On the other hand, c^inice^f = Muns. 'oo 
c^nj^c^f, c^n-^5 ; Earfy Mod, c^ng-^f. The origin of the -|t 
is a puzzle to me, unless it be an intrusion from the pres. and 
fut. 

14. |\^l!)ci6.|\ is used after mu]i (mun^), as well as optatively. 

Scotland. — 6. bhdtar : — The hardening of the -/- probably 
shows the influence olthdtar. 

5. bit hear . Not recognised in Scottish grammars, but 

8. *bhiteadh (there is a clear example of 5 at least in 

9. *biteadh ) Mac Talla. 

Present Standard. — The heading should rather be Forms 
that should, historically and analogically^ be used as a standard^ 
the common tendency being to write * hamletically,* to quote 
Fr. O'Reilly again. It is to be hoped that the great variety oC 
provincial forms will make it evident to all writers that a 
standard is a necessity. To the student of linguistics this 
diversity is interesting, but to the littirateur rather embar- 
rassing. 

I cannot conclude without thanking all who have so kindly 
assisted me in filling up the gaps that at first existed in some 
paradigms. In the domain of O. and Mid. Ir. Prof J. Strachan.. 
has most generously resolved my frequent doubts about aste- 
risked forms, and, indeed, saved me from error in one or two 
instances. For E. Munster I shall mention the names of 
Messrs. Patrick O'Daly, Gen. Sec, Gaelic League, James 
Morrissey, and R. A. Foley. Fr. O'Leary has very kindly 
answered some troublesome queries. I again thank Fr. O'Reilly 



Tense-form. 



1. Imperat. Pres., 

2. Ind. Pres. Orthot., 

3. „ „ Rel. 
>> »» 

»» M (govd. by prep.), 
„ „ (neg., &€.), 

5. ,, „ Hab. (abs.), .. 

,, ,, (conj. and rel.), 

,, ,, with ^o-, .. 
Pret. Orthot., 

„ Rel., 

„ End., 
Perf. Orthot., 

„ Rel., 

,, End., 

8. ,, Impf. Orthot., 

9. „ „ End., 

10. „ Fut. (abs.), 
,, (conj. and rel.), 

11. „ Cond. (2 Fut.) Orthot., 

12. „ ,, „ End., 

13. Subj. Pres. (abs.), 
,, (conj. and rel.), 

14. ,, ,, with i\o-, Dep. (Opt. &c, 

15. „ Past. Orthot., 

16. ,, „ EncU 



I Present 
O. Ir. Standard (Ir.) 



I piitceAp 
biceA]\ 



(a) CAcnA|\ 

(b) *ptce]\ 

*CAChA|A 

*plcej\ 

bichi]\ 

b^cViejA 

IMibcViA-p 
♦bocliAe 
! bodiAe, -j 

j U t)0 WoCAf 

' *boch Jl^obiceAr) 

I I 

po-bocli ' 

'\ |>o-bo"D ' .. 

, pAbcAr 
♦pobAT) I 

I I T)o bi'ri 

1 *no-bic1ie' 



♦b^che i 



bin 



♦bedim *|JeACAp. 
beche]\ j 




{a) After ^Y heo in a peculiar idiom also 
{b) After inCAti, h6^e, &c., ♦plce]\ mi 
N.B.— The Ind. Pret. and Perf. in realit 



J 



THE IRISH SUBSTANTIVE VERB 65 

for his information about Connacht usage. Mr. James Ward, of 
Tory Island, whose colloquial power over his own form of the 
Northern variety of Irish is really wonderful, has also earned 
my thanks. For the Scottish paradigm I have no obligations 
to express ; hence it is the weak point of the list. The various 
grammars of Sc. Gael, have not helped me in the least, for I 
have found them insufficient and antiquated. The same remark 
applies to the Irish grammars (my allusion is to Mod. Ir.), with 
the single exception of that of the Christian Brothers. One 
would think from them that this form was fragmentary, or 
defective, whereas it is used in all the tenses. Finally, it will be 
seen that Manx is not included in the table. I have not noticed 
the usage in the dialect, but my search, if such it can be called, 
has been very meagre indeed. 

J. H. LLOYD. 

Howth. 



" S^ib '00 chtiit isin cIiaiicaiii." 
Thesaurus PALiEOHiBERNicus, ii. 290. 

jA^ib t)0 cuil mf A.n 5CA|^c^i]i : ni 'omc-fe clutti n^ con^ix) ; 

Thesaurus PALiEOHiBERNicus, 11. 293. 

triif e ^guf P^nguji b^n : CeACCA^ji t)irin te' gno t)e-5n-6.c ; 
biotin ^ tTieA.ninA.-f A.n te f eitg : ITI0 the-6.nniA. f em Lem' §in-ceipt). 

C^jiA.im-'pe fOf If ciun-6.f : Im leA^bjii^n x>o Idiji-fcivu-OAt) ; 

Hi fOjim'OA.c liom pA^nguji b^n : CA.|iA.nn f6in 6. c^ijit) ihA^c^n. 

nuMjt A. bimit) — ^fce^t g^n fcif : inf ^n t)ci5 1 n-&|i n-ein-t)if, 
bionn A^gA^inn gA^n cjiiocnA.t) <5leA.f : ni-b te ngl^iitc^jt i.^ 
nglice^f. 

5nAc uA^ijie^ncA. ^.j^gjieA^f A.ib 5^1 : 50 te^n^^nn tuc -oi tion-'pA.n; 
TJuiceA^nn c|ti.c im Uon-f a. f6in : fo-ceifC t)eA.CA.ijt le t)o-c6itt. 

C^^ice^nn-f ^n a.|i pjit) bA^tt^ : a jitiifc t6nte tiicih^jiA. ; 
C-MCim f6in te fit fe^f a. : mo jtuifc jtigne jtb-geA^tA.. 

b|i6t) t)o-f A.n te t)6ine t)ut : nuMji innt^nn tuc n-^ 56Ajt-C|ttib; 
TluA.ijt ctngim ceifc -de^c-Mii -dit : t)Mh-f a. ce^^nA. Y ci3if i^tif. 

bio-b 5tj|tb MhtA.1'6 -duinne gn^^ic : ni bA.cA.nn cAc te* compAin ; 
inA.ic tinn A.|tA.on gn^ i.^ 5cteA.f : ca.c in A.onA.|t ten' A.oibneA.f. 

CtrniA^f niA.ic A.i5e-f eA.n ca. : A.f gnb "oo-gni 5A.C ^A.n-ti. ; 
Ajt t>eA.CA.i|t t)0 t)^A.nA.rh 5t6 : t)eA.5-mA.i5ifcnt feA.'d mife. 

triife, 

r6llt1A 'O'AISCRlS. 



DANIEL HUA LIATHAIDE'S ADVICE TO A 
WOMAN. 

THE following poem has already been edited and translated 
by Windisch in the Berichte der KonigL Sachs. GeseU- 
schaft der Wissenschaften^ 1890, p. 86, from the copy in the 
Book of Leinster, p. 278 a ; but the discovery of another copy 
containing some important variants as well as an additional 
stanza will justify a new edition. This second copy is found in 
the Trinity College MS. H. 3. 18, p. 731 (paper). 

Daniel hiia Liathaide is called abbot of Cork and Lismore 
by the Four Masters, according to whom he was mortally 
wounded in A.D. 861. The language of the poem, if purged of 
certain Middle-Irishisms (such as no qii.i'oem (3) for O.-Ir. no 
cjii^ioem, gijf^ (6) for gigfe, coiTnt)iti (ib.) for coimt)it), pA.t)A. 
(ib.) for p^oA^ic, i^ig-pu (7) for ^igce or -iigce-pu) and restored 
to an earlier orthography, may well be that of the ninth century. 

My rendering will be found to deviate in several details from 
that of Windisch. In the second stanza the reading mi^cbeiti 
(ix. mi. Acbepi) reduces the number of syllables to the requisite 
seven ; while, in the last half-line, nefpi ^]t has to be read with 
synizesis. It is evident from Windisch's remarks that the scribe 
of the Book of Leinster, or a corrector, has altered the faulty 
t>i.t in the second stanza to f ^-o, though this does not appear in 
the facsimile. 

KUNO MEYER. 



F 2 



68 KUNO MEYER 



oc -6. coctuguio-f oTTi. If Atit) A.fbe|^c* fotn :— 

1. "A ben, betitiA^dc fOjtc 1 nA |ti.it) 1 

itTniAit)ein t)-&il [m]biii.t-6. buA.in : 
-6.CA ejid^i-d. fOf c-6.6 t)tJit, 
^cAgtiit t)ul 1 n-tiiji n-u-ft^iji. 

2. " 1in|ii.it)i bi^if cen bjtig tnbtSi, 

If fUA^idnit) ni giif fpifngn^,' 
wAcbq^i-pu* bit) iti.t)* f Af, 
bit) neffu A.f tnbAf fiu 'niAii|i^. 

3. "A ti-Aiiident) pt -^ji -6.|t' cinn 

b-d^t) tneboji linn, 6|tim' ng^nt), 
flint) CIA no® 6f i.it)ein in Wg, 
bA^cin -6.icf 15 If* cif tM.. 

4. " tli<5et) ni f en-Mm ^f cot, 

v^m At)pcef *® a^ t)05nef , 
n^ wi^v f^igbe-fu" iA.f pn 
n^ c-6.bf -6." A.f ben, a ben. 

5. " I/61CC" tJA.1t) inni cont)-6.c-pt, 

t)o** duic in-nein nA.6-6.f-f en, 
f Of fief -6.nl n'O^ 61115 t)oc ctg," 
bent)A.cc tSMtn-p beif , a. ben. 

6. " ITIeffe*' cuffu, cuffu ni6, 

^S^t^f -^i5t)e pi-6.t)A. fo, 
5Uit)-p, gigf A^" iti CwTntJiu c-i.it), 
A. ben, n-i fi.it) ni Af*' m6. 



1 txw L. » JiiT L, T)x. H. » w H, fl\ir5ti< L. * w H, iiifi*Acbe|ii|nti L. 
» xfc H, t)ikt corrected into x^ixi L. • sic, H, a L. » «tf L, epAim H. 8 om, jj 
• ip H. ^^ sic L, T)AniAcpcef H. " sic L, hac fo^bA-pti H. " sic H. 
tAbf o L. " L omits this stanza. " 01 H. " wc cij H. " tnip H 
" jw L, segfA H. »• AfA H. 



DANIEL HUA LIATHAIDE'S ADVICE 69 



Translation. 

Daniel Ua Liathaide, erenagh of Lismore, spoke these verses 
vrhen a woman was entreating him. He was her confessor, but 
she was soliciting him. Tis then he said : 

1. " O woman, a blessing on thee ! do not speak ! 

Let us meditate on the doom of eternal judgment ! 
Perdition hangs over every creature, 
I fear to go into cold clay. 

2. "Thou meditatest folly without lasting value, 

Tis clear that it is not wisdom which thou servest, 

If thou speakest, it will be empty talk. 

Our death will be nearer before it come to pass. 

3. " The end which awaits us 

Let us remember ! a short journey ! 
If here we aggrieve the King, 
We shalP rue it in yonder land. 

4. " I will not sell Heaven for sin ! 

It will be paid back to me' if I do it, 

That which then thou dost not find 

Thou shalt not give for a woman, O woman I 

5. " Cast from thee that which thou hast, 

Thy share in Heaven do not sell. 
In God's safeguard go to thy house, 
A blessing from me take, O woman ! 

6. " I and thou, thou and I, — 

/ dread, dread tAou the good God, 
Pray thou^ I shall pray the holy Lord» 
O woman, say no more ! 



1 With do/m, * we shall be,' compare atin, * we are *: atin budig de, YBL 1 29 b 23. 
' Cf. adfUhtr^ pass. fat. of ad-fenim, Wb. 20^ 7 : portabit iudicium .1. digail 
4. adfether d6, * there will be retribution to him.' 



70 KUNO MEYER 

7. "Hi.* bi-pu ^\\ feitg tieic n^c tnA^ic, 
•oiig ifioc-ctii|\fe in Tpl^ic 6^\\ eel, 
Aig-pti, i^gtif C|\ifT: cen cm, 
T1-& jto tA.mu|\ C]iif c, ^ ben ! " 

" bit) fi|\ on,'' ot pp. tlo flecc p fojt ^ bic-'oenm^.-'pom in 
ejiec |io b6i 1 1nbec-6.1t). 

^ H omits this stanza. 



DANIEL HUA LIATHAIDE'S ADVICE 71 

7. " Be not on the chase after what is not good, 
Since the Prince will put thee to death ; 
Dread thou^ I dread Christ without sin, 
Whose malediction I do not risk,' O woman ! " 

" Thus it shall be," said she. She bent her knees because* he 
was ever pure' as long as he was alive. 

^ For the construction compare mac mnd ndd festar ciUy * the son of a woman 
whose mate will not be known,' Imram Brain, 26. 

2 for = ar. 

3 Cf. airchindech doaimgair a bith-d€nma .i. a bith-^aine, Laws v. 124, 3 ; and 
see O'Dav. 757 (Archiv ii. p. 321). 



Cxiitue cecimr. 

Book of Leinster, p. 208 a. 

I N spite of the archaic flavour of its language and the numerous 
* glosses with which the scribe has furnished it, the following 
poem cannot be much older than the manuscript in which it is 
found, that is to say, the first half of the twelfth century. This 
is shown, among other things, by several of the verb-forms and 
by the use of niA.t) as a monosyllable. It belongs to the same 
class of compositions as the Ossianic poetn beginning Cuitpci-p 
mo ve\\c6. fti^n published by Windisch, Irische Texte^ 1., p. 162, 
in which rare words of b^pl^ riA. plet) are used instead of 
SriAtfocl^. 

KUNO MEYER. 

C^ilce cecinic. 

1. bee innochc luch mo t)^ Iua,i 
|\o fecA.|\ mo cho|\p if cu-6. : 
|io po niMch |Mch -6.t)Ani jtent)^ 
noco' cdp'-ft^chc in Ui.tcen'o.* 

2. Ilop-f ^ ch|\ib mo t)^ uImj,* 
A-o^m ^et)* im' chA.IV cul^ig,® 
^t)Am bji-MCC* conbiAC-Mf b-Mt)b, 
ni|\pTAC [m'] x^i|im[-p] c^w ulA.15. 

3. tlAv ltii'Oin[n]-fe t)e m^|iCA.ib, 

^|\ ^1155^° ni^T)" |iopf ^m f0|iCA.il, 
•oobe]iinx) culu^' a|i S^lic*' ptro,^* 
jiopf A.m si^iiTo 5|^int) ]ii h^jicMb.^* 

4. tnifp If ^n^^ ^^^ Vii^'Oj 

tiopf-6.c comchuibt)e a|i cecA., 

^^ ngnim^ jiopf^c mA]i^, 

/yji mb-6.5A |iA.pf A.C becA.. b, 



1 1 mo T>A clioirr ^ •^- ^° ^^"^ ^^^^n- ' ^^^co Facs. * .1. Pac|mc 

« .1. o.r)Am lAtn ^*» -l I'^^c^ '' .1. rp^ntetx i^ .,. ^oni^c 

13 1. AtA einec)i »* -i- propnum »* .1. 1m liAiAccib 



c-ditue ceciniu 73 



Translation. 

1 . Small to-night the vigour of my heels/ 
I know that my body is flesh' : 
Good was the running of my feet, 
Until the Adze-head* came. 

2. Swift was I on my feet, 

In my head my eyes kept ward, 

My arms were wont to feed the carrion crow, 

My weapons were not without a shout of triumph.* 

3. I used to ride* on steeds, 

Over any champion I prevailed," 
I used to guard the honour of Finn, 
Fierce, fierce I was in straits. 

4. I and Oisin the son of Finn, 
Our blows were dealt in unison. 
Our deeds were great. 

Our boasts were small. 

< Literally * of my two heels '; but to translate so would be as wrong as to render 
the Welsh dwylaw by * two hands.' 

* cua .1. re6il, O'Clery. a i.e. St. Patrick. 

4 This line is one syllable short in the original. I have tried to restore the metre. 

» A present ttiiTMm, *I go,' developed from toD, *I went,' also occurs in 
Aift-inge tlleic Congtmne, p. 89,* 4^7 coiittiT>ini fechA); and the sing, imperative 
(Ltiix> -06, • go to ! ') is found ib., p. 53, 13. A future too|rAniAt\ is in LL. 109b i. 

G f A|\UAit instead of fopuAit, for the sake of assonance with mAf CAib and 

]lA|\CAlb. 



THE LEABHAR OIRIS. 

THE Leabhar Oiris, or Book of Chronicles, which is here 
printed for the first time, as I believe, in the complete 
form in which it has come down to us, is mainly an account of 
the battles of Brian Boroimhe from the accession of Maelseach- 
lainn in 979, followed by short annals of events to A.D. 1027. 
The work has been attributed by O'Reilly, O'Halloran, and 
Hardiman to Mac Liag, the bard of Brian Boroimhe, whose 
Life he is said to have written. O'Curry contests this in his 
Manners and Customs^ ii., p. 116, though he is willing to admit 
that the Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh may have been the com- 
position of Mac Liag. No doubt O'Curry is right. The evidence 
in favour of Mac Liag is not convincing. It is a Munster 
compilation, evidently by a zealous partisan of Brian, as is 
shown by the omission of his less successful exploits. It has 
been used extensively by the compilers of the Dublin Annals of 
Innisf alien, many of the entries coinciding. 

It was from the Leabhar Oiris that O'Halloran drew the 
materials for his account of Brian's reign (Htslary, ed. 1728, ii. 
234). He cites it frequently, and refers to it as the Leabhar 
Oiris^ or Book of the O^Maokonneries. O'Halloran must 
have had before him some other MS. more complete than any 
I have been able to examine, for he includes several episodes 
that I do not find in these MSS. Moreover, he states that 
Mac Liag ends his work with the abdication of Donnchadh in 
1064, and doubts whether he could have lived so long. Mac 
Liag died in 1021, according to these Annals ; in 1016, according 
to the Annals of Ulster. All the copies of the Leabhar Oiris I 
have seen end abruptly with the year 1027. 

Hardiman published the two poems beginning |rA.t)A. 15eich 
5A.n A^oibne^f ^nn and tlA.ctimA|\ A.n oit)che ^.tiochc in his Irish 
Minstrelsy, ii. pp. 202, 208; and he quotes several passages, 
§§ 33» 34, 3Si 49i SO« and 51, in his Appendix, where he hesitates 
not to say that * no nation in Europe can produce so old and, at 



teAbAti omis. 75 

the same time» so pure and perfect a specimen of its vernacular 
dialect.' 

The Leabhar Oiris is also mentioned by Charles O'Conor of 
Belanagar, in his Dissertations on the History of Ireland^ p. 249. 
The very volume,^ indeed, from which our text is taken was once 
in his possession, as a few lines in his handwriting on page 302 
testify. 

The text here printed is preserved in one of the O'Reilly 
MSS. in the Royal Irish Academy, formerly classed as No. 13. 
5, and now known as 23 E. 26. It is a paper folio of 361 
numbered pages, with ten unnumbered pages inserted at the 
beginning, partly copied by Richard Tipper of Mitchelstown, in 
the parish of Castleknock, who has set his name as compiler 
(1717) on the title, and partly by the well-known scribe, John 
MacSolly, of Stackallen. The Leabhar Oiris occupies pages 
194-207, and is in MacSolly's handwriting (date 171 1). This 
seemed to me tc present the best text Other versions, more or 
less incomplete, are contained in the following MSS. I have 
examined most of them, and collated some. In no instance^ 
however, have I given all the variants of a MS. 

(2) The Seancha Mutmhneach (pp. 240-275), transcribed by 
Tadhg O'Cronin in 1739, and preserved in the Royal Irish 
Academy, where it is classed as 23. N. 30. This MS., referred 
to as M, runs closer to MacSoUy's text than any of the others, 
and is, I think, next in importance. (3) MS. 1 287, p. 59 (formerly 
H. I. 13), preserved in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, 
a paper folio transcribed in 1746 by Hugh O'Daly, and referred 
to here as D. (4) MS. 1280, fol. 64 (formerly H. i. 6), also in 
Trin. Coll., Dublin, and transcribed by Hugh O'Daly in 1758, 
according to Cat., p. 285 — a badly-written MS. It is here 
referred to as E. (5) MS. 1296, p. 214 (formerly H. 2. 5), in 
Trin. Coll., Dublin, transcribed by Dermod O'Connor in 17 12. 
At end of Leabhar Oiris another hand has written ''Daniel 
O'Sullivan his book per me scriptum." For description of 
contents, see Cat., p. 314, et seq. I have consulted this MS. 
occasionally. It is not so good as the preceding. It is desig- 
nated in the readings as T. (6) Egerton 105, in British Museum^ 
fol. 296, a nineteenth-century MS., once in the possession of 
James Hardiman, who has inserted a list of the contents. See 
O'Grady's Catalogue, p. 25, where it is described as a copy of 



7^ R. I. BEST 

Academy. I have not been able to collate this MS. (7) MS 
SnL' a r^*^'^"*^ ~"*"'-y' •" the Royal Irish Academy, con-* 
Sown hT^T""* ""\^P- ^^^' § 33 to end. scribe's nai^ not 
S MQ ""'^T" *"''''"**^ •* *° J°'^" Lloyd. I have denoted 
Tl^Z t '^•''^- ^3- G- 25 in Royal Irish Academy, al!; 
cln^T ^'""'"g «° rosr^*. § 47. and ending with § 53 
Consulted occasionally, and denoted by G. (9) MS 23. M J7 

W "^'"'f 5°' '" ^y^' '^^ Academy, dso a figmem 
begmnmg § 43 and ending with § 53. transcribed in 1776 by' 
JohnOConnell. Designated by Y. (10) MS. 1289 (fonnerly 
H. I. IS) m Trin. Coll.. Dublin, known as the Psalter of Tara^ 
and transcribed in 1745 by Tadhg O'Neachtain, contains a short 
account of the battle (p. 735). I have consulted it occiontlTy 

IZ '\^:^J^ *" ^' ^* '" *''"°'* ''^^^'^ ^>th another recen- 
swn m MS. 1329 (H. 3. 10), p. ,53, in Trin. Coll.. Dublin 
«»ghteenth century. Besides these, there is a number of romantic 
yaies describing the Battie of Clontarf ; they are enumerated 
jn M. D'Arbois de Jubainville's Essai d'un Catalogue, p. 60 
They are not so sober in colouring as the Leahhar Oiris\ but 
are closely enough connected. 

A versipn of the Battle of Clontarf,' much the same as 
that printed here, appeared some years ago in the Gaelic 
Journal, vol. vii., 1896. This has been of service to me in 
preparing the present text. The MS. from which it was taken 
is not cited, however, and the. Annals preceding and following 
the battle are omitted. Some episodes not contained in the 
Leabhar Oirt's are giyen ; for instance, the appearance of 
Aoibhinn, or Aoibhill, the banshee of the royal house of 
Munster, on the battle-field, along with Dunging O'Hartagain, 
and the metrical dialogue which follows. An interesting account 
of this is contained in MS. 1289 (H. i. 15), Trin. Coll.. Dublin. 
It is noteworthy that Aoibhinn is not mentioned in the LO., 
thoi^h reference is made to her in the Cogadh Gaedkel re 
GaUaihh (p. 201). 

I have not endeavoured to construct a perfectly uniform text. 
Wherever I have departed from MacSoUy's MS., I have indi- 
cated his readings by MS. at the foot of the page, except the 
following changes, which I have made throughout :— 1, • in,' for 
A ; CA for 10 in such words as 4iiiionn, pciot) ; ai for ui. 



especially in dative plurals, such as fe-6.]iuib, &c. ; |\i, *king/ in 
the nom. for \S% ; omission of final 16 in such words as o]i|\a.'6, 
&c.; in-6.oilttiti -6.1*6, in^oitfe-6.chtAir)n,inti]ich^t>-6., in gen. sg. for 
in^olTnti-6.'6, 11lA.otfeA.cht-Mtiti, inti]ich-M'6 ; 5c, 'oc in eclipsis for 
cc, cc. Marks of length, which should, I think, always be used 
sparingly, have in many cases been omitted ; on the other hand, 
I have occasionally supplied them. The aspiration of proper 
names in the genitive is carried out only sporadically by our 
scribe, and none of the MSS. are consistent. This is always a 
difficulty. As the editor of the C^ch Clu^n^^ U^i]ib in the 
Gaelic Jour, truly observes : the rule that such aspiration should 
take place is an eccentricity. Here, then, I have nearly always 
followed the MS. I have added an index of names and places, 
which may be useful for reference, and inserted the dates from 
the principal Annals, FM., AU., &c. 

I must express my indebtedness to Dr. Kuno Meyer for 
many valuable suggestions; and also to Mr. J. O. Bergin, 
who very kindly read over the proofs with me. 

RICHARD IRVINE BEST. 



teAbAii oitiis A5tis Ati[n]xiU ah cosctiAib a^us 
AH cAchAil3 ^itteAtin Atitiso sios.^ 

9u. 979. I. i^AttAnn A.x\t\o •ootnini f6 btiAi6rt^ reAchcthog^t) ^|t nA.01 

2. Co^^t m6x< te 'Oothn^ll tn^c V^oUin jtfg riA. tit)§i|^» 7 
t» ti1otb-6.li" phtiifc ti^iitge ^11 b|ii^n b6|toinie m^^c Cintieioig 

je^-OA^lt* CofC-6.ch 7 tiiini6ii* Uluni^r), -oo loifge^-o/yit 7 t)o 
^il^ge-^-o^f , 7 '00 hion^f bA.'b* T)oThnAtt m-6.c f-^oliin 6^ Chttii6.ifi 
^^[n^b-Mtt* 50 «-^ -dtiif che^ch.* 

3. Hug bttiA^tt 7 Ci^n >7 triMche ttltitTiMi 01^1^^, 7 chug^o^it 
•odib -6. Vi^n" mic C^oinfe^ch/ gtif fo rhwi'o'* -6.|i $^lUib, 7 guit 
leA.n/y'b* i^t) 50 pojic Ui^se, '50 t)ctJ5^t)^ii i.|t 5^U,» guit 
loifje-^-b* 7 5ti|i h-iotiit^-b ^ n-own, 7 t)o h-ion^iAb^-o' t)onitiA.tt 
6 b'P-^oti.in -6.' intithi6.in -6.tyi-6.ch. 

1 D— leAbup tpre ASUf -AhaU a|\ cogAib ei|\ioiiii Aimfo, 7 50 w6^th6|\ ai^ 
tAt/b. CtiJAn CA|\bA<>, 7 Aip An lAo6|\oit>e x>octiic Ann 7c. 

M— 6^n teAbAp Oipir 7 CUAftlfjbAll CaICA dltlAtlA CA1|\b, AgtJf AnAtA<> A1^ 
CoiSeAT>tllb 6lt\10riT), A5tlf ClOI1l1f5tiA<>, Agtlf C|\AObf5AOlleA<) Alp 

iniceAdcuib AH dAifce t^n CltiAiiA CA|\b Agtif tfl^ije 5tiai<>e, niAt\ 
leAiitif. 

T— teAbA|\ Oipir AgUf AHaIa A|\ dOjAlb HA Il6l|\101111 7 dA^Alb 7 ClOtlfgUA* 7 
C|\A0lbf5A0lleA<> Ap ^AC ClUAHA UA1|\b, ^ A|\ tlA lAO^Alb t)0 CtllC A1111 

fonti 7c. 



1. 1 cceAT>tiib M. 

a. 1 xi^ M ; t)^riT)e MS. * b|\A5eif D ; t)AiiAip E. 3 ^^^ ^ 

*-* om. M. * f6|\Hi6p D. • <)ibi|\ ft ax> DE. ' w E ; MS. and 

M 7 ; A T ; 50 D. 8 |MotiriihA|\ M. • om. DE. 

8. *-* DE om. 7 wAiclie to CA0in|\eAc1i ; T om. from 7 ctitigAT>A|\. « jti: 

MS., M. ^ MS. Thui J. * leAti lAt) iiia nt)ttncAib M. »-« om. TM. 

• itiA|\ At\ toif5eAT)A|\ 1AT) 7 5«P t)4b|\eA<) 'OortinAU 7c. M. t t)ib|\eA<) M. 

« Af An TD. 



teAbAn omis 79 

Itntig lubA^iji* 7 Ait'odeA.tl tnuth-M) uile 7 i. cu^ch^, 50 ti^ch 
coin5bAt)A0if 5-6.'OA.i^* ti6 tuchc ^^5c6|t^ ^chc -6.n ni6^'0 'oo 
cheit)e6ch-6.<> t)li5e[i6]* t)6ib t)o chon5bi.1t.' 

5. Stu^5 bfe^jt tnuih^ti te bjti^ti 7 te Ci^ti m^JO tn^d^oil- 
tTitiA.1'6 1 n-Ofp-Mge,* •OA^jt 5^6.^-6.^* g^ott^ pi.'OitA.ig Hn^^c 
'Oontich-6.16^* |ti OfpMge, 50 bpiA.i|t 56itt Ofp^ige uite 7 ^ fm. 982. 
|t6if fAn,* 7 50 t)C-in5^'0A.|t -o-i |t^5 Iz-MgeA^n i* -oa^ b|ti-Mn .1. 
'Ooniti-6.tt CWon 7 Hl-^otmdp'bV 50 'ouu^^'o^it 56itt 7 b|tA.i§De 
•66.' 

6* Siting bfe^jt UluthA^n* te bjti^ti 7 te Ci^t) -6.|t tyiui|t 7 A|t 
c^|t "50 gcobt^^ch 6 tiB^ch^ch 7 Cho|tcAttii56e 7 phtJi]ic 1/Ai]i5e 

7 Cho|tc^i$[e] 7 'OAt 5Ci6.if* 50 toch T)e|t5-*6ei|tc, 50 jimV f 6 
c|ti c^A^t) i6.|tch|t^ch* Ann ; 50 nt)eAch-M6 -^f pn c-6.|t' Sion^inn 
50 Loch Ha^/ 7 A. ftuA.5 A.|t ci|t, juji Aiii5eAt)A|t 111i6e 50 
h-tlifne^ch, 7 b|teifne' c^jt ^ch tiA.g* T^-^r ''^^ chtiA.16 cuit) 
.t)o'n q^tu-^s* 1 5C0nnA.chcA.1b 50 n'oeA.iin-6.T)A.|i*® A.i|t5ne 7 
qteA.chA. ni6|t-6., 7 5U|t niA.|ib p-6.t) tntii|i[5]if niA.c" ConcobA.i|t |ii au. 988. 
Conn^^chc, ttl-Ac Cof5-M|t |ti iA.|ich-M|t ConnA.chc, 7 ni6iti.n 
t)A.oine eite.** 

7. Stu^s oite t-6.* b|ti-6.n '7 te CiA.n* 50 1110511-6.16 tnuitiA^n 
umpA.* 50 pope X)i. Ch-6.oni65* 1 5coinne ltlA.oitfeA.chtA.inn mic 
T)oninA.itt* mic t)onnchA.6A. |i^5 4i|ieA.nn, 50 nT)eA.|inf a.c fich* : 998. 
A. |iA.ib 'CO b|iA.i5Dib Leiche' III05A. A.5 inA.otfeA.chtA.inn -oo 
t:hA.bA.i|tc t)o b|tiA.n, 7 a. |tA.iV vo biiA.i5Dib Leiche Cwinn A.5 
b|iiA.n 'bo chA.bA.i|ic 'CO 11lA.otfeA.chtA.inn .1. cuit) ITI05A. ni3A.6A.c* 
t)'^|iinn** A.5 b|tiA.n, 7 cuit) Cuinn A.5 inA.otfeA.chtA.inn." 

4. » gAbAT>Aj\ T. » om. MTD. » liof ED. *-* om. TE. 

* MS. i^AOAigci. • xAAi ^^- ' S**!^ btiAi|\c, t\i btiAi|\eAj{i ah aoi\ cfUge 
fATi t)6ifiAn adds M. D reads : lonntif haA hiA!b Ann a6c ah tn6it> do beic ha 
Iti^c t>lige, A^tif cei|\c DO ^on^Ait, A^tif t>o tn\i a|\ AigAit> dum bioceAthnAd, 
A^tif i^Atmt^At) T>o 6ibeA|\c. Similarly EX. 

6. » Om. T. » £Abf AT) M ; 511]% $AbAT)A|\ TDE. »-3 om. TDE. 

* 7 cttg geiU Doib T ; 50 cctig geiU <>6ib D. » 50 cig M. « Cog. Gaed. re 
Gall, reads UUACAt |\1 ia|\cai|\ tijbi for niAotm6^t>A. "^ £T read : CAnSAT)A|\ a 
fin 50 Rig tAigcAii Ajtif 015 geilt Apjf b|\Ai jioe <)oib jam piipeAd 7c. 

6. » Om. M. «-• om. TDE. » |\ii5 D. * a^caA MS. ; ACUffAcli D. 
« CAit\ MS. • R<g MT ; RioJa E. ^ ah bp^ipie D. s ^^a Uaiti D. 
» Hi6|\tUAj TDE. »» i«)eA|\iirAT) M. J» tiiA T ; D. . 1* niAile 
|\i6 7c. T ; itiOTHAT) leo 50 foit^p M ; tnAitle n\i6 D. 

7. ^ sic MS.; eile le TM ; oile ]\e E. »"« om. DE. ^ i„Aitle n^fti D. 
« jk: M ; 6A0H105 MS. ; om. TDE. * om. T. « om. D. 7 VeACA T. 

8 pAibfAD MS. » ftl6gA n^iT) M. »o t)0 t^ipiiin MS. " T reads : Ajtif 

T)0 CCU5 t). AH WeiT) DO b< DO b|\AlgDlb tCACA CUItlll DO tt\. 



8o R. I. BEST 

8. Alt n-e^s 'Oorhn/yill ChlA^n,^ jtig t^ise^ti, t)o bAt>A.tt» 
AcliA Clinch 50 h.^^iiTi|iiii.|t4Kch t)o bpiAti, 50 nt>ei^|ttiA* b|tixi.n 7 

S^ill Ach^ Clinch 50 lochl^nn^ib, 7 tnA.otni6ttt>A niAc 
mu|tch^<)^, |ii Uige^r), 50 Uigtiib 'n-^ gcoinne; 5ii|t ctii|teA^ 

ei|te^nn 7 5Aoii6e^V Uise^n ; 7 tn^olmotfoi^ m/yc tnii|tcliA.'6A 

"• 999.iubAti ^nti^v'; 7 T)o le^n^^^ n^ g^iU 50 b/yite ^ch^ Clinch, 
7 'OO ti-AiiAje^t) e it>i|i 'OAOinib 7 ni-<yoiimb, 6|t* 7 Aiitge^x) ; dip 
niojt pA5bAT)A|A tochUnn-Mgn-Aoni n6 tieiitie/y-di** no ce^U ulf ^.t 
n6 UAiTh no oiUn 1 n.6i|iir)n 5-6.11 -6.115^.111 ; 7 ctiiJ5 b|tiAn 7 
Ci^n 7 tntiinitii5 uile at) ThA.ich" pn Uo -6.|i chuUib xyyt 
chioniAin>' i-6.|i TnAfb-6.t>" A|i-6.ilc mic Anit4>.oib" 7 Ch^jiotur^ 
mic. 1115 toctiUnn, 6 n-6.bA|ichAn cloi'oe-d.ni Ch^itoluf^," 7 
Chtiilein ei5innAiTi,^« ^|it)itiao[i]|i tochUnii-6.ch, pe CA.ttlinn 
Uti-Mf , 7 billon 7 p|i tnuThAn -^p -6.r) 5CAtUinn" pn 1 n-^cti 
Clinch. 

9. C615 c-6.ch-6. pctie-^t) M n-^n ciiei5T)e-6.'6 a ch-6.ob fein ^ 
t)0 bpif b|iiAn A|i S^ll^ib 7 Af $4yoit)e-6.l-6.ib 1 r)-6A5niAi|' ^ 
Tit)e^^pti4i.'6 t)0 5|ieA.fiiib* 7 •o'lonrif^i.ischtiib ; 6i|t ni |t4kib 1 
ti-^iitinn -6.on-iTi6.c 1115 no CA.oip5 ti^^ch 'oe^yptiA'D pch te 
tochl-^nti^Mb -6.chc b|ii-6.n bojioiirie' -6.nii.in. 

10. tlo 6.n^ biii-6.n 1 t^isnib 7 1 trifoe 6 noT)t-6.i5 ihoitt 50 
fell bfiS-oe *^5 ^ ti.ion[n]ttA'6,» 50 'ozv^ a ns^iU teif, 7 5U|t 
toifs' Colli ChorTiAi|i T)o chonn^-o,* 5U|i ^61-615 be-6.Ui5i» 7 
•04Mn5ne L^yise^n. 

11. ^tlo elo-o Anil^yoib [ni6.c]' AnilA.oib pi $4^11 ^ite^nti 6 

8. 1 DTE om. t>. Cli. ' MS. x>o Ua ; |\o but TME ; 6T; bA 1i4 D. 

3 DE om. 50 t. * tit)eA|\iitiit) M ; nt)eAc1iAit> b. 7 a fltiAg 50 5. m. DE. 

6 niAtnAt M ; niAtmA-b ED. ^ DE omit itom 1 h-ajx cuja* to AnttAf. 

7 5aiU M. ® 5«r TT^otiAt An caca a|\ $AUAib 50 I1-6.CA cUac DE. 
9 6iit MD ; lowiiiitir oi|\ E. ^° bAiiAoHi E. " liiAiclieAf M ; a WAicior 
mle D ; 7 015 b. 7 0. WAtw a 7 a|\ oi^t ^AUuib XiAriAi|\ E. " comAmc M ; 
om. D. ^^ MS. rtiApbAt. 1* Jir M ; AihUoitfi MS. w DE end 
here. *• CtiileAtiti mc ^igeAiiiiAin M. " Ai^t ccaIaiht) fin Sza cIiaic M. 

9. 1-1 om. DE. * St^Afttib MS. ; SpAfuib M. » t)|\iAn ti6 
SiocTiioa, jxios UlAt M ; tiAp geiU t)0 bpiAti Adc SicpeAd wac tt^g tlU* 
AtfiAin DE. 

10. 1 t^n M. *"- o»n- I>E. » loif M. * doiinAit\c M. 

4 ^eigi-b beAUigci MS. ; beAltiiSce M. 

11. » D and E omit what follows down to 7 chug b. 



* -6k. WAC A. M. 



teAbAn oinis 8i 

chA^rh* $tinr)e Uli^m^ Af S^ch i^\^v t)'a ch6ite 50 hAo'6 6 
tl^itt, 7 t\\ bfu-Mit ^ '61011 Aige n6 ^5 CochA.116 A|tt)5Ai|t,* 50 
T)COit|ti6.chc 1 gcionn jtAiche i* t)ceAch 'bitiA.m, 50 t)CU5 a. |t6i|t 
T)o b|tiAn 7 fe fftn 1 iiibich-i6itp C|t6 bioch^ fio|t*; 7 chug 
'bpi^ti iJ|ilAihiJf' -^ch^ Clinch 166-f-Mi |te n-A. lAiih. 

12. *T)o 1^15 b]iiMf) in^olni6|t'6^ MH^ch CA|t che^titi b|tA5At)Au, looi. 
l/Ai$eA.n, 7 chu5 pig l/^ije^n t)6 1 11-^5^116 'OonDch^'bA mic 
"OothtiAill Chl^om." Uhi^iDig b]ii^n iA.|t pn t)V rhe^ch/ 7 

A|t t)ceA.chc x>6 1 mtith^iD t)o |tinT)e^t)^|t t/e^ch Ctuni) c^ipot 
ctoch CA.|t 6iZh l/iiAiti, A|\' e^jt^ 50 n-6.chAt)if* coblA^ch b|ti^iii 

13. *SttiA.5 te b|ti^ii 7 te Ci^n 7 le fe^p^ib ITItim^ii 50 au, 1002. 
hAch tiiA^iT), 5ti|i ofg^it pA.t) A.D c-MpoV 7 5«t^ SA'bAt)-6.|t 
b|tA.i5t)e lilA<)iifeA.chi-Mnn ttl6i|i 7 CoriD^chc mte 1 if)-^otit6 

14. Slu^5 te bpi-Mi *7 te Cimi* 7 te fe^p^^ib tTlutii^ii 7 
ITli'oe um itl^oitfe^chtAitin,* 7 50 fe^jt^ib Wige^n 7 Cotiti^chc 
7 goitt ^ch^ Cti^ch '7 phui|tc l/^i|t5e,' •00 g^b-iit ^i^tt 
tlt^i&; 50 t)CAitiis A(y6 niA.c t)onin-Mtt 1 tleitt Y^ Oih-^ 7 
0och -6.1*6 tyiA^c A|\T)5A.if' \^\ tlt-^t), "50 t)CU5fA.t) c-6.cti C|t^oibe 
Uutch^.* *x\-^ jcoinne, 50 "ocuj b]iiA.D ci^ni-oe 'btiA.'6nA' '661b, 
t)o ^^A^DAih coThA[i]pte A.n c^ch T)ob6A]ii'oif u^ch^ ti6 A.11 
b|tA.i5t)e.' 

15*. Co5a6 Tn6|i it)ni Ao-o in-6.c t)othnA.itt 1 tl^tt 7 Boch-^m 
m^^c A|tt)5Ani' 50 t)cti5fA'o cA^ch C|iA.oibe Uutch^., 1 n-A|t 
niA|\bAX> Ooch^m 111A.C A|tt)5^i|t' 50 D-i^p tlt^'6 tiime 7 Chin6it au, 1004. 
gCoD^itt 7 -oVit chuic t)onin-6.tt m^ tleitt* 50 n-Ap Chin^t 
^oj^in 7 A. bpi^ii-6.T)A.p* 'oo foch-6.i6e ^|i 5^ch teich. 

» A ccAicli M. * ifj> fieAps M. » 50 M. * biocli flo|\ M. 

^ MS. o|\tAititif ; bAile A. C. |\e ha tAitfi \^n gAti bp^A^ M ; t>o |\{$ ^aH 
ei)\ioiiii D£. 

12. »-» om. DE. » 6ir M. » Aip MS. « w MS., E. 
5 CA|\ Aif MDE. 

13. i-» om. DE. 

14. »-» om. DE. * om. M. ^^ om. DE. <-* om. M. 
^ etiAippt> ti^iHi cpiACAi) ttlAt Apif Si6|\iod itleApdAlniA niAC fiiof tllAt> M ; 
SiqieAd itleAp^AlmA fiif uLao DE. ^* om. DE. ?-? om. M. 
* A ccAOib dAiCAy 116 ^eitte, t>o CAbtiipc t>o p^p A cc6thtiiple M. SLuaJ eile 
te bt\iAii A tAjntiib, gup bAiti piog li^^eAn -00 iSonndAi) wac niAoilfeAdltiiiiiiy 7 
cu^ T>o fflAotni6^f>A niAc fnti|\6A6 1 adds M. D and E somewhat similar. 

15. * D and E om. } 15. « Aips^oD tAiHi M. « AipgiOT) Jai|\ M. 

« t1^T> M. ^ ^O bpiA)\AT>At\ f AT> fOdAlOe TH) A1)\ gA^ teiC M. 

6 



82 R. I. BEST 

16. Stu^s 50 n5Alld.ib 7 50 n5A.oix)eA.l^ib eitte^nn 6 Sti^b 

fi^itine 6i|i 1 Ti-A p^ib pche unje 1 ii-A.tnifA.iiri ^.p ^Lcoitt 
Au. ioo5.^^it)AinA.chA.; 7 -oo chtiA.'OA.|t A.f fit) 50 tli.ich ttl6n\ ^ 111 015 » 
tme, 50 •ocugfA.t) giA^lto. 'OAil-nAp-M'oe 7 tlWt)' teo. b^r 
OocliA.i'o hi IplA.nnA.sA.in* ppiothfeA.nchA.i'6' ^|\T>A.niA.chA. 7 
4i|ieA.Dn A.n btiA.'OA.in pti. 

17. bpiA.n 50 n-A.* ltluimneA.c1iA.ib 7 l/A.i5neA.ch[A.ibp 7 
ConnA.c1ic[A.ib] 7 TTlit)eA.ch[A.ib]' 7 uin ltlA.olfeA.chtA.inTi 50 

Au. ioo6.n5A.ttA.tb-^chA. CtiA.ch 7 phtnpc l/Aifje 7 4ifeA.nn uite CA.|t* 
6A.f|t UA.it) A.nonn,* 50 t)cu5 jeitt Chin^it 6o5A.in 7 tltA.i5 teif 1 
inuniA.in.* 

18. StuA.5 te bpiA.n* 50 bfeA.tiA.ib ^ifeA^nn uime 50 
h^t)niA.chA., 50 •octig jeitt tItA.'o A.f eigin 6 'FtA.it:hbeA.|tCA.ch 
htlA. tleitt.* 

19. CA.chA.t 6 ConchubA^if fi ConnA.chc t)'eA.5 1 n-A. 
AU. loicoitichjie, iA.f t)Ctiei5eA.n A.n cfA.05A.1t v6 A.f '61 a.. h^y 

ltlA.ottfeA.chtA.inn' 1 CheA.fbA.ittf 15 6o5A.nA.chc[A.] l/OchA. tein 
7 pf loihf Aix> 6if eA.nn 1 n-6A.chA.i'6 -oa. eo.' •StiiA.5 te bf iA.n 50 
CtA.ontoch Steibe fuA.it) 50 •octij bf A.i5t)e Chin^it eo5A.in 7 
Chineit 5ConA.itt 7 tltA.x> teif.' 

20.* StuA.5te ITItifchA.'o tnA.c bfiA.in 50 bfeA.fA.ib tT1uniA.n 7 

AU. ioii.t,A.i5eA.n 7 50 hlb tleitt A.n -oeifceif c, 7 50 [bJ'ptA.ichbeA.f CA.ch 

TnA.c int1ifcheA.fCA.15 fi5 Oitig 7 50 n-65A.tb [A.n IpoctA.],* 

t)'A.f 5A.in Chineoit t/Ui5[t)]eA.ch 7 Chineoit 6nt)A.,* 50 •ocu5f A.t> 

btiA.if lom-OA. 7 bfoiti teo A^f. 

16. 1 Ai\t)AiiiAaA MS. * MS. ni6i5e. » cuilleAT) EDM. * h\ toiiA^Am 
MS. M. ^ p^4oiiifeAndA'&A M. 

17. » 50 A MS. » USneAclitub M. ^ ni<<>Ad MS. « CAip MS. 
* eAfittJA'b M ; AfiAtin MS. • 50 pAib A5 CAbuipc geill din^il eo^tim, 7 
tllA mte leo, 116 gup teAii Sic|\iod wac |\<oJ uIa* iat) joha fltiAg, 7 50 cmg 

CA1C f{o|\dAtniA t)o bpiAti 7 t)A fttlAj, 1l6 JO |\Alb f^ Alg 6l|\teAd t^AlcCAIf , JO 
qi^An, 50 bf ACAi'b b]\iAti An n< fiti, 7 ajx f AbAil a fi6i5, t)0 |\iti dtmnAOite niAp 
A ccug At) t>eA'&tAoA btfb fCA^p f An n jp^n, caic x>o imceAdcA x>^ d^te, 7 cug 
bpiAn t)i. Aipe ctinitif 7 ^Accofj An $AifjeA<>, Ajtif nAp bf ^t)ip a H&b a6c U 
bpiAcptiib, noA t>o Aai6 bpiAn Aip, a ccAOib CAbApcA DO CAbttipc T>o, A ccoinne 
riA n^tt, 7 c6ihfiACtir ^o beic cADCopcA Ajtif do p<n AthtAii) pn M. 

18. ^ 7 te SicpioA adds M. ' jonAt ccujADAp geilt V, ftiAf t>o pig nA 
cp{£e .1. tltAi^ M. 

19. ^ niAoiftiCAin FM. AU. ' An eAAt>eo M; a^u T>i ^o D ; eAcliAib 
t>A eo E ; eAchAit ti bo MS. ' leif 50 foil^p adds M. *•• om. DE. 

90. * om. DE. ' om. MS ; An n-olcA M ; in ^ocIa AU. ^ Aom>A M. 



leAbAti omis 83 

21*. Slu^5 le bpi^n 50 ITlAijin A.n Chonuinn,* 50 "octij au. 1012. 
in^ol|\u^nA.it>' 6 inAoilt)0]i-6.i'6 teif 1 inb|t-6.i5t)e-6.nuf 50 Ce^nn 
Co|t-6.'6 |\e n-A. choii pein. 

22*. SluAJ t^ b]iiAn 50 III-6.5 tTlii|icheiiTine, 50 t)cii5 
bitAwij-oe 6 |\i5 O1I15' 7 6 tllcA^ib, 7 juji fAJA^iV •6a jtij ^p 
tltc-Mb ; 7 If ^11 ATI filing pn chug bpi^ti 7 CiMi ni-6.c Hl^oit- 
nitiAwit) 7 UlAotfeAcht^inn 50 m-Mchib l/eiche* Cuinr) fAOi|tp 
T)o cheAtl^ib 4i|ie-6.titi 50 h-uiie. 



CAltAitin Atino t)omitii inxiii.* 

23. SltiA^g Ia. in-6.olin6p'6A 50 l/Aijnib 7 t^ 5^^^^^^ ^cIia a^- "^'3- 
Ctii^ch 1 ITIi'oe, 5ti|i -m^ij p^^t) Ue-^iim^nn f^ichin* 7 Hl^g 

24. Slu^s 1-6. in-6.olfeAcht-Mnn -o'^ •biojgA.itc pn h 5qtich 
gi^tl, jup toif5 50 h6-6.t)-6.ni ;* 50 ]iti5 SiC|iioc Tn-6.c Athl-6.oib '7 
Tn^otinop'OA tyiA^c 1Tlti]ic1i6.'6A. a]i ^^iiiinj t)o'n cfiii-6.5' gu]! 
m^Hb^'o -oi^ che-6.t) t)tob' utti "pL-Mnn tn^^c 1TI-6.oiife-6.cht-6.inn.* 
UAinig tn6.otfe-6.c1ilMnn 50 b^ti^n -d'a. jge^it^n pif 5^^^^ 7 
L^ignij •00 beich 1 5C05-6.t) |iif, *7 -00 i-6.|if b]ii-6.n oV fti|icA.chc. 
X>o ]iinne b^ti^n ftti6.5 bfe-6.|i ITItiniAn 'o*fOfton5pho|ic a|i 
SA.tl-6.ib 7 ^n l/Aignib, 7 t>Vi]i5eA.'o-6.|t Of|t-6.i5e* ; 7 'oo chu-6.1'6* 
tnu|\chAt) TTiAc b|\iA.in 50 Citt tTI-6.15ne-6.nn' 7 50 f^ictiche 
^ch^ CtiA.c1i, 7 •00 ^1115' An cip 50 Ue-6.nnionn C^im^n,' 7 chuj- 
A-oA^ bitAij'oe ni6|\6. 7 c|te6.ch-6. lotn'bA 1 jcoinne D|ii-Mn ^^50 
Citt ITlAigne^nn" 7 50 fAichche ^ch-6. CtiAch. 7 vo f-6.n 
bpiAn 7 pf tnuiTiAn 7 p]i Conn.6.chc 1 bfOftonjphopr 6 l/Ujnti- 
fA['6] 50 TlotjtAig iTi6i|i,7 n'l bpi-6.i|i c-6.ch n6 bjiAijDe 6 $Att-6.ib 
no 6 l/-6.i5nib.^® 

21. 1 om. DE. ' niAj CopAimi A.U. ' niAoi^tiAiiA mS. 

22. lom. DE. 'tJUtM. »MS. fAijAib. *UacaM. 

* -&i|; f o t>o ctiAi|\if^e HA m&fi tA66|\oibe t>o CAintiicc go caca CttiAii UApbA 
"00 gAd ieic Agtif t>oii £AtA peifiy 7c. D ; -^g f o t>o dAC CttiAnA UA|\b ec DOtiA 
ppiortitAodAib t)o ctiic Aktin t)0 gAd teic E. 

28. ' f etcin MS. DE. ^ 5A11 bAOif ai|\ f ca* jAd i^ipT) t)<ob, ^ah wotA- 

bocA<> Ai|\ <)uine, 7c. M ; a|\ f eA'b 5A6 cut^Ay 7c. D. 

24. 1-1 om. DE. «-» om. DE. ^^^ob MS. * tmac m. om. M. 

**' D and E omit what foUows down to OfpAige. • M inserts SicpcAcli w ac 

AnitAOib |\<oJ 11 Ia* 7 m ; SicpeAd wac p<g U. E. ' D and E omit 50 Cill ftl. 
* AipgioDAjx M. •feicin DE ; CAimint) M. 1^"*^ om. DE. ^itllAnAinn M. 

H 



84 R. I. BEST 

A.0. 1014. 25. Uh^inij b|ii^n* lAp pn -oV chij. t)© chui|te^t>^p 
5^itt 7 I/A.151T1 pof 7 ceA.chc-6. AH S^ch leich* tiAch^ t)0 
chion6t' fluA^s 7 foch|\tii'oe. 

26. Utii^iDig Ar>npn b|\ot)A.|i 7 Afg^-b-^l, -oa* niA.c jttg 
1/OchtA.nn, pche cb^v tA^och li^n 'o*ei'oe-6.'6* 6 ihtitt-6.ch 50 ti^f ; 
7 Sit:|iioc tnA^c l/O'OA.if , iA.|it-6. Innf e h-0|\c, 50 fiw^g Innp h-Oftc 
7 oitei^n lochlA.tinAch, 7 Itirife C^c,' 7 ltl-Mf)Aitine, 7 Sgichi, 
7 l/eo-dtif A,* 7Cliin[n]t:^f e,70i]ii|i 5Aoi'6eAt,7Co|i[n]biie-6.chtiAi5 
Chitte Ultiine, 7 Coi|t' tiA. 1^1^505 50 n-^ piog^ib uite. 

27. Uhi^inig chucA C^jiottif 7 Aibpoc/ •6a fiontinig* tx)ch- 
lAnnAch, 7 Arif A-d itiac dbitic, 7 ptAic* 7 ConniAol, t)^ 
^lA^An-th^li-b l/OchlATinAch, 7 Afs^t tiiac 5ofP'^[i]'6/tti Uhi|te- 
Ati-cSneAchcA, 7 tiAch riA loinjfe, 7 tAoch|tAii6 l/OchtAtiti 6 
tiA jAOchlAigiV tn^o-beoDAchA,* 7 6 Steibcib tlifpe 50 b^ite 
>^chA Clinch t)'A |ieic f6ir) Ap 6p 7 aji AipjeAt)/ t)0 chtim 
CAch^' 1 n-AgAi-b D|iiAin 7 fteAchcA* 605^111 itldip *'*7 SAch^" 
th6it) T)o fjteAjAiit lAt) T)'feAf Alb 4i|teAnn.*® 

28. Uhiinig 1 n-A5Aii6 b]iiAin AtiDpn UlAotmon'OA mAc 
111iJ|ichA'6A 7 |t^05|tAit> 6i|teAr)r>^ uimey c|ti cAchA* .1. Af gcup 
D|tiAin AinAch vo itlAotfeAchtAinn ttloit ad oi-oche ^loithe pn, 
7 A|t ti-A innpti T)6ib T)it jCAif 50 ['o]c|tiAn fttiAig flcAchcA 
6otAin ltl6,iii 7 UluithneAch' A|t c[h]eAnr) chjieAch* l/AigeAn, 
7 O jCitiDfeAlAch, 7 t)o 5eAti f^in 50 bfui5feA'6 bpiAn 7 
pche c^At) teif t)0 ltluithti[eAchA]ib,* t)o feAchtiA'o 1 r^-AgAi'o 
SaU 7 tAigeAii.* 

29. 6 't>chuAtA'OA|t 5^^^^ t)|tiAD t)o beicb A]i fAicbctie 
^chA CliAch 1 n-oi|teAchctif, c-in5At)A|t* f6in 7 l/Aigin feAcbc 
5CAchA 'ti-A 5C0intie,* 7 t)o |tointieAT)A|t 1 T)Cfi |iAnnAib ia-d, 
iiiA|t Aci 'LochlAtitiAig A|t teich urn chtoitin 1115 l/OchlAtiti, 7 
l/Aigmg um ltlAottn6|i'6A ttiac inti|icbA'6A 1 jCActi eile, *75oitt 

ta. > om. M. HeAfc M. • » ciri6l M. 

S6. 1 MS. i}i, *tA0d CAlniA<> cu^aca T>'^n>eA<> ptACA £. ' Cac MS ; 

Caic DE. * teofA^) D. » CobA^ D. 

87. > Awb^toc tArDi|\ MD. » fiotin^ioj MS. ^ pIac M. ; .'OoIaic Y. 

* SofjiA M. » ^AOctAdAib D ; SA6clACib E. « itieAumtiA^A M ; 
meiybiiA^A DE. ' A)\pot> MS. ® 6um qtooA 7 caca E. ^sic MS ; 
cfieAdCA ME. »o-io om. DE. " 5A6 M. 

98. ^ tA^eAn tiile tiime M. > TED omit what follows down to ^cotniie, 

i 29, line 3. ' fflmihneAcli MS. ^ dpeA^A M. < ifl^iHineA^ib M. 

• U^eAd M. 5^ ^<»<«f . 

29. ^sicM; cAiiSAT>A|\ MS. *DET continue here from q\1 ca&a, { 28, line 2. 
>-» om. M. « Aii\ 11-A ccoidim du^A M ; iao AifilArb pn D. * ccot>iiib M ; 



AchA Cli-6.ch led f^in i jcA^ch oile.' A|\ n-^ bf-Mcpn -oo Oi\i-6.n a.d. 1014. 
f^'n •ocoichitn pn chtii5e,* vo |ioinn f6in a. flud^j 1 •ocpi 
cocch^ib' : tn^|t ^ca/ ITItnich^'o mA.c b|ti^iti 5011*^ ci1eA.5l-6.ch, 
fe^chc bpchic ni-6.c ^105 ^ lion pn, 7 ctiitic1iA.t) ced^o' -outh^ij 
A.n p|i If® ttiJA. •ouch-6.15 •610b pn'; 7 Uoi|itf6e6.tb-6.ch in-6.c 
UiM-oj, 7 130111116.11 ni6.c ConctitibAif , 7 "^16.1111,*° ceicli|ie nteic 
01 te bpi6.in, 7 ct6.TiTi t)uinnc1iu-6.in, l/on5b|io5-6.n," 7 CeitiochAi^^ 
7 Ce6.TiTi6it)i5, 7 pA.n56.l-6.cl1, 7 1otir)]i-6.chc-6.ch 50 mA^ichib *6^it 
gCA^if tiiine A^juf Uu6.chiTitiniA.n, 7 "c]ii ^15^* Ue6.bcliA. 7^' 6 
L^.o'OA.SA.ir), 7 giollA. tllcA.in, 7 6 CA.]ich-6.nA.ir), 7 ConniA.ictie, 
7 1 b]ii6.in 1 ti--6.5-6.i'6 chioinne ^15 1/OclitA.nr), 7 D]iot)-6.if 1-6.|tt-^ 
CliA.i|ie 6b|\oc, 7 Sicfic mA.c Lot)6.i|i i-6.]itA. Innp hO]ic." 

30. Ci-6.n tnA.c inA.oilTTiti6.i'6 50 triA^ictiib t)e6.fiTiuniA.ii 7 
fte-^c1lC6. 605^.111 ltl6i|i ; 7 T)otiin-6.it nl-^a 'Ouib'OAboif eA^nn, 
|ii Cliin^it 1/^.056.1)16 ; 7 ^TTlochl^ in-6.c 1pA.otiiti,* |ti ti-6. nT)eife ; 
7 *TntinicheA.|iC6.ch m-6.c AnA.tnchA.'OA.,* ]ii 6 1/iA.chA.iifi ; 7 
*S56.tii6.ti ni-6.c Ca.c1i-6.iI,* pi l/Och-6. tein ; 7 *l/Oin5fe-6.ch tn-^c 
*OunliJiTi5,* |ti 6 5Con-6.ill $A.biiA. ; 7 *C.6.ch.6.t niA.c T)ofin-6.b-6.in 
|ti 6 5C6.if b|ie* ; 7 *Tn6.c beA.cl1-6.15* mic ITItiiiieA.'OA.ig,* pi 
CiA.HliA.15e' l/UA.cli]iA. ; 7 *5^ibeA.ntiA.cli* inA.c T)ubA.5-6.in,' pi 
b'PeA.ji tnui5e ; 7 *CeA.|ibA.ll,' 7 6 tltiA.'6A.5A.iii, 7 6 t)ub5A.nA.,* 
c|\i H15 O1p5iA.ll; 7 11lA.5tii'6i]i* |ii b'PeA.ji inA.tiA.cli, 'a.]i n-A. 
pA.*© -ooib : ©Y pnn fi\r\ cui'oeA.chcA. if f A.i'oe hut cIiua.i'6 A.iin 
fo -o'^if inn, f A.cliA.TTiA.oi'o 1 5CA.CI1 Ch^in mic ITlA.oiltTitiA.i'o, 6'f 6 
If fA.it)e but* •oeA.f •o*6i|iinn,^ 1 n-A.5A.1t) ttlA.oilthdp'OA. inic 
tnufcliA.'OA.,® H15 l/A.i5eA.n, 7 *bA.oi6A.in' tnic t)unltiin5, ^15 6 
5ConA.iil iA.f cliA.i|i l/A.i5eA.n, 7 tnic UtiA.cliA.1l f 15 l/iffe, 7 mic 
bf 65A^in b-6.in|ii5*° 6 b^Mlge*, 7 ca.c1i •00 1/OclilA.nnA.ib 1 n-A. 

bfA.fHA.t). 

flttA<) A bpAiiiAib D. « DEM insert here Sic^ioA wac |\<oJ ttt^t 7 m. 

' i:eA|\Aiiiti adds E. * ah dtiit) pA M. • pr\ om. MDE. ^^ M reads C. wic 

CA'big itic '06i{iiiuil>t, 7c. The true reading appears to be that of K : Coip'beAtbAd 
mAC m. 7 La t)eA|\b^AiC|\ib tnic b^iAin f6in .1. t)oniiiAl.i, Coti6ubA|\, Ca'd^, 
7 t^lAtin, etc. T and E omit from * 7 flAtiii * to Mohh^acIicacIi,' and from * 7 CuAch.' 
line 9 to * bj\iAiti,' line 10. " sic MS. t)uirifieACAitin .1. tonnA^jAti M ; tx>n- 
tiA^gATi K. I*-** om. M. " sic MS. ; .1. M. ** aii gApb tAod, wop 6aIiiia adds M. 
80. ^-* om. DE, i.e. the names of the various kings. E omits reference to the 
ci\4 1\^ J Oi|\§i Ait. * bcACAi]^ MS. ' CiAjxi A<) MS. * 5eibneAcli wac MS. 
* 6 C. M. «niA5tiibi|\ M ; X)om. map wac Sui-bip D. '-T omitted in TDE ; 
but here D inserts A^uf ]\4J tutAch 65, AjtJf mAolni0|\<)A O nAgtiillij |\ij 
ConriACCA, 7 Ai\t)niAip AfjAl ftoigce ConnA^CAi 7 mAotptiAnAit) tiA bpAiT)peAd, 
6 h6i<)i»i, |\4g tntJititicip ^t)in, 7 CAppiiAdAn. 8 in. iwc m. om. DE. 

» X>AO^^bA^r\ M. w bAtip^ge M. 

H 2 



S6 R. I. BEST 

A.D. 1014. 31. Ca^cIi^I mA^c Conchub-M|\, |\i ConnA^clic ; 7 'tnA^olitu^n^m 

6 hei-oin,* |\i Ai'oiie; 7 U^'oj 6 CeAltA.15, |\i 6 Wd^iTie ; 7 ^Ao-o 
6 lpld.iclibeA|\CAi5,^ 111 tritiinr>cif e ltlti|\ch^t)-6. ; 7 *Cotichub<i.i|t 
6 TTlA.oilpuA.iiA.i'b, pi TTluije l/Ui|\5»;* 7 tntiipc1ie-6.|\c^ch» 6 
Ce^llA.15, 111 ChoniTiA^tcne Tn^|\^; 7 cuit) •00 niogit^i-o inurii4i.n 
ATinf A. clinch fo .1. ^Ao-o gtiine^cii 6 t)uti5A.ile,* 7 Ipoj^nCi^cli 
m^c 'OoninA.ilt/ t)^* |\i5 eite ; 7 ^intii|\cheA.|\c^ch ni-6.c Cuijic,* 
|\i TTlufcit-MJe ^b|\eo5^ir) ; 7 Aox> Tn-6.c l/Octit^iTin, \\S 6 
jCu^nA^ch; 7 ^mAolfititi, |\i 6 r\6r\v^^ ;^ 7 t)onTic1i^'6 tn^^c 
CA.ctiA.ll, Y'^ miifcpA^ije hAo-bA ; 7 ^T)oTtiti-6.tt ttia^c 'OiA^nmo'CA./ 
|Ai Cho]ic-6.bA.ifciie' ; 7 ^eA^chcigeA^pn m-6.c 'OoTi[n]A.5i.iTi/ |\i 
ApA.'D, 1 n-A.jAi'o 5-^^^ ^cli-6. CtiA^ch, 7 v^ ctiA^ch oite toch- 
lA.nnA.ch* 'n-A. bf A.|if a.i6.' 

32. 'Oo lonnfoij Tnti|\chA.x)* 7 'Oa.L gCA^if 7 nA. l/0c1ilA.nnA.i5 
Aw cheiie; 7 "oo lonnfoig CiA.n niA.c tTlA.oilTTitiA.i'D, 7 niojj^A.if) 

T)eifCei|\C TnU1T1A.n, inA.0lTTl6pt)A. niA^C tnUltchA.'OA. 50 flOJjlA.lf) 

l.A.i5eA.n uime,' 7 50 gCA^ch oile t)o SA.llA.ib* uime ; 7 -00 lonn- 
foij CA.chA.i niA.c* Conc1iubA.i|\, *pi ConnA^ctic, 7 UA.'og 6 
CeA.llA.15 Soill -^chA. CliA.ch 50 n-A. 5cA.cliA.1b -oo 1/OchlA.nnA.ib 
niA.itle |iiu ; "7 A.p n-A. ]iA.t> •00 D|\iA.n nA.ch 6 •oei]ieA.'6 t)o 
chuif fCA.'o teif A.n 5CO|i5A.f'/ •out 1 5CA.CI1 -oo rtiA.|ibA.'6 •OA.oine, 7 
■oo f A.n 1 n-A. phtipA.ilt* fein, 7 a. pfA.lcA.if 1 n-A. pA.'bnA.ife,* 7 ^ 
ctif ofp5it 1 n-A. tA.ith clili/® 7 ^ ^5 CA.ncA.inn" a. pf^lm 1 n-A. 
fiA.t>nA.ife.*' t)o f6A.cti tTltifcliA.'o t)'A. leich -o'^if lA^f n-A. 
feA.chnA.t) T)o tTlA.olfeA.clilA.inn 7 t)'feA.f A.ib nii-oe •oul leif A.nn- 

f A. c1lA.ctl, 7 1A.f 5Ct1f " gUlf C eOC^ff A. 7 A.n CA.ctl, 7 A.f 5CUf 

bfiA.in 7 iTiA.iclie tntiiTiA.n A.n oi-oche foiihe pn A.niA.ch -oo 
1/OclilA.nnA.ib 7 t)o 1/A.i5nib,* 7 •00 clionnA.ifc 'OtinlA.in5" 6 
hAfCA.5A.1n uA.it), 7 -oo chuif f A.ilce ff If , 7 chu5 P65 •66. « If 
fA.T)A. 6 -oo chonnA.fc" chu, a. '6unlA.in5,"^* A.f TTIufchA.f). '*1f 
beA.5 A.n c-ion5nA.'6 pn," A.f 'OunlA.in5/* 6if -oo bi *^beA.chA. 5A.n 
Asoif 5A.n uf chf A.," 7 neA.TTi iA.p inbf A.ch x>A.iti, munA. t)ciucf A.inn 

81. ^-* t.e. personal names of kings om. DE. ^ MS. li^igin. 2 7 pig Con- 
mAicne C6ite adds D. * nitii^6eAi\CAc MS. * Aot)A JoitieAC M. 
^tA MS. «lieAtinA M. ' CopCAigbAifgne MS. *T)a d^At) t)^^^ oile 
■oo t. S. 'dtiiii niA|\bA<), 7 6i|\li5 x>o T)eAtiArfi 7c. adds M. 

82. ^ SicpioA add MDE. * |\iogpuite -oeifceipc mtitfiAti, p^§ IaiJcau ED. 
^ toelAtiiiAC BE. * rtiic M ; 6 DE. * jzV: ME ; MS; inserts 7 pig C : 
D reads 7 cAOifeAcli ctointie fiot ITlAolptiAtiAit) 501II Aca cUac. «-«om. DE. 
"> gcApjuf S ; ccA]\gtiif M. spobAl MS. « MS. fiAJnuip. ^^sic MS. 
" MS. cAimcAinti ; jAbAit S. "MS fiAgtiuife; om. K. "om. M. 
»* MS. t)ubluin5 also DE. i^uac ^aca M. »8-»«om. TDE. 



teAbAti omis 87 

t>oc' cliAb^if-fe -6.11111 7 •00 ch^bA^iji DpiAin ; 7 ni rAi|tbe" •OA^m a.d. 1014. 
r emetic, 6i|i -oo 5e-6.1I)A.i]i-p, 7 bpid^n, 7 Uoi|i|\'6e^lb^ch "oo 
tTiA.c-fA.," 7 Ua-oj 6 CeA.liA.15,** 7 ConA^inj mA.c 'OunchuA.m," 7 
mopATi oile -oo liiA^ichib 6i|\e-6.nn ^\\ che-MiA., bi^f ^.tiiu ; '7 -oo 
bei-o'if fse^lA. A^gA^TTi pe -6. n-innpn 'oi. m^^x) 6^m xyA^m 6; y 6 
TiA^cVi eA.t>,* •oingeob^.t) A.n feA.|i cothtAinn c^a.t) if t)oil5e le^c 
ic' A.JM'o •oioc."*^ "U]iUA.5 pn ^.th," -6.|i ITltnichA.'o, "oiji if 
iomx>A. pn im' ^j-M'o-p A^niu/' UtiA.nt-6. 1Tlii|ichA*i^ 7 ConiTiA.ot 7 
Ca.|i oluf -oV cheile, jtif 5oineA.T)-6.f a. n-oif e -oo jA^ch leicti. 
5oineA.f 7 iTiA^fbuf THufchA.^ iA.t>-f-6.n -6.fA.on.** T)o bi -6.n C6.ch 
A.5 A. ctiuf inA.f pn feA.t)" A.ti Ia.oi, 116 jtif ihui'o" -oo riA. 5A.tlA.1b 
T)'iA.ff A.it) A. long, 7 Uoiff6eA.tbA.ch niA.c intjfchA.t>A. 'n-A. 

ITOIA.IX)** ; 7 if A.nitA.116 •00 bl A.f tl-A. lTli.fA.ch, **7 '^6\X f A.01** 7 

5A.tt 5A.chA. tA.irTie'* t)6, 7 cuA.itte t)0 chof A.16 ChtuA.riA. UA.fb 
cfiT), A.f n-A. bA.chA.t) 'Do'n btiinne fA.bA.fchA. 1 jcionn a. chui5 
TnbtiA.t>A.n n'oeA.g. 

33. 6 '•ochonnA.ifc TTlufchA.'o Sicfic inA.c 1/0T)a.i]\, iA.ftA. 
Innp hOfc, A.f to^f 'OA.it 5CA.if A.5 a. n-oifteA.ch 5A.n ttiA.t) 
ceiche A.i5e, t)o tin5 A.f tA.f A.n chA.chA. chtiije 7 chug -oa. 
buitte 1 n-einfeA.chc t)d* A.f a. x>a. t^iih, 5tif ceA.fjA.t)* a. 
cheA.nn 7 a. chof a. 1 n-einfeA.chc •oe.' 6't)chon[n]A.if c* Anf A.t> 
mA.c Cibfic* A.f tA.f 'OA.t 5CA.if A.5 A. n-oifleA.ch, tingiof 
chui5e, 7 6 nA.ch f A.ib A.f a. chumuf* A.fin •o'linif c, A.f f5otcA.'6 
tA.'of A. A. 5tA.c -oo TTiu[5]t)0fn A. chtoi-oiTTi foiTTie pn, pneA.f 

" MS. CAi]\bA. i« 7 SiciteAd DEM. i» D and E om. C. 6 C. ; 

D om. Coti. m.X); E reads t)undt]AnA. "^t)© cdgbAit woe ME. 

2» t)o 5AC gum D. " Ap feAt M. 23 mS. miii J. ** nt)i ai§ MS. ; the 

remainder of this section is omitted in E. D reads Ati f eA]\ 01115 nibliAt)Aiii x>6a^ 
•Dob' feAi\ tim A ti-Aitnpp a n^ipitin. 2*-**om. M. ^^sic M ; tAiiii MS. 

88. 1 MS. t6. » MS. CAfSAt. » MS. *e. * MS. it) coiiAipc : 

DEM add SiC]\iod mAC H^oJ tllAf). *eibi]\ cp^Ati miteAt) IocIaiit) MED. 
* M reads: Aip ccumuf x>o Ai\m 'D*inii]\c ai]\, te cuth5|\A6 Iaoc 7 •OAOitie, 
glAcuf A cloit)eAih in A lyiotoiiMin, 7 firteAf a lAih dli duige, 50 ]\U5 ai^x 5I01- 
cinn A fg^ice, 5ti]\ |\o c]\oic a lui|\eAC te XMArtfOffA T)i. deATiTi awac, 7 gup 
buAil x6 tAti btiilte caIiha Aip. t)o fin -oa |\6inc 50 CAtAih te, 7 t>o cpeAfgup 
tiA c6At>CA WAitte f|\if niAp An. cc^A'onA. X>o b< ITltipCAt) Ai]\ An bfeAT) yo 
AweAfS lAodpA todlAnn t)A n-6i|\leAd, 50 ccApltiit) ScopdAX) niAC Hiog ponn 
"lodtAnn t)o. Agiif gup cuic le tUtipdAi), 7 in6]\i.n eite, 7 Aip ccuicim t)o 
Sco]\dA<) WAC Riog fionn todtAnn 00 cug f acat) t)o fgiAin a n-loccAp doipp 
TTIupdA-o, jtip CUIC An CAictfiileAT) Aip A liiuin. Aguf tiiAip mupcAi) 50 nt)6A]\- 
nuiT) fAOifCin, 7 5up jIac An copp nAOiiiCA. but) ni6]\ cf aic An ^j^aIa An 
tnupcA-o fo, 6ip niop ^aj fe piAfC ni. beACAX)Ac a tod nA a n-UAith jAn tjibipc 
7 niApbAD. 1 Aip ccuicini mupcA'b t)o <)i65uilc Sicpiod a bAf ai]\ lAOcuib toclAnn 
Aguf Ai]\ A ccAicmiteA<>uib Aip bpeAt) nA cutdA, t)A fspiof 7 t)A n-oipleAd. 



88 R. I. BEST 

A.D. 1014. ^ t-d^TTi ctili 7 qio[i]cheAf ^ lunAeActi' ca.|\ a che-6.nti -6.ni-^c1i ; 
gl^cuf ^ chloi-oe-MTi 7 e f -6.01, 7 lin5it> a. ucca.|\, 6 nAf Vei-oiit 
teif A buA.tAX) jup fAich zh\{\v 50 CA.lA.ni e. U^Mpngiof A.n 
c-AniA-^t) pn fgiA^n inti|ich-6.'6A. -6.mA.ch, 7 f A.icheA.f 1 ti-iochcA|i 

Av clltll]ip 1, 5tl|\ chuiC A.n CA.ctlTTIlll'O inU|lc1lA.'6 A.f A. TTltllTl ; J 

eipjiof THtipchA.'o 7 •oictieA^nnuf m^c jxij l,oc1itA.nn A.nii pn, 7 
•00 ihAiit fein 50 nt)6A.|inA. a. ^•A.oip'oin a.]\ ti-a. rTiA|iA.cti, 7 5ti|t 
chA.ich co|\p Cp^ofo, 7 -oo trieA.bA.it) a. •6|itiim if A.n rigA^ifseA^f) 
Do'n Aonjoiti pn a. cuja^'o a.^ inti|AcliA.t), 6\\{ nio]i fA.5® fe 
piAfc no beA.c1iA.t>A.ch 1 toch no 1 n-iiA^ini 1 n-4i|tinn jA^n 
t)'iochti]i no 5A.n inA.|\bA.t). 

34. 6 '•oc1ionnA.i|\c l/A.it)in* jioltA. b|iiA.in nA. cA.chA. ^\\ 
n-out cpi n-A. cheite,^ A.'ou'bA.i|ic \\e t)|\iA.n t)tit a.|i ca^cIi. " Hi 
ItAchAt),*'' A.]\ b]iiA.n, " 6i|\ ni beo iiA.chA.'o A.f , A^juf itnchij-p 
7 bei|i nA li-eich* teA^c, 7 innif mo cbiomnA.'-fA. "oo tDiA., x)o 
pbA'0]iA.i5, 7 mo cbofp 'o'-d|\t)mA.cliA./ 7 mo beA.nnA.chc •00 
'OonnchA.'o mA.c bf iA.in ; ca.]i cheA^nn t)A^' pchic tjeA^j bo -00 
chA.bA.i|\c® •o'-d|\t)mA<chA.* le mo cho]ip,' 7 imchij-p jiomA.t) 50 
Soji-o'^ Choluim Cille A.nochc," "7 CA.gA.it) a.]i cheA.nn" mo 
chtii]\p-p A.mA.]iA.ch/* 7 cionntA.CA.iT)" e 50 'OA.mtiA.5 CiA.nA.in, 7 
cionnlA.CA.iT)^* pn 50 LugmMg** e, 7 cijeA.t) inA.otmui|Ae mA.c 
BochA.it) comA.|\bA." phA.'opA.ig 7 muinnci]i Aji'OA.mA.chA. A.|t mo 
cheA.nn 50 ntiige pn." 

35. '*T)A.oine* chugA^inn," A.f A.n 510IIA.. "C]ieA.'o A.n -peopc 
'OA.oine iA.t) P" A.]i b|\iA.n. "T)A.oine 5tA.fA. lomnochcA.," A.|t A.n 
510IIA.. " 501II nA. lui|\eA.ch' lA.t) pn," a.|\ b|iiA.n ; 7 a.]i eiitje 
t)o'n pheA.lt t)o bi fA.01, vo 5IA.C a. chloit)eA.m 7 •do bi A.5 
feA.chA.in^ bpot)A.i|i 50 n-A. bui'oin chuige, 7 ni f a.ca. A.on h^XX 
ve 5A.n ei-oeA^t) A.chc a. fuile 7 a. chofA.. *bA.init)-fA.n* ^ 
chloi'oeA.m A.mA.ch, 7 cogbuf a. Iatti,* 7 chug btiiltet)6 gup bA.in 
A. chof chli •00 b|\o'OA.|\ A.5 A. jtun, 7 a. chof •oeA.f A.5 a. chitoig. 
diA.|\iA. ctiA.5® b|\ot)A.i]i 1 5ceA.nn b|\iA.in 5ti|\ "oluig ^Z ^tjg 

88. ' MS. luicpcAd. 8 MS. f A15. 

84. * tot)Aiiin M. ' M adds : 7 jAti Aictie Ag rieAC t)iob Aip f6ip4Jcin a d^ile. 
» |\eA6 M. * tno f6iT) D. ^stcM; ciomriA-b-fA MS. •MS. 'o'A^t)AmAdA. 
' MS. -bA. • om. ME ; A^t fon tn'Atitn At adds E. » D and E omit what follows, 
and continue § 35. ^0 om. M. i» AtriAipioc M. 1^" om. M. ^^mS. ceAiin. 
" dotlAicit) M. »« cigeA-b M. ^< MS. lu JniAi<). " MS. coniA|\bAt). 

85. ^ fin t)AOine, MED. ^MS. luicpeAd. ^MS. fedAin. *-*om. D. 
*bAinit)|'Ani M. «MS. cuac; cm a* MD. ^ lA^t cctiiciw t)o b]^ot)Aij\ CA|\lAt> 

cuA<) A cceAtin bpiAin gup ctiiaox)Ap a |\Aon \i6 lAitri a A6ite D. DandE omit 



teAbAti oinis 89 

bpi^n builte eile, 7 inA]ibuf A.n t)A.|i-6.* pe^ji t)obi 1 b|:oc1iM|\ a.d. 1014. 
Dpco^ilt, 7 b^itiix> ^ cheA^nn t)o b]iot)^|i ]:6in ^\^ A.[o]niiA.ii\, 7 
pi-M|\ fein b^f ^.tin pti.* 

36. TTloft A.ti fS^A^t pn 'oo |iinne-6.x> -6.tin pn, bpi^n t)o 

^ji LochiA.Dr)A.ib 'OO ni-6.|ibA.t> *7 t)'ion-6.|tb-6.'6, 7 ^p in n'OA.oip]^ 

X)0 bl A.CA* 0|tH-6.' T)0 Chup -diob/ 7 Ltl5-6.t> l/^Thp^T)^ ^]\ 

Ipotyibitch-Mb t)o ni^]ibA.'6 *7 t)'ionApb-6.'6 7 -^p -mi tit)AOi]ip 1 
^lA.b-^t)A|\ 4i|teA.nnAi5 ^c-6. -oo chti|i -oiob/ 7 ponn m^c Cuth^U* 
•o'f6i|iirhin* bfe^]i n4i]ie-6.iin .1. i^p "oce^chc -oo b6-A|i no t)o 
b6-'6ich chucA. 1 n-Aiinpn C[b]o|im-6.ic mic Ai|tc, 50 n-^p fAgb-^x^*' 
"DO bii^b 1 n-4i|\inn A^chc -6.on cf^ihuifg 1 n5^eA.titi S-6.thtjif5e,n6 
50 •ociig ponn fe^chc tnb^ 7 c^]ib 6 ch]iioch-6.ib -mi "oorhA^in thoitt 
T)o jAch -6.011 b-Mle 1 ti-4i|iinn, 7 605^11 in6]i .1. ITlog Hua.'6-6.c^ 
^m^c III05-6. Hei-o® -oo rAb-6.il* bfe^^jt n^ipeA^nn 6*n n50|\c-^.^° 

37. A|i t)ctiicini b|\iAin i-6.|i iribeich -oi. bli^'OAin t)^^^ t 
ifi-i.iHt)]ii5 4i|\ed.nn, 7 ltlu|iciiA.'6A mic bpiA^iti, ^n c--6.on-ttiAc 
11105 T F^^Pl^ ch 6.11115 ^ n^iiiiiti |ii-6.tTi,* 7 .6. itiic Uhoniji'oe-Atb.^ch 
inic 1Tlti|\chA.'6A, 6^10 fe-^|\ chui5 mbii-6.t>nA 'o^.^5 bu-o feAjiji 
t-Mh 1 n-A. -Mnip|\, '7 UbAix>5 1 Che-6.tl-M5, |\i5 6 tnA^ine,* 7 
ChoifiAin5' inic T)tiinnciitiAn,* 7 'OoihnAitt mic dbi|\/ 7 TTlochtA 
mic 'OomnAilt mic "P-AOtAin, ^15 n^ n'Oeife,^ 7 S^ibe-^nn^ig 
mic 'OtibA5Ain, ]i'i5 bpeA]i TTluise, 7 mic' beActiAi-o mic 
tntiineA'OAig, ]i'i5 CiApAi-be,® 7 S5AnlAin mic C-d^ch^it, ^115 
eo5AnAchc[A] l/OchA l^in, 7 l/0in5feAch mic t)unl.Ain5* mic 
tDtub-o-Aboijie-Ann, 7 'OomnAitt mic t)iA|\m 0*0-6., ^115 Cho]iCA- 
bAif5inn,^^ 7 TTI-AOilitUAnAit) 1 hCi-oinn," "1115 Ai^ne^^7 m6|\Ain 
•00 th-Aichib 6i|\eAnn n-6.ch AiitmimAOit) -6.nn fo.^^ 

what follows. 8 om. M. *M continues : lotncufA Sic]mo6, t)o b< 50 jluinib 
A bfuit, An CAI1 t)o contiAij\c bAf bpiAin cug a fAl leif AJUf 4 aj c6rtipAT) le 
PIac lAtin iAit)ip, ^np niA|\bA"6 4, 7 C|\eAn CAOipgc toctAritiAC niAi\ -^^^^ ^®T» 
Aip do|\ 5ti|\ •oiogmp ah fldg gAd gt Aguf ah uai]\ f^Ad Ai^t ni A]\bAt) b]MAin, if 
mu|\CAX> T)o ctiic An c-AnAm Af, q^6 WAp CACUi^ce nA n-oeoi^, CA|\piA Ai^t co]^p 
b|\iAin. 

86. »-» om. DE. « acca MS. 'om. M. *MS. CtibAiU. 
* MS. t>'f6ipi§in ; t>f upcAdc D ; t>foi|\inT> E. ^ MS. f ajat) ; a mot) nAc 
|\Aib D. f MS. nuAtAt). 8-8 om. ED. » MS. fAinAil. ^'^ng^ip, adds M; 
rhop J6p inA ]\AbAt>A]\ An cpAC pn 7c. adds DE. 

87. ^ but) feApp lAm Ann Aimpp a n^ipinn a6c SicpeAch AthAin. *-*om. 
DE ; 7 Sicpiod inic UloJ tllA-6, An cp^An tAo6 t)ob' fCApp a neipinn, adds M. 
3 MS. Conuing. * MS. 'OtiinncliAin. * eibpic D ; eitheipE. ® MS. nX)eipg ; 
mocAlA inic OomnAill pij nA nX)6ife D ; tn AogAlAd mic t) etc. E. ' om. MDE. 
8MS. CiApiAiT). » X)tiblwin5 D. 10 MS. CopcA bAifgncAt). '^MS. eiginn. 
^2-12 om. DE. i» The logical predicate of this sentence is wanting. 



90 R. I. BEST 

A.D. 1014. 38. Uopcti^ni* t)o*n teicli eite t)o'n cli^cti tnA^olindifOA. m^c 

7 A.on ch^^T) t)6^5 *7 pclie* -oo L^ijnit) in^itteiiiu. 130 niA^^ibA^ 
•oo tochtAnn^it) ^nn Cotitii^ot 7 CA^^iottif 7 An^iA.'o m^c 
6tb]iic,* cpi ineic 3115 Loclit^nn, 7 Sicpic m^c Lot)^iii, lAjttA. 
Innp hO]ic, 7* [b^io-o^^i] C^i]ie Aib^ioc, ptA.it) 7 Conni^ot, t>A^ 
ctiActitintit) toctit^nriA.ch, 7 Oicip T)ub, 7 5^11^. CiA^it^in inA.c 
Jtuini^p^inn, 7 5l^ipn,® 7 ttimin,' 7 Su^jA^ip,^® 7 Aihl^ob m^c 
L^igtn^inn," 7 T)ut)5A.tt tn^c AihlA^oib, 7" Cu^^iati, 7 fe^chc 7 
c^ii pchit) ce^t) 'oo S^^^-^^^ tiinp^," 7 •00 te^n^t) ^n ni^it>ni 
oi^i^ 50 -ooituf ^n •oun^[i]'6. 

39. 130* lompoig'o^li p]a Uluni^n 7 Conn^chc 5^ch ^p m^^\{ 
tSolb A.me^f5 ^n cli^ch^, 7 -oo b^'OA.p A^me^fj ^ jcA^itA^t), A.5 
i^^ijiMt) ^ gcojip; 7 A^f 6 coiti^[i]|ile •00 itinne Ci^n tnA^c 
tn^oitniu^it) 7 UA.'bj tn^c b]iiA.in, •out 50 Citt itl^i^ne^nn ^n 
oi-oche pn, 7 5^ch me^x) t)oV inteijif -oV tnuinncip itujA^'OA^jt 
led i^T). Uaii5^t)a.|i muinncut Sui^it) ^|\ n-^ tTiA.iiA.cti 7 i\u5A.t>A.]t 
cojip b|iiA.in 7 itlujictiA.'OA.' 50 SojiT), 7 A.f pn 50 t)A.ttitiA.5 
CiA.|i^in,'7 -OO chionntA.CA.'OA.|i muinnciji T)A.nitiA.5 50 'LujniA.ij 
lA.t), 7 cb-i^inig ItlA^olmuipe ttia^c BoctiA^it), coniA^iibA. pb^.'oitA.ij, 
50 tntiinnciii ^p'OA.inA.ctiA. a|i cionn riA. jcojip pn 50 l^ujniA^ij, 

• 7 T)© lonntA^cA.'OA.ii biiiA^n, -pi ^nieAnn, 7 Ocbcipn 1up:iA.c 
tiA. n5A.oi'6eA^l,7 impale 6iiteA.nn 7 AtbA^n 7 biteA.CA.n [7] SA.xon 
7 cot>A.* 'oo*n 'FitA.injc, ia.|i mbeich •66 fe^^chc inbtiA.'6nA. •oeA.5 A.]t 
pchic 1 ^iije 1TluniA.n, 7 -oa btiA.'OA.in 'o^a.s 1 ^iige 1161116^.1111, 
•oo'n CA.oib chiA.ji-chuA.it)* vo clieA.inpott ^ii'oa.ttia.cIia., 1 
5c6ni|iA.i'6 6.\\ teicb, 7 UluiicliA.t) 7 ceA^nn Cotia^itij 7 tVlochtA. 
1 gconipAit) eite 6^\\ teich. 

40. T)a oit)che 'oeA.s -oo fi.tiiA.t)* pliA.t)|iA.i5 A.5 \:^^\\e wa. 
gcopp pn 50 Ti-iotnnA.ib 7 fA.tmA.ib 7 CA^ncicib. Ceictijie 
btiA.'6nA. 'oeA.5' 7 ^^^® 5^r ^^ Aoine pn 1 n-A^p niA.|ibA.'6 bpiA^n 

M. * copc^ugA* D. *niAC bp6i>A]\ bAin D ; 7 a tuac b]\o5A]\bi.ti ]\<5 6 

bt:. E. 3 Dublumg DE. «-* om. E. * MS. DE bpic. « 7 bf oda]\ DEM. 
' MS. *A. * 3ripti D. •Itimiiiiti GG ; Unmiie AU ; Uiiniiti DE. 

^^ SuApc^Aip, AU. " tomAin ED, " 7 om. ED. ** D ends here. 

89. ^vo ]\6 DE. This and section 40 are considerably curtailed in D and E. 
' EM add 7 SicpeAd. ' leg, CiahAih. * q\eAbAiiA E. * M om. ciAi^t and 
ceAmpolt. 

40. > MS. fArtiAiJ. *i>6a5 om. M. 'MS. theAbAil. *ceACAH\ d^a^ 
A]\ mae ni6p K. « nA|\ dlo* S. « om. ED. ' MS. ctjif . * pjp cuic b. 
uim tiA ti^All D ; 5U|\ cuic b. a cCUah CApb E. Here the scribe of D has 



leAbAH 01 HIS 91 

7 ITlutichMo, ^n[n]^l^ ^n Uije^pn^ f^y m^|^ x)e^]ibtif 6.n a.d. 1014. 

Ceich]ie bli^ionA. 'oeA.5, if •oeithm, 
^juf mite 5^n me^bMt^ 
6 'DO f^f ti^ig 'o'i.f 5C^bM|1 
50 h^y bjiiMn 1 mbfe^JMb. 

A ceA^ch^ip •oeA.j mite mof* 
6 jein CfifD, n^ch^f^ chtox) ci^tl^, 
^f e pn If* feA5['6]4y ^n f^nn, 
5ti|i ctiuic^ ^p n^y nj^tt urn bfi^n.® 

41. t)o bAT)A.|i pf mite ^5 P^1T^i5[^] cu^fufg^b^t^ 
ch^ch^ ChtuA^n^ U^fb •00 ttl-^otfe^ycht^inn. "Hi h-UfUf^ 
pn t>^nnpii r\6 •o'-Mchfif," ^\\ fe, " ^chc mun^ •ociof^'6 
A^mge^t t)e -oo mm t)'^ innpn ; 6if ^•00 chu^m^if-ne (^.31 fe) 
7^ 'DO chui|ie^m^]i 5^1^^ cfe^bch^* 7 ct^t) e^'Of^inn 7 i^t), 
*7 ^Ti 5A.och e^f ji^ig' chA^if pb chujA^inn* : 7 ni* f M-oe no fe^t) 
teA^ch-u^ijie 'oo b^m^^i ^nn pn, ^n c^n n^ch 'ociubf ^t) ne^ch 
•oo'n x>^ ch^^ch ^ichne ^f ^ cheite, ge 50 m^t) ^ [^]* ^ch^^ip no 
^ •oe^fbji^chA.iji b^ chomfo^tif -oo, mun^ •ocu^^'o ^f ^ j^^li '^6 
/y pof T)o beich* Mge jioime pn A^n c-ion^t) 1 n-A. mbi^t)/ ^|i 
n-^ tion^t) ^v^\\ ^5^1*6 7 che^nn 7 fotc 7 e^'o^cli^xjobf ^onjoit 
n^ fot^ fOf'-oeiiije ch^inig chuj^inn ; ^^7 50 m^t) e^ngn^m 
•ooV ^it "ouinn vo 'oe^n^m, ni fe^of^m^oif ; 6if oo ce^ngt^'o 
6^\y n-^[i]fm 6f ^f 5ceA.nn^ib -oo nA. fotcMb^^ f^t)^ ponnbuit)e 
•oo f ^inij chuj^inn, ^f n-^ 'oceA.f g^'o •oVfm^ib ^n ch^ch^, 5U]i 
bo te^^ch mon^iji^' -ouinn beich ^5 f^noitij^'o ^\\ n-^fm 7 ^]i 
gc^iA^nnjoite 6 cheite; 7 "if be^j ^[i]l^ -^t^ ^o x)' e^ngnMTi 



inserted the following note as part of the text : Do co|\cput)A Ann TTlAolniopAt) 6 
HA^uttAig |\<g Conn^dUA, Aguf bpeifpie HAgutlAiJ Athuil Af be^c niAC I1A5, 
7 niAotptiAiiAi* riA bpAiT>|\eAd 6 heiT>in ]\<J cuac ceit>in, 7 Ca-oj o CeAllAig pig 
mtiiiieAd. niAC tiAj; .cc. Aiiti ]\aiiii fA. mAotm6|\A'6inei]\5 An wulcAig : c^at) 
]\ig dlAntiA HAgutuAig : Af A|\t> CA|\nn doc of a ccAnn : a ccaca CltiAn CApbA : 
co]\6|\A<) Hi ^uileAifiAin. Cuinine opAWfA Aniut) Aoi)A 6 "OAlAig, 1744. 

41. i-iom. MD. 2 peA]\oinii D. ^MS. eA^xpAit. *-*om. MD. 

* niAfA D. « om. MS. ; sic M. '-^ om. E, '-^ om. D. ** x>o bi MS. 

10 D continues thus: 7 bA Uah f'ei'oiin -ouinn ai]\ cc]\An§oit -do pei-oceAc 6 n-A 
deile A15 trrriAt) ha bfolc bfA-bA bponnbtn-oe -oo CAinic a nA c|\Ann o]\]\cat), 
loimtif gup cuif\eAt> An ctAex>A"D Ajuf An gofvc jAn cuAipifge nA ceo pe neApc 
coflAod, 7 JAifgiod, A15 An tnop eipn coniptnc "oo bi oppcAi) 7c. ^^stc M ; 

fotcA MS. 12 MS. tnopA. "M omits what follows to foluAniAin. 



92 R. I. BEST 

A.D. 1014. t>o'n ttiuinnait 'oo bi 1 f^n gc^ch pit^ng** a. f^-Mcpon^ g^n 
T>ut A.]i f^inne^lt" no ^]i fotu^mMn ; 7 t)o b^'OA^jt ^5 cu\\ ^ti 
chA^ch^ 6 chp^ch eijije •oo'n 16 50 ti-i^^inoin, 7 50 11115 ^n 

42. UhAinij'OoTinchA.t) m^cb]ii^in 50 gCjieA^chA^ib 1^^.150^11 
leif ^f 5^ch Aipt) H ]i^b^t)^ii t>iA. S^chA.i'pn .1. oi'octie cliAf5^, 
50 Cilt ttl^igne-Min,^ m^|\ ^ |\A.ib Ci^n m^c tTl^oitihu^m, ^7 
Ua.'65 6 b|M^in 50 n-^ji c1ie]ino ^f ^n 5c^cli, it)i|\ ftAti 7 ochiitif 
x)'f:e^]i^ib tTluni^n 7 6i|ie^nn ^]i che^n^ ^f pn.^ T)o im[ch]i5 
]i^t> ^]A n^ th^ji^ch 50 triutt^ch tTl-M^ce-Mi,* 7 •00 10c T)onnch^"6* 
-Ml 'oi. ficliic "oe^s b6, m^|i ^tjubAijic bjii^n ^iif, \\e muinnci|t 
Aji-o^m^ch^. *lon5p1ioiAC ^|\ leich •00 bi -^5 'Oonnch^t) m^c 
b]Ai^in *7 ^5 U-^'65 TT1A.C b]iiMn* 1 Hi^ich ttl^ifce^n' 50 n-^|t 
iTi^[i]lt -00 'Oi.l 5C^if, 7 lon5pho|\c oite A.5 Ci^n m^^c tn^oit- 
TTiu^yit) 50 m^ichib Y^e^chc^ 605^111 itloiii 7 6 n-6^ch^cti* ^n 
oit)ctie pn. 

43. A|\ n-ei|\5e 'oo'n t6 ^31 n^ itiAji^cli •00 chui]i Ci^n 
m^c tn^oitrTiu^i'o ce^chcA. u-^t) •oochum clitoinne bpiA^in 
•o' i^iijtA.it) b]i^i5'oe op|i^, ^7 ^T)ub^i|\c 50 ^lA^ib f6in ^5 bpiA^n, 
^5 ^ n-^ch^i|\-feA.n,* 7 5upb' ^it teif i^'o-f-Mi •00 beich A.i5e 
fein,^ oijt |:^ pne e no 5^ch fe^p •610b, ^7 po b^*© pne 605^11 
Vf\6\\ no Cojim^c C^f ^ pnnfe^^i-f^n.^ At>ubMlic 'Oonnch^.^o 
m^c b|\iMn ^n^ch -o'^ nt)e6in •00 bi pi\ ^5 bpi^n, A^chc A.n 
pige -oo bu^in ^^i ^151^1 t)'^ ^ch-M|i 7 x>e pein ;^ 7 n^ch •ociubjiA^'o 
^'156* no biA^ig-oe -oo Chi-^n, ^v^ mbi^t) conition flu^i5 |iif/ 
oi^i ni p^ib' T)onnc1i-^t) ^chc 'oeich 506-^*0, 7 •00 bi Ci^n t)eich 
5c^^t> pche^t).* 

44^ 6't)c1ionn^i|\c* t)oihn-^tt m^c T)uibT)^boiiieA.nn, T)onn- 
ch^'6 mA.c b^MMn ^5 f^om^chc^in* b|\-M5'oe "oo Chi^n, t>o 
p^fp-M5 yein -oe, c^ foch^ii t)o bi^-o -oo fein b^i^is-oe T)*fA5A.it 
•o6-|"^n 6 *0^t 5CMP A'oubA.ipc Ci-^n n^ch ^loinnf 6-^*6 bit^i5t>e 
no ^150 i^ipon, ^chc ^ chui-o pne^chu[r)p ^ein -oo beicli ^^'^e 
t)*lb 6^ch-6.ch. At)ub^i|ic 'Oonin^tt n^ch ftii5e^'6 otc A.5 

41. ^* dAC ftiAlAtig MS. ^* MS. fA^JtieAll. " M continues: 7 gup 6niy\ 
neApc CACA ATI ctA'6A 7 An ^opc ha cceo ^Ati ctiAipifS, a£c f^]\eAtt6 ctod Aip a 

tAC11\ '5 A pAlb. 

42. i-» om. DE. « MS. m AifoeAii. ' om. DE. * DE omits what 
follows. *-* om. M. 

48. i-> om. DE. 2 MS. poti ; j^illeAi) D. » 7 nAd |\Aib 415 O. D. 

* 7 Ap A foil pn 1:^11 n\ i&eACAig C^Ati dtini iwpif 16 D. 7c. D. 

44. ^ D and E omit this paragraph. * MS. 6' T>doiiApc. ' MS. f — . 

* M adds tnuiiA bftiigeAi) f^n CAifbA t>a diotin. 



teAbAH omis 93 

heigeA^n v6 ce^chc 6 n-6. chig t)o j^b^il jiige leif. " Af 1 ^r\ 
eije-Mi fUileonjTTi^oi'o," ^]a 'OoninA.tl, ^5 •oe^.tuj^'o |\e CiA.n 
50 n-6. TTiuinncnA. 

45. d'-ochonriMpc 'Oonnch^t) niA.c bpi^in pn, 'oo ^11^15^ ^f 
A tonjphoiic 7 t)0 chdj^ib' ^ luchc octniuif t^^if, 7 t)o gtuA^if 
teo 'iDO c1iM|^5pn t>'^ teipf'; 7 ^5 g^b^it c^ife Ofj^^ije -bd, 
t)o iA^]A|i tn^c 5^0^^^ ph^'opMg c^cli n6 b^i^ig-oe A^[i]p. '"Hi 
cliitib^]i b]A6.i5t)e, 6i|\ Til cIiu^nIa. 50 t)cu5 ^on •otiine'o'4. •oc^inig 
|ioitiA.m jii^ni *b]iA.i5'oe no jiije T)'^on •ouine 'o'i. 'oc^inij jiotti^t)- 
fA.,* 7 111 mo 'oobd^p pein,"* 

46. X)o tiltniuij* 'Oonnch^'o ttia^c b|\i6.in 6 f6in t>o f|\e^ft).^t 
c^cti^ -oo chA.b^.ijic'oo tTlA^c Jiotl^ phi.'oii^iS, 7 'oofti|i.6.W'o^li* 
^n luchc ochiAA^if i^x) i:6in t)o che^ng^t 1 n-^ fe-^f ^.th' ctium 
^n chd^ch^., 7 t)o loc VO^c l^^o\X6^ ph^'oii^ig CA.ch -oo chA^b^ijic 
•061b.* l6.]i pn |niA.|iA.'OA.]i ni6|ii.n t)o'n luetic ochjiMf b^f mi 
fCA.'o t)0 b^'o^]i A.5 |nii|^eAcli pif ^.n jc^ch. "tliop b* longn^^t) 
le miii^v ^ ftuMj 6^\\ nj^itt'oo Chi^^n m-^c 1Tl-^oitiTiti6.ii6 " 6.\\ 
'Oonnch^.t) m^c b]iiMn, " 7 \\o longn^t) ^]i n^eitt 'o^Ofp^ge." 
Ho itn[ch]i5 'Oonnch^t) i^|i pn t)V chig, 6 n^ch piM]i cA.ch 6 
OptA^igib/ 7 pjA^iA^'OA.p ochc bpchic oV riitiinnci]i b^f ]iif -mi 
bpe-^t) pn uite. 

47. lomchuj^^] Chein mic tn^oit.riiU6.it), 6 '•octiOTi[n]6.i|^c 
'OoTiiTi6.lt T116.C 'Ouibt)-6.boi|^e6.TiTi -6.5 •oe^.tuj^.f) |Mp 7 -oenige 
1 Ti-A 5]AU6.it), 7 poch ^reipge f-M^i, "oo teig cImiti b|M6.iTi 7 *Oi.t 
gC^if fe^ch^, 7 cli^inig |\oiTiie -o'i. choig, 7 -oo fogMjt C6.ch 
A.|\ 'OoTTin^.tt ni6.cX)uibt)6.boi|\e6.Tin. 'Oo ottiiitiije^'OA.ii' ce^chc 
•00 chuTTi 6.n cti^ch^ -oo j^^cli teich 50 tTl^j guili'de. An 1-6. 
jtoiTTie 6.n 5C6.ch -oo j^.b^.'OA.it cuit) -oo ^lolt-c.'OMb Chein c]ii 
Cbe^^nn eich, 7 t)© ibe^.'OA.p b6.inne -oo bi 6.5 ce6.chc 50 f6.o]i 
ttlocliotTTios n6.oiii ; 7 ni •oe^.^inA Ci^n C0Tii6.i|^le' le Hlocholmoj 
no nitiinnce]At)U|' ;' 7 ni m^\\ pn -oo |Mnne X)oiiin^tt T116.C 
'Ouib'06.boipe6.nn, -6.c1ic cliAinig 50 TIIocIioIttioj 7 -oo jiinne 

45. 1 MS eipjit). « MS. thaigaidA. s-a om. DE. 
*-* om. M. 

46. §§46 and 47 greatly condensed in D and E. § 46 om. in Y. » MS. olltfiuij. 
* MS. ^Ia|\4^t>a]\. 3i,e cuAilligib, adds M ; cuAiltib E. * MS. t)6ib. 
«MS. dfpAitib. 

47. ^MS. ollnitiig'OAp. *MS. coniti]\le. ^MS. muinticip -buf. 



94 R. I. BEST 

A.D. 1014. urril^ vd, 7 vo jtu^if u^i-o chum ^r\ ch^cli^; x)'^ n'oub]i6.'6 
ATI ]i^nn :* 

Hlochotmos/ 6 ch^ije ctioip* 

ce^nn Chein mic tTlA.oitniu^i'd inic bjioin. 

48. 130 chu^t>A.]i 1 gcoinne ^ ch§ite 50 ITI^J J^^^^*^^! 7 
cug^t) C6.ch e^cojiji^^ 1 r\'^\\ mA^iib^t) Ci^n m^c ttl^oitnitiA.i'o 
'7 C^cti-^l 7 llA.5A.tt^ch,* ^ •oi^f 'oe^^ibpi.ch^^i, C|iiu]i tnA.c* 
'til^oitTTitiA.it) mic bjioin, 50 n-Aji •oeifceijic tTltim^n e^coji-pA. ;* 
7 'DO b^t) m6|\ ^n fj^^l pn, Ci^n m^c ttl^oitmuA.i'o •00 m^jib^'o 
]ie T)omn^tt m^c 'Ouib'O^boipe^iin, out m ^i^ib 1 nCntinri 
1 n-6. Mmp]i ip^m ne^cti but) fe^ji^i eine^^ch 7 u^ifte no ^ri 
Ci^Ti pn. *1f m^^i* ^-oubMltc tTl^c Coip, A.5 c-^bA.i|^c cu^jt^^fg- 
bi^lA. fleA^chcA 6ibi]i pinn* 6f ^^]\v X)o itl^oilfeA^chl^inn, -pij 
4i|AeMin, ^|i n'oiutcA.'o ^n cf^oj^it •06 fem, 7 e 1 gCluMTi mic 
t16if *n-^ chomriM'oe,' 5^11 'out c^]i' c]iof Aib Chtu^nA. -^m^ch* : 

Innedf^t) mo cheifc^° a.]i Chi^n 

m^c tn^oitmuMTo n^. n-e^cb]i^'6 TTOi^n : 

t1? f'^cA. me chi^|A no choip 

-^ f^m^it" "oo pot 6ibi]i.** 

49. Ajuf '^A.|t ^t)ubA.i]ic tn^c I'l^j, -^5 ]ioclic^[i]n •06 50 
Ce^nn Coji^t), ia.|\ jcu-mj^c 6 Sion^inn but) t)e^f : "Cia. v*^\\ 
bui-oe chu ^ olt^im P" ^\\ b]ii^n. '**Oo 'Oomn^Ll m^c T)uibt)i.- 
boijie^nn," 6>\\ tTl^c 1*1^5. "An bf^CA^if CiA^n no S^[i}6b a. 
be^nP" -^|\ b]iiA.n. "130 chonn^jic,"* ^]a tTl^c l/i^j. **An 
bpiA]iM|' ^on |\A^ot) UA^ch^P" ^p b]ii^n. "Inneof^t) t)uic,"* 
^1^ Tn<KC l^i^g. "A|^ jAochcMn •o^m-f^ Jb<\\ f^ichche Hi^cti^ 
TlAichte^nn, -oo binnfe^t) -oo Chi^n 7 t)o S^.i'ob mo cbe-^chc-f^ 
t)o'n bMte; vo 6i|\§e^t)A.]t ^]i^on im' cboinne 1 n-einfe^cbr, 
7 t)o biomc1i]i^'6 me 6^\\ muin 'OA.oine, 7 ^n tjeichneA^m-^i^ 7 t)A 
pchit) t)o buit)in -oo bi im' foch^ni, t)0 l^u^-^-b ^.nonn Y^^ '^^'^ 

47. * T>A nT>ti'bui]\c modolmdj ah pAtiti M. * A lidmtiAiit G. ® 6 ci Je 
cf oip E. MS. i'oi|\. ' 50 teAC iA]\cd a flfiAj E. 

48. J MS. eocoit^tA-b. ^^om. E. ^7 a ci\ia]\ imac E. *E omits this 
sentence, reading simply -oeit ah pie. *MS. in6|\. • MS. einiii\ pti. 
"^ MS. conitiAig. ^ MS. reads CA^t le, a faint stroke through I. ^ om. M. 
1^' MS. ceifO. " sic O ; a pAc)iA* MS. '2 ^S. eirhip. 

49. * MS.T)o cotiAi]\c. 2MS. <)tiic. 



teAbATi omis 95 

1^*0, 7 cujA.t) be^jic^ nuA. •oo j^cli ^on T)'iot), miji fl^bpA.t) 
7 l^me 7 b]AA.c; 7 chug Cimi ^ t)eife f^in, itDiji e-^cti 7 e^'o^cli 
7 bjt^CMJ 50 n-^ loe^tg 6i]A, 7 50 n--^ n^oi gcojiriMb -do tof^ib 
6i]i, 50 n--^ toing 7 50 n-^ bp^nrmib •o^-d.'o, 7 n^oi bpchit) bo 
•OA^TTi fein, 7 •oeich n-eicli, 7 v6^ fichit) •00m' chl^nt; 7 •oeicli 
5ceA.t) utig^ "o'op, 7 c^oj^ fMl 'oom' chleip m^]i A.n gc^^'on^. 
50. '* C]A^^t) fu^p^if 6 niA^c X)tiib'OAboi]ie^nn P' ^\\ bpiMi. 
" iru^]AUf c]MOf 7 ceine cpe^f^." "If longn^t)," ^]i bpiMi, 
" 5^t^ bui'oe chu-f^ •00 *6onin^lt n6 'oo ChiA^n m^|i pn." " t1i 
bion^n^io/* ^|i tT1^cLi^5; " oip -oo bu-o i6eAC]i^^ le *OoTtin^lt 
^n c|MOf 7 ^n ceine chjie^f^ t>o cti^bA^ipc u^it) no le Ci^n 
^ rTotib^|AC-f^ 6 chi^n^ib." Ath^it ^t)ei|i ITI^c l^i^5 f^i^, 7 e 
'n-^ -pe^noni 1 n-lnnp An Joilt 'Ouib i^ji mb^f Djii^in 7 
Tnii]ic1i4Kt)^ 7 Cb^in, 7 ^ ^5 cuithnitigA.'o o]A]i^. A5 fo m^]\ 
-^•oei]i : — 

P^'OA. beich j^n ^oibneA^f ^nn^ 
m^i^ n^]A f^oite^f 50 b|\i.ch beich, 
m^p •00 bi^t)Uf 1 gCe^nn Cop^t) c^oim, 
nio]A b' u^ih^n liom ^on 'oom'^ chpeich. 

X>i. m^ijieA^t) bpi^n binne* buil^, 
If TTItii^chA^t) A* luif 5 n^ tong, 
ni beinn-p 1 ninnfe A.n $oilt 'Ouib, 
m^l^ ^ •ociofMj cuil If conn.^ 

13-6. m^if eA.'o Cono^inj n^. 5cti^n," 
Of muilt fttJAJ, t^och® n^f l^g ! 
fe^f m^f ^ G^chc^f n^ ft^u^j, 
ni teigfe^'o mi u^t) 1 bf^t). 

['S e] t>obeif me^ •ouitbif , •ooif b, 
noetic*** jcttiinim CMftn n-^ 'ocfii^ch ; 
niof b'lon^nn if" pub^t fti^if c*^ 
•o'i. f i^inij^^ ^f cuMf c 50 Ci^n. 



49. 3eAT>Acli D. 

60. J SIC M ; MS. -oeAcpA. * omitted in MS. ; sic OTE ; Ati G. ^ bom 

tno DE, *MS. bitine. * 6 P. « ciOfAig MS. M ; cciOfAj T ; E ciof ai§ 

Ag cit if con O ; Ati cuile if conti E ; cajeAt) pAT> cuite 7 conn D. " nA lon^ 

cconn E. » EDMT cm. IaocIi. » 50 t)oilbi|\ E ; 50 T)oilib D. i'^ nAc 
MTDE. 11 MS. If An ; An cfAthuil DE. »p,^ip XM ; fUAfC D ; MS. 
fUAip. *3^^^p,„,, D; ^„ ^^Yi CAinic E. 



96 R. I. BEST 

130 c1iti^t)iif 50 CiA.n ^n Ch^i|\n, 

Cjii^ch but) ch6i]i" t)o chup *n-^ che^nn. 

51. 'Ajuf fA. TT»^]i^t>ub^i|ic1Tl^c gioll-^ Ch^oini ^p-oce-^chc 

6 Aot) 6 tieill, i-6.]A mbeich c]ai |\-6.iche 1 5c6i5e^t) tllA.'o 1 
bpoch^ip Ao-OA.' 1 TIeill, 50 -oc^inig 50 C015 Ch^in mictn^oit- 
TTiu^it) ; 7 t)o bi l3]M^n m^c Cinn^itnj n^^n b^ite -^p ^ che-Min ; 

7 -00 chuip b|ii^n police |^e tTl^c 5^olt^ Ch^om, 7 A.'oiib-Mpc 
511)1 \\6 fA.'o^ -00 bi 1 n-e^gm^Kif ; 7 -oo p-^fp^ij t)e, ci^e^t) fU-Mp 
6 Ao-o 6 tieill. *^pii[^]]AUf •oeich bpcbi-o bo 7 •oeicb n-eich, 7 
n^oi n-uinge v'6\\j 7 •oeifi Aot)^' 1 tieill." " 'Oobl^^ji-f/b. 7 
S^t)b, inje^n b|\iMn, ni -p^ nio no pn ■ouic," ^|t Ci^n, "fuL 
chox)lMTi, 1 n-e4i.5iTiMf ^ 'Ociub|i^'6 b]M^n 7 tntnich^Kt) 7 m^iche 
6 TiC^ch^ch^ 6 pn -mti^cIi." Ani^il -co chtiirtinig m^c giolW 
Ch^oitTi fein, 7 ^ ^|i ^^n ch^oib chu^i-o -oo'ti $11^15,* ^5 x)uL x>6 
50 pitjcVi 6]Ac1iA.Tini.in, 7 -6.f pn •o'i^|a|im'6 p^]i|\c1i4Kif, 1 n-6. 
nx)tibM|AC, 6.5 cuiTrinitiJA.'o ^\\ Djaimi 7 ^]i tl1ti|ic1iA.'6 7 A.]t 
Chi -Ml : 

52. tt^chin^it^ ^n oit)c1ie ^nochc, 

^ c1iiiit)e^c1ic[^] bocbc, 5^n bjieig ! 

c|iot) ni^ f^oilci -oib A.|i •ou^in 

^|i ^n -oc^oib-p cbuMt) •oo^n Sj^eij. 

Af ^ X)iA. f^ -oed.]!^' t)uinn 
56^n ^]i fuil pe 'ouA.if x)^ \\^t\r\ ; 
|i6-TTi6|i pi^|i^m^|i t)V chionn,* 
b^oj^lliom ^ Mchbe-6.|\* ch^ll*! 

At)4Ki5' t)ATTi-f ^ t)o fiof D|ii^[i]n, 
If e ^5^ ple^'o^chuf ^5 CiA^n 
m^c tn^oilniUMt), f^ p^tJA l-Mf 
^]i mbeich A.'o^ij' 'ti-6. e^gm^^ip 

50. " MS. c6n^. 

61. ^D reads: ad cah CAinnic triAC tiAj 50 ccac "bjMAiti 6 Ao-oa 6 tl^ill, 
DpAfpuit)e bpiAti T)e c^^e1T> a l^tiAp 6 Aoi6a 6 tldill. ** "Oo pjAptif , etc.** E some- 
what similar. 'MS. Aco. ^D om. 7 tH. 7 mAiclie 6 ne ; M om. b|MAn, and 
reads a cciub|\A tiA ITI., etc.; cciubpAt) niAice DaI jCAif t>uic E; M adds 7 
t)AtccAif. ^gpeiriM. 

52. * ACUA[c]mA|\ D. ' riAd ptceA]\ D ; tiAC ptceAt) E. ^MS. t>eApA. 

* MS. ceAr>r>. ^ MS. Airp|\. *opAm D. "^ MS. AJait). " a|a DEM. 



teAbAn omis 97 

" ^ chb^li chig 6 chig* 1 TIeill ; 
|ni-Mtt n^]i chpeigif •oo che^cli*' fein," 

^chc ^ bfuil 6 nt>iu 50 tl1^i]AC," 
^f e pn," ^]i tritiitchAt) mA.c bpiA^in, 
" ce^chc^il^e^chc -^n fi^ich 6'n m|^c." 

" Innif •ouinn c'e^T)Ait ^ qhuMX)," " 
"Innif t>o m^ichib bfe^^ji bp^it, 

X)^\\ ^n jiig pt Of mo chionn,*^ 
^f e chujuf tiom a. chu^it) 
pche e^ch, t>eich n-tiinge t)'6]A, 
If 'oeich bpchit) bo -oo bu-Mb. 

"X)obe-6.]iA.m-ne ^n •oi-^f fo '66, 
ni f^" nio t)* ei6.cliA.ib Y "oo bu-Mb, 
1 n-^^5m^if ^ •ociub|t^'6 bfi^n/' 
^•oub^Htc CiA.n m^c tTI -6.01 lihu Ait). 

t)A|\ AH 1115 'oopA.t) mb 1 fochc," 
Y "oo •oojicliAig ^nochc" mo** niA.m, 
fUA.|tuf A 'oeich n-oi]ieAt>'* fC^Jin 
A|t An bfteit) f ut t>o tui-o bpiAn. 

SeAchc mbAite um chomAi]i** -d'a chpAOib, 

Til riA II15 •oo[m] 31^*0" AniAit, 

Agtif teAcli-bAite 50 fio]i 

in gAch pojic A5A** mbio'6 bfi^n. 

T)o jiAit) 1Tlu]ichAt) •oeAg-mAC DpiAin, 
Ap n-A mAjiAcli !f nio]i chilli uai6," 
"oijieAT) '^ A bfUApAif Af ^i|i, 
•00 je^bA" UAim fein 'y ni Af c'fniAch.^*" 

9 A cdt\ TD ; A C15 Af ci]\ E. 10 ^igf e M. n t>o MS. M. 12 C15 TM. 

15 Aitioig MS. A muicli DE. i*moJ 50 n6 MS. ; nitij 50 cci rriAipc T ; 6 tiiu§ 

^otiAt) WAipc M. ** MS. cuAiT). *^ 6 ^i|\t)i%<J UAf aI E ; ah ai^-d pig D. 

»'' tuii) MS. " lAiii Alb M. 19 t>A tit>ioii A|\ D ; ■oeAncAjx E. 20 j/^ mT ; clieAn MS. 
21 HI buf M. 22 „oec DET. 23 go f ode TDE. 24 MS. wa. 25 MS. ui|\iot). 
2« tune 66i]\D ; mo 6oniAi|\ E. 27 MS. "oopAX) me. 28 MS. a; aja M. 29 MS. 
UAi-b. «»MS. uifMO-o. 51 JeAbAi^ D ; JeAbAt TE. 32 q^^ic, M. 



98 R. I. BEST 

53. Ajuf ni |AMb tli^ich llAiclile-Min ^on Ia* ]ii^iti g^n 
ochc bpchic x)e^5 im^ch rhine "oo che^chc innce, m^p A.'oubA.ipr 
^n 5^<^^^^ C^oiTTi- 06^*011 ^, 7 e ^5 cjM^ll oiticli|M T)o^n txHii^n 

tli.ich Tl^ichle^nn [jii^ichj Chui|^c if Chein, 

•00 biot) c^ob f e c^ob Y^ pliO]AC. 

C]iei6.'o y6^ fLoinnce^ji 1 6'n C]ii-^]i, 
H^ichled^nn ^gtif Ci^n if Cope, 
^ lom^t) mi. Y Feip[]i]'oe lib, 
t) 05^-6.11 c^t^* tiom fin 5Mfi lochc. 

*Oo f loj^t) 1 jCMfe^l choff ,* 
Co]ic m^KC tuij-oe^ch n^ jcof n bp-^l* ; 
c'l Of -chimin ITIuni^n t)6 t)V chij* 
•oobeif chi pn 6*n cip chiA^f . 

t)o chinrif^c tTluininig n-o. flu-^5 
^f c1ioni^[i]fte, f^ m6j\ f ^uh, 
^ f i.x) UMb f e Cof c n-6. ngi^tt, 
"-oftut) p^\\ 1 gcoinne n^ jc^ch," 

TlAidite^nn buime Chtiif c n^ ngi^lt, 
be^n Uof n^, vcx]\ 51 ^tt g^ch -o^ni^ 
t)o chu^ix) td^if n^ fill jtib foi|i 
t)o ch^n f[o]in ^ nx)iib^if c CAch. 

** 'Ooj^^n® -00 choni^[i]f le, ^ be^n," 
-a.f TH^c Luij-oeA^ch 11-6. bfle^^t) bfti-^f,* 
"•OA bfAgcli^f tongphofc f^in' liii^n 
■o^iii^^ chiA^f 1 nj;oi|ie n-^ ftu-^j." 

t)o coct^t) c^ife^t If f Aich 
te UluirTine-^ch-Mb, niof b^i^^^ rriion, 
1 gconi^Kif Chuif c Ch^Kipl c1i4koiiti 
•oo bMn^' ^ iTi-^oit)^* -oo 5^ch pof . 



53. * cpAic M. ' DETM om. CAOitii. ^-oo T)eAtiCA|\ MS, ^ c6i|\ MDE. 

5C|\Atiti bpA]\ MDE. *^i ti-A C15 TDK. 'MS. xthm. ^MS. t)eAn ; 

DO te^uAt DE. ^bpo|\ D ; bflcAt) inop E. ^" MS. ■oaiti. **MS. nio|\ 

bux) , bAit) MDE. i2|jeAti TMD. ^^mS. tfiAOic; -oo ihUn 



teAbAii oinis 99 

CIA. c^ ^|i A^inm eile ^noetic." 

f^onitif m^c Lui§6e^cli ^tin f [o]in 
t)o'n ihn^KOi t)o oil e 'n-A. T)un, 

Hipj^iT)*® Ultiininij -oV ^f pn 
CiMri mA.c theic D|toin, V6^\\ h6^ f6iiii, 
If uiine pn c^^i 6if cliAich 
cugA.'d ^\\ ^r\ |\-6.icli, Hi^icli Ch6in.^» 

U^ii h-^nm-Min^*® ]iAch^ Chuipc 
•00 tomuf "ouib,*^ ge b6 f acIi, 
t)V 6if [4i.f e^Kt)]" chug mo ^^^.[i]^, 
5^n m^c itl-d.oitrhuMX) if a.ti ^iaicIi. 

llAich SA.it)be injine bf i^in, 
-oi-Mt) 1 n-oi^it),^ ^guf llAich Cli6in, 
6 t)o chuic pAt) teich -6<|i teicli, 
c|iti4K5 ^n be^cli-6. beich t)V n-^ip 

Hi^icli r\^ bple^Kt), f Aich n^ mb^n, 
t>A" |\ Aich TOO ctiA^f** tn^c lf)^oitiiiu^ii6, 
5^n ^clic ^ 'ocA.ip t)V n-6if, 
^f e T)obei]i me g^n piu^[i}6. 

HaicIi Cliu-6.in, ^n ]ii.ich uo clioif , 
ott^m [meic] meic'* bf oin, 50 mbiij,'^ 
6 'Lo[ch]chAin, f^ m^icli ^n cf A.01 
t)o cliije^t) 5^ch 1^01 -oo'ti f aicIi. 

HaicIi Ctiuitchin, cpuc^nie ^n clinuic, 
cfU^S m^^i TOO cliuic c^^i 6if cIiaicIi ; 
•00 b' ^ibfe^ch linn binne ^ m^^jt 
no 50 nt>e^ch^iT6 t)'^^5 Y^^ f ^ich. 



A niAige jAd tnt\ E. " MS. pAc. " wV T ; MS. pf) ai\ Ainm eile aca Anode. 
i« niAtt Aitim M. '^ MS. t)oii v^i) ; a|\ An niyi|\ TEDM. ^^xyo ]\<oJce E, 

"MS. |\AC, t\Ac C6in. **^ MS. li-AnmonnA ; li-AinmnioaAt) E. "t>ibM. 

»» TDE add Af eA^. ^ MS. w aiJ. «* MS. An tda. 25 t>o ctiii\ TDM ; vo 
cofs E. ^ tnc. tnic M. ^^ mS. mbAi* ; wbiA* MX ; mbiot E ; mbuAi* D. 

I 



lOO R. I. BEST 

6 IP^ichin r\6^\\ chiiu-6.116 lie t)Aini ; 

fOfs^^ ^ fcuic tiiijutnij m6^\\ 

t)o chttiitit)if*' r\^ r^^5 Y^" liAich. 

f^ meitiic iA.t) f A^^ie" Ci^n, 

Hi^ich A.n t)oiiifeo|i-6. 'oo'* ctiim ; 
c|tUA.5 m^^i bim if tn^f [aJcaiih, 

If til chijim-p'* t)o*n f Aich. 

m^ltctiA.itin'* 'oo cht^inn C^ch^ch CtiA^oini, 
•oo'ti t)f 111115 f A. ni6|i ^oib If a[i]5, 
f-6. tiiom'o-^ giolt^, qie^ch, if 51-6.lt 
t)o beifoif 50 Ci^n t>o*n f Aich, 

•^Cirfe^t t^og^if e iheic iploinn, 
tn^f ch^inti -oo'ti chl^inn f a m6|i a[i]s,** 
t)0 bi'oif pti ^5 'oiot chti^f 
A.nu-6.i|i n^ch bioio CiA.n *f^x\ f ^icli. 

••If mip tn^c*® 1/1^5 n-6. n-e^cli," 
m-6.ich ^r\ bf eich mo beich tn^f CAitn ; 
niof futii*" c^ichte^ch n^ n-e-d.ch fiA^ni, 
A.n fA.t)*' •00 bi Ci^ti Y^n f-iich. 

**tiiicti Hi^ichte^nn ^n ji^ich ut> choif, 
1 mbiot) tii^c tiieic b|ioin 50 mbuMt), 
If 1011T6-6. f i05f ^•6 T)om' f ei|i 
1 n-Mmpf Cti6in" mic ITl^oitniti^it). 

bdcli^f r\^ 5C^fb-^t) fo chu^it), 
50 •oci5t)if fiu^ig Cbt-6.inne C^if, 
tim Chi.Mi tn^c m^oititiu^it) mic Of oin,*' 
riAf flit [^jitiMTi C11015 C^f ^1f. 

*• MS. 66^1$. ** MS. dlt]it>4f . ^ urn dpAi) TM. This forms the 4th verse in D, the 
and reading Ajtif ni li-tiAipieAf vo*n fu^cYi. ** pe Ciati M. •* ttiAp M. •» ni6|\ M. 
•* tmbAdtif ED ; 'oubAd M. *• MS. cigini-p ; cuAipiif TDE ; if ci^eAmAOif M. 
**iiiAp ACAim EDP. ^ M omits this stanza and the following. ^^15 £d^ 



teAbAti omis loi 

X)ur\ ^^fobe, ^n t)un fo rhi^ji, 

C]ii che^t) be-6.n •oo •oiot^t) bA.i|\T) 
t)o chije^'o te S^mb t)o'n ]i^ich. 

^ch 'n-^ r\t)e-d.nc^oi gnioni ne^cli i^ij,*' 
z\\S cli6^t> e^ch te gcu^ictiAoi fpiMi, 
•oo ctiijeA.'o te Cimi 'oo^n 'pi.icli. 

boch^ji x)^ Uluitce fo chiof, 
chug fgif" ^p rhoi^ATi -oo rhriA^b^ 
ce^clip^ch^t) mi^ch'® 50 m^" riAwOi, 
t>o chige^t) 5^cli t-6.01 t)o*n |\-6.ich. 

If Tn§ m^c Jiott-^ C^oiih c6i|i : 
It^chA.t) •oo'n ll6iiTi t)'a 'OC15 c^[i]ch, 
TOO cho[i]rTit)|iif mo cli|toi'6e im' cliti^b, 
5A.n C1M1 "oo beich if A.n -p^ich." 

54. b^f C[h]6in 7 bfiA^in 7 itlufch^'o^^ 1 n-^on bti^'OA.in au. 1014. 
A.ni-&in 1 gc^ch Chtu^nA. U^fb 7 1 jc^ch tiluige g^il'i'"^©.' Ap 
jctof t)o 'Oonnch^t) m-^c b]ii^in, CiA^ti x)o iii^^ib^'o •00 tionin^tt 

m-^c T)uib'oi.boi|\eA.nn, CAini5' f§in ftu^j t)o ne^pcug^'b te 
TTI-^ctig-MTi^in in^KC C§in, 51^1 m^fb^'6 teif C^cti^t* in-6.c C6in* 
mic T)uibx)^boi]ie^nn. 

55. Ue^Kgni^it i-oi^i "6^ tri^c bfi-Mti ,1. 'Oonncti^t) 7 U^-bg, 1 au. 1014. 
n-A.|t m^pbA.'b 6 t)onn^54.in,fi Af-d.'o, C^nib^ie m^^c Ct6iiicliin, . 

-pi UA. gC^i^ib^ie t)0 iii^|tb-6.i6^ 1 bfeitt 6 Hl-d^otchotuim 
CA.oin|ti'6[e]^c1i. 

56.^ Stu-6.5 te 'Oonnch^t) m6.c bjii^in 7 te U^'og tha^c bf i^in au. 1015. 
t)o ne-d.]icti5^'6 te 1Tl^ch5A.tTiMn* in^c C6in t)^]i m^jtb^'o 
'Ooiiin-6.tt tuA^c t)uibT)Aboife^nn te 1TlA.cli5-6.tiiMn 1 rroioj^it 

»» dm. M. *o TED om. m ac. *i ha ccpeAc G. " n<0|\ foiiw D ; n<o]\ f Atti P ; 
r\\ ]\Abtif G. *3 1\6 D. ** This stanza precedes the former in D and E. 

" MS. c6iii E. *« MS. bi\6iii. « MYT omit this stanza. *8 MS. n'AiJ. 

*® fSt^of DE. ^ w AC D. *i wAt) ME. *» Y omits stanzas 3 and 10 ; and 

first two verses of 1 1. 

64. ^ pn, adds M. ^ D and E commence here. ^ MS. caihi^. * om. E ; 
t>6mntiitt D. M. 

65. ^ t>o tiiApb M. 

66. ^om. DE, follows § 57 in M. 

12 



102 R. I. BEST 

57. Stu^j te tiu^ Hu^ijic 5ti|\ lon^i^t) ttl^j riAoi, 7 511^ 
Au.*ioi4. i^^t^^^'o X)oiinch^t) mA.c C^ch^^il, 7 50 |\U5^t>^|t ji^kII^^ 
Con[n]Actic teo. 

58.^ b^f Anmch^.T)^' 31105 6 ti^chAin 6 tn^ctij^nin-d. ni-6.c 

Cein mic HI A^oilttiu^Kit). T)uTi5^t 6 T)onncli-d.'6-d. |\i Go5^n^chc[A.] 

Au. lois.Loch^ tein fO]\ chjieich 50 Sl^ein Clinch, 50 \\o iii4K|tb-6.'6 t^^if 

pionn m^c HuA^iop^ije 1 t)onn^5^in, 311 A^i-d^t). ft^iclibe-d.'pc-d.ch 

6 TIeitt te in^olfeA^clit^inn m^c T)oThnA.itt 1 l/A^igmb, guji |\o 

^i]i5 pA.T) ^n ci|t 50 teichtinn, 7 juit |to tn^jib-d.'o 311 n^ 

mbui'oe. 

FM. 1014, 59-^ Siting l^ Hl^otfe^ctilMnn 7 te htlA. tldill 7 te htl^ 

1015- m^ott)oii^i'6 50 li^ch Clinch,* 51111 toif5eA.t> ^ ^i^ib -oo cbischib 

6 t)un -6.in^ch ^nn, 7 50 \\o rToe^cli^t)-d.|i 1 n-lb 5CinnfeA.t^i5, 7 
51131 jio 4Ki|i5 pAT) lA.'o, 5U|i 310 cti^^ijitif cpeAch t)V ch^ie^ch^.-o, 

7 5ti]i 310 m^^ib^Kt) Con5^t-6.cli m^c Conctiub^iji 1 fA^itge, |ii 
Conn^chc, 7 Jiott-^ Cottiiin 6 tiAo-o-d., 311 Ue^bch-^. 

AU. 1020. 60. Slu-6.5 eite le Hl^otfe-^clit^inn 7 te htl^ tl^itt 7 te 
titl^ m^otTooii^it) 50 h^cli Cti^cli, 51111 5A.bf-6.c 5i^tt-d. LM5ei6.n, 
7 50 'octi5f ^T) ^ iiige T)o 'Oonchu^n iha^c T)ubttiin5.^ Citt'OA|i^* 
7 5^e^iin T)-6. l^och[^] 7 Ctu^in lo|iAiiit> 7 Sojit) . Cotuim Citte 
7 ^ii-om^cli^' [t)o toif5eA.'D].* VV^T ch|iuicne-6.chc-6. t>o 
f'eA.[ii]cliMn 1 111^5 Aiii5eA^'o-iioif. 

AU. 1022. 61. CA^tt-Miti ^nno T)0TTiini mite 7 20 bti^-on^, 1TlA.otfeA.cli- 
tA.inn inA^c T)oninA.itt ii^noiii 6i|ieA.nn oclic mbtiAt^riA.* 1 ^1150 
Ue^^niii-d. iA|i mb|iiA.n 50 bpiA^i^i bi^f 1 5Ciio-1tinif l/OchA. 
hAintiintie.* 

62.* T)oiTinA.tt m^c T)uibt>A.boi|teA.nn -oo ih^^iibA.^ t)o itlA^cti- 
5-MTTA.in m6^c C6in mic Hl^oitmtiA.i'o 7 t)o 'Oontich-d.'o m^^c 

AU. ioi6.biiiMn. VOckc 1/1^5 A^i'o-ottA.m 6iiieA.tin •o'-pi.gA.it b4.if, b^^f 

AU. 1017. Ao^S^f-^ ^^^ C^^\^x:h^^ CliA.tm-d. ^.titio t)omini 1021. 

63. T)orhn-6.tt mA.c CA.cbA.11nA.15* -o^fb ChA.ipn vo buA.tA.'o 

AU. 1019. "OO '6onncliA.'6 mA.c biiiA.in vo clitoi'oeA.m 1 mbtin oii'o6i5e 7 
A. tA.ime -oeip, 5UI1 bA.iti -oe ^, 7 51111 mA.jibA.t) 6 -pein 'n-A. 6i|iic. 

57. IMS. 510UA. 

68. ^ om. £. ' MS. AntndtibA ; AnAtncdbA M. 

69. ^ om. E. * M om. 50 hS. C. 

60. ^ /^^. 'OtititAing. * CeAtifiDApA M. 'MS. A]\t>AmA6A. *wM. 

61. ipcliec addsE. 'MS. mAinAiniie, which a later hand corrects to 
liAininn. 

62. ^ om. E. * CAp^ig AU. 
68. ^ MS. CApcAtiAig. 



teAbAii oinis 103 

64. U^'og m^c b|ti^in t)o tTiA.|tb^'6 t)'6itib -d.|\ n--d. pipi^tioni au. 1023. 

T)a jcluirroif ctu-6.|^-6. meic bpiMti 

vo h^v^ lomriAp teif bti'6 tern 
lonp^t) 5^cli cp6in if g^ch cpu^ig.* 

65.' Tn-6.c X)otTin^itt inic T)uibt)Aboipe^nn -00 •o^lt^t) au. 1023. 
'Le[n-]-6. niuinnci|t f^in, eip^ch ^n ■ouibneoit ipcbp-d.. 

66.^ Anno T)omini HI 22 tlg^ipe m^c tDunt^inj pi t^ije^n au. 1024. 
7 tn^olmop'o^ m^c 1/opci.in pi 6 5Cin[n]|'e-^t^i5 7 a. ih^c •00 
itiApb-6.'6 t)o tDonnft^ibe ni^c1Tl^oitih6pt)^,'7 e f6in t)0 th^pb^t) 
•DO l/A^ignib 1 n-6ipic pti. 

67.^ T)tin5A.t 6 T)onnch^'6-d. pi CtiMpt •o'loncoj^ 6*n 
cf-6.o5-6.t 50 Copc^ij 1 n-oitichpe. Cu^n .1. 6 l/o[cli]cliAin au. 1024. 
i.|\t)-pte 7 fe^ncti^i-b C6in mic Hl-^oitihtiM'o vo ni-^pb^t) 1 
n-^ eipic, ^p n-^ bp^ich -oo b^t-d.x)' ^n cponn^ij. 

68.' Anno 'Oomini mite 7 26, 'Oynj-^t* 6 'Oonncti^'o^,' pi 
Cb-Mpt, t)'6^5 1 gCopc^ig* Ap moitilc^'o A^n cf^oj^it ryd ^t) 
bti^-OAin poiihe 1 n-oiticbpe^ch. 

69. Anno 'Oomini mite 7 27 ftu^g te X)onnch-6.^ mA.c bpiMn 
5tip j^b jeitt bfe^p' Hli'oe 7 bpe^j, 7 50 n-oe^ch^i-o i^p pn 

50 b^cb Cti^cb, 7 50 nT)e^pn-^ coinme^X) 1 n^cb Cti^cb* 6au. 1026. 
"oonin^cb ini-oe* 50 c6-6.'o^oin ^r\ bp^[i]cb,* lonnuf n^cb p^ib 
-d^on ce^cb 1 n-^cb CtiA^cb 5-d.n coinme^'6, 7 T)onncb-^'6 fein 
Annf-6. foiteA.p' mop mic Amt^oib/ Tl^oi 5c6-6.t) cAinij 6 ^cb 
Cti-6.cb 50 l/Mgnib ^p n5A.bAit ji^tt bfe^p^ ttliioe ^^ V^ 
1 TiOfp-6.i5ib, 50 t)cu5 ^ nji^tt^ te cbeite 50 Ce-6.nn Cop-d.t).* 

70. SttiA.5 te 'Oonnch^T) m^c bpi^in 1 ^Ce^nn Cop^t) 50 ^.u. 1025. 
tT0e-6.cb-6.1t) teo 1 5Conn^clic-6.ib 50 Cpu-6.cbAin, gup cug^o geitt 
Conn^ctic-6. -bo A^nn.' 1TlA.cli5^m^in m^c Cein mic tn^oit- 

64. ^stcM, MS. Ap. *MS. vo wa* ; Ati WAitlfe do r\ii> E ; do i^aJ D. 
« b6 MS ; bA-D DE. * MS. cuAit ; cpuAg DE ; ctiAiC M. 

65. ^om. MDE. 

66. 1 cm. DE. 2 MS. lflAoiliiiop«A. 

67. . > om. DE. 2 boUic M ; to IJaIad MS. 

68. ^om. DE. ^MS. OotiJaI. 'OotniAdtSbA* M. *MS. CoitCAit). 

69. 1 MS. feA|\ ; Ia fCApAib ME. * 6 dliAC adds M. ^ mS. omiDe ; 
oiniDe M ; tiA nwbe E ; flAC D. * a bpAic M. * MS. SoiteAf . • lotintif 50 
|\AbADA|\ piA|\Ad td E. ' MS. bfeA]\Aib. 8 MS. C. C. 

70. * D and E omit what follows. 



104 ^' BEST 

niUA^m, \^S tiA n^oi bfonn, 7 in^olfe^clit-6.inn got) |ti mit>e 
•D'^^AgAit b^if ^nno T)oniini mile 28. 
Au. 1026. 71. 1Tl-d.otiitiiMi^it)* 6 tn^oit'ooitMt>, 1^1 cu-6.if5eii^c ChineiL 
ChofiA^ilt, T)o 'diti'LcA.'D t)o'n q^^i.ojAl 7 -6. -bol 50 CluA.in tTe^jtcAw 
b]ie^ntiinn, 7 ^.f pn 50 hi Choluim Cille. UAt>5 ^^c giott^ 

eA.'OA.i]^,- go t)cus s^bAl-o. tn^p^ l^if, 

72. SluA.5 l^ 'Oonnch^'D ttia^c bpi-Mti -o'a. t>io5^ilc pn 50 
AU. io27.m^c 5^oUa ptiAt)p^i5 x)V t)Cti5 c]ieAch/b. mop^ 7 b|t^i5t>e 
lom-b^ t^if; ti«5AT)A.tt cmt) t)'^ Thuinncitt 7 t)o h-imi^e/vo 
•ooch^l^ tuiiig oi^-p^ le tn^c C^i^icli^ 6 'Oonncti^t^A^,* -oo bi p^ 
l^5A.oit 1?^ t^15 titl^ nSiotU phAt)ii-6.i5 7 le ni-6.c 510IU. 
phAt)f ^15 f^in, guii m^iib-(S'6 tTl^c J^'^P^ ^ic T)t4TiA.5A.ii6, |^i 6 
m^ine, ^guf m^olfeA^chlAinn tn^c Conchtit>A.nt, ^1 Co|\c/i.Tn- 
^iii^-b, 7 Ci-d.n m/yc CuiUin, \\S U^ jCon^ill g^fep^, 7 t)oniTi^tt 
m^^c Se^nctiuiTi, 7 605^11 m^c C«i]ic, [7] Con4i.ll Tn4i.c ^ije^^t- 



FINIT. 



71. ^tYlAotfeAi^tAiiiTi M. 

72. 1 niAic|\Air M. 2 MS, 5 nt)oneA<). ' C. iyiac eAcliciSeA|\tiAi<>e 
ei5io|\CAi$e D ; eitceA]\ E. * 7 ni6|\Ati eile le<3 pn%Ab e pn btiAtpe Sao<>aI 
adds D. 



teAbAti omts 105 



Notes. 



§ 28. As it stands in tb« text, the passage beginning Afi ^cup t^iAtn awiacIi, 
etc., is somewhat obscure. It refers to the alleged desertion of Biian by Maol- 
seachlainn on the eve of the battle. It has here all the appearance of an^terpolation ; 
and it is noteworthy that the three MSS. TED omit it, continuing natnraJQy at 
line 3, } 29 : 7 -oo i\oinfi«At>Ai\, etc. The romantic tale of the battle in the Jf'salter 
of Tara (H. I. 15, Trin. Coll. Xhiblin) gives the passage more intelligibly thus : 
**1A|\ cctt|v DO bfiAn An oii>de poiihe pw tnAolf©AdliMnii tn6|\ Af a diAlldos^^^ 
TM) x>foiU.p$ t>o $AllAib t>|\iAn x>o chn|v a ihic tlon^Ai^ 50 n|g;lArt4nh> 7 5<> 
cc)[\iAn fleAchcA eojAin tll6tj\ t>o cp«a£a lAiS^Ati ec tb CionnpollAd, tK> 
fionnAch coihAii^te t)o $AitAib b|\iAn t>*ionnf ai Jo 5A11 fw|\eAd ec T)b j;eAtt tnwb 
50 rct\oi^freA'6 ipetn 5onA<> fltiAg t)|\tA« Achc 50 ccoibcfitini«]^A^ in 6aca." 
See also Cog, G<ud, r$ Gall,^ p. 155, $ bacrriii, and p. 169, } xc^. In § 32 the 
charge against Maolseachlainn is repeated, *' tAf n«A foAchnA^ t>o ittAoifeAcH* 
VAinn,' etc. ; and here it is clearly an intorpolatipn. The Cog, Ga4d, rt Gull, reads ; 
*Mf Ant) pn t)A T>ecAYTAit\ tHupdAt) fecA octif ic connAic da letc t>«if C11151 inA 
coinA|\cifc in coen octAd . . . ,t. 'OnnlAn^ O hA|vcn5An," etc, 

§32. "7 A ch|\offigit 1 n-A \Mm ohti, 7 4 Ag CAnCAinn a pfAlw 1 n-A 
fiA'bnAife." Crosfhigkil is here evidently taken to mean a < cnidfix,' which Brian 
held in his left hand. Its real meaning, however, is the extending of the arms in the 
form of a cross while praying. See Milan Glosses, 138 a 2 (Thesaurus i, p. 468) : 
'* .1. cumgabal irma lam hkrosfigill is si hriathar Idm imin, 7 issi briathar s^le 
daxio a cumgabal suas dochum ^dce 7 issi hriathar glunm 7 ckos afilliud/ri slechtan 
7 issi briathar choirp daxiO intan roichther do dia ocsUchtan 7 chrosigill/* * i.e. the 
raising of the hands in cross- vigil, that is, the word of the hands, and the word of the 
eyes, moreover, is the raising of them up to God, and the word of the knees and of 
the legs is the bending of them in prostration, and the word of the body, moreover, 
is when it is extended to God in prostration and cross-vigil.* Cf. also a gloss to 
BroccdrCs H3rmn (Thesaurus^ ii. 331) : ** uu 6/iadna roboi Coemgen inna sessam i 
[njGlind da Locha acht clar/oi namd, 7 se cen choilud frisin re sin nt fenint inna 
crosfigiU CO ndemsat na h/oin a nnitu inna glacaib ut ferunt." ' Seven years was 
Coemgen standing in Glendalough, with only a board under him, and he without 
sleep during that time, as they say, in his cross-vigil, so that the birds made their 
nests in his hands.' 

§ 37. Something is omitted here ; P inserts after Ainip|\, line 5, do chic Ann niA|\ 
An cceA<>nA CA'b^, etc., keeping the proper names in the nom. 

§ 59. Conghalach, son of Conchobhar son of Finn, lord of Ui-Failghe, dies in ioi7i 
according to the Four Masters. This plundering of the Ui Cinnseallaigh by Maol- 
seachlainn is twice recorded by them, in 1014 and 1015. 



io6 R. I. BEST 

i 65. eifAcYi Ati t>t]ibiie6it ifxclifA refers to an eclipse of the sun which toc^L 
place this year. See AU. a.d. 1023. 

§ 67. Af n-A bjVAich t)o bAtAT) Ati cpotitiAig. Thc meaning of this is not quite 
clear to me ; it would seem to be ' on his [Cuan] being taken by the scent of the 
fox.' This detail is not recorded in any of the other annals. In the Letibhar fta 
gCeart, p. xliii, O'Donovan quotes an old translation of the Annals of Ulster on the 
death of Cuan O Lothch&in ; but the printed version of the Annals does not admit 
of this rendering : " A.D. 1024, Cuan O'Lochan, arch-poet of Ireland, [was] killed 
treacherously by the men of Tehva, ancestor of [the] Foxes ; they stunk after, 
whereby they got the name of Foxes, a miracle showed of the poet." The Bodleian 
Annals of Innisfallen record the name of Cuan's murderer (O'Conor, Return. Hib^ 
ScriptoreSy ii, 57), ** ocus infer ro marb do marbadfo chetoir .i. m, Gillai^Ultain m. 
Rodoiib:' 



teAbAti omis 



107 



Index of Persons. 



Aibroc or Ambroc, 27. 

Amhlaobh mac Amhlaoibh, ri Gall 

Eireann, 11. 
Amhlaobh mac Laighmainn, 38. 
Amnchadha riogh O'liathiin, gen., 58. 
Anradh mac Eibhric. better Elbhric, 27, 

33, 38. 
Aodh mac Domhnaill I N^ill, ri Oiligh, 

14, 51- 

Aodh Guineach O Dtinghaile, ri Miun- 

han, 31. 
Aodh mac Lochlainn, ri 6 gCuanach, 31. 
Aodh 6 Flaithbheartaigh, ri Muimitire 

Murchadha, 31. 
[Aodh] uaRuairc, 7. 
Aongus mac Carrtha [better Carraigh] 

Chalma, 62. 
Aj-alt mac Amhlaoibh, 8. 
Ardgair, gen., 11, 14, 15. 
Asgal or Asgadhal macGofraidh, ri 

Thirean tSneachta, 27. 



Baodan mac Dtinlaing, ri 6 gConaill 
iarthair Laighean, 30 ; ri iarthair Lifie, 

38. 
Bran, gen. Broin, 47, 53. 
Brian B6roimhe mac Cinn^digh, passim, 
Brighde, £611 Brighde, 10. 
Brodar, gen. Brodair, 26, 29, 35. 
Brogharban mac Conchubhair, ri (J 

bFailghe, 38. 



Cairbre mac C16ircin, ri ua gCairbre, 54. 
Carolus, gen. Carolusa, mac righ Loch- 

lann, 8, 27, 32, 38. 
Cathal mac C6in mic Duibhdibhoireann, 

i4- 
Cathal mac Conchobhair, ri Connacht, 

31, 32. 

Cathal mac Donnabhiin, ri 6 gCairbre, 

30. 
Cathal mac Maoilmhuaidh, 48. 



Cearbhall ri Oirghiall, 30. 

C6iliochair, 29. 

Cian mac Cuil^in, ri ua gConaill Gabhia, 

72. 
Cian mac Maoilmhuaidh, 5, 6, 7, etc. 
Ceann6idigh, 29. 
Coir na Liagog, 26. 
Conaing mac Duinnchuan, 32, 37, 39, 

50. 
Conall mac Eigeartaigh, 72. 
Conchubhar mac Briain, 29. 
Conchubhair (5 Maoilruanaidh, ri Muighe 

Luirg, 31. 
Conghalach mac Conchubhair i Failghe, 

59. 
Core mac Luighdheach, 53. 
Cormac mac Airt, 36, 38. 
Cormac Cas, 43. 
Cuan 6 Lothchdin, 53, 67. 
Cuar&n, 38. 

Cuilchin, a harper, gen., 53. 
Cuilein Eiginnain 4rdmhaoir Lochlan- 

nach, gen., 8. 



Danair, 2». 

Domhnall Claon, ri Laighean, 5, 8. 

Domhnall mac Briain, 29. 

Domhnall mac Carthannaigh d'Ibh 

Caisin, 63. 
Domhnall raacDiarmoda, ri Chorca- 

bhaiscne, 31. 
Domhnall mac Duibhdabhoireann, ri 

Chin6il Laoghaire, 30, 44, 47, 48, 49, 

50» 54, 56, 62. 
Domhnall mac Eibhir, 37. 
Domhnall mac Faoldin, ri na nD6ise, 2 ; 

OF. 3. 
Domhnall mac Seanchuin, 72. 
Donnchadh mac Briain, 34, 42-46, 54- 

56, 62, 63, 69, 72. 
Donnchadh macCathail, ri Muscraighe 

hAodha, 31. 
Donnchadh mac Domhnaill Claoin, 12. 
Donnchuan mac Dtinlaing, 60. 



io8 



R. I. BEST 



Donnshleibhe mac Maoilmhordha, d., 

66. 
Dubhghall mac Amhlaoibh, 38. 
Dubhthach, 53. 
Dunghal 6 Donnchadha, ri Eoghanachta 

Locha L€in, 58. 
Dunghal 6 Donnchadha, ri Chaisil, 68. 
Dtinlaing 6 hArtagiin, 32. 



Eachtar, Hector, 50. 

Eachtigheam mac Dorniagdin, ri Aradh, 

31. 
Eibhric or Elbhric, 27, 33, 38. 
Eochaidh Ardghair or mac Ardghair, ri 

Uladh, II, 14, 15. 
Eoghan mac Cuirc, 72. 
Eoghan M6r, 27, 28, 30, 36, 42, 43. 



Fianghalach, 29. 

Fionn mac Cumhaill, 36. 

Fiomi mac Ruadhraighel Domiagdin, ri 

Aradh, 58. 
Flann mac Briain, 29. 
Flann mac Maoilsheachlainn, 24. 
Flaithbheartach 6 Neill, 58. 
Foghartach mac Dornhnaill, ri Mumhan, 

31. 



Geibheannach mac Dubhagdin, ri bFear 

Muighe, 30, 37. 
Giolla Ciariin mac Gluniardin, 38. 
Giolla Coluim 6 hAodha, ri Teabhtha. 
Giolla Padraig mac Doimchadha, ri Os- 

raighe, 5. 
Giolla Ult4in, 29. 
Gluniarain, gen., 38. 
Gofraidh, gen., 27. 
Grisin, 38. 



Imhar Phuirt Lairge, 2. 
lonnrachtach, 29. 



Laidin giolla Briain, 34. 

Liath na loingse, 27. 

Loingseach mac Ddnlaing, ri O gConaill 

Ghabhra, 30. 
Longbhrogan, 29. 
Lugh Liimhfhada, 36. 
Luimin, 38. 



^lac Beathaigh mic jMuireadhaigh, ri 

Ciarraighe Luachra, 30, 37. 
Mac Brogdin, gen., bainrigh 6 bFailghe, 

30. 
Mac Coisi, 48. 

Mac Cosgair, ri iarthair Connacht, 6. 
Mac Craith 6 Donnchadha. 72. 
iMac Domhnaill mic Duibhdabhoireann, 

64. 
Mac Giolla Chaoimh, 51, 53. 
Mac Giolla Phddraig, 45, 46, 72. 
Mac Gadhra mic Dunaghaidh, ri O 

Maine, 72. 
Mac Liag, 4rd-ollamh Eireann, 49, 50, 

53, 62. 
Mac Muireadhaigh, 7 1 . 
Mac Tuathail, rf Liffe, gen., 30. 
Maguidhir, ri bFear Manach, 30. 
Maolin, 53. 

Maolcholuim Caoinridheach, 55. 
Maolm6rdha mac Lorcain, ri O gCinn- 

sealaigh, 66. 
Maolm6rdha mac Murchadha, ri Laigh- 

ean, 5, 8, 12, 23, 24, 28, 29, 30, 38. 
Maolmuadh, see Cian mac Maoilmhuaidh. 
Maolmuire mac Eochaidh comharba 

Phadraig, 34, 39. 
Maolnianaidh O hEidhin, ri Aidhne, 31, 

38. 
^laolnianaidh 6 Maoildoraidh, ri tuais- 

ceirt Chin^il Chonaill, 21, 71. 
Maolrinn,ri 5 hEnda, 31. 
Maolseachlainn God, ri Midhe, 70. 
Maolseachlainn mac Conchubhair, rf 

Corcamniadh, 72. 
Maolseachlainn mac Domhnaill, ri Ei- 
reann, I, 7, 13, 14, 48, 58-61. 
Maolsuthain, 19/x. 
Mathghamhain mac Cein, 54, 56, 58, 62, 

69. 
Mocholm6g, 47. 

Mogha Nuadhat mac Mogha N^d, 36. 
Mothla mac Faoldin, ri na nDeise, 30 ; 

m. Domhnaill ipic Faolain, 37. 
Muircheartach mac Anamchadha, ri 

d Liath&in, 30. 
Muircheartach mac Cuirc, ri Muscraighe 

Bhreoghain, 31. 
Muircheartach (5 Ceallaigh, ri Con- 

mhaicne Mara, 31. 
Muirghis mac Conchubhair, ri Connacht, 

6. 
Murchadh mac Briain, 8, 24, 29, 32, 33, 
37, 39, 40» 50, 51, 54. 



leAb^n omis 



109 



<5 Carthanain, 29. 

Ochtifin Instint for Ochtifin Auguist, 39. 

(3 Donnagain, ri Aradh, 55. 

O Dubhghara, ri Oirghiall, 30. 

O Laodhagdin, 29. 

d Ruadhag4in, ri Oirghiall, 30. 

Oitir Dubh, 38. 



±:'4draig, 34, 39, 40. 
Plait, 27, 38. 



Raghallach mac Maoilmhuaidh, 48. 



Sadhbh, gen. Saidhbh, inghean Briain, 

49, 56. 
Sganlan mac Cathail, ri Locha L^in, 30. 
Sitric or Sitrioc mac Amhlaoibh, 24, 69. 



Sitric macLodair, iarla Inse hOrc, 26, 

29, 33, 38. 
Storchadh mac riogh Fionn Lochann, 

33«. 

Suagair or Suartgair, 38. 



Tail, ancestor of Brian, 53. 

Tadhg macBriain, 29. 39, 55, 56, 64; 

(5 Briain, 42. 
Tadhg mac Giolla Phadraig, 7 1 . 
Tadhg 6 Ceallaigh, ri 6 Maine, 31, 32, 

37. 

Toirrdhealbach mac Murchadha, 29, 32, 

37. 



Ua Ruairc, i.e. Aodh, 57. 

Ugaire mac Dunlaing, ri Laighean, 66. 



no 



R. I. BEST 



Index of Places and Tribes. 



Aidhne, gen. Kiltartatiy bar. Co. Galway, 

32. 
Alban, gen., Highlands of Scotland, 39. 
Aradh, gen., now bar. of Arra, N.W. 

Tipperary, 31. 
Ardmacha, gen. here Ardamacha, 34, 

39, 42, 60. 
Xth Cliath, Z>wW?>i, 8, 11, 24, 27, 29, 

59, 60, 69. 
Ath na gCreach, 53. 
Ath na nEach, 53. 
Ath Liag; Ath League^ a ford on the 

Shannon, 6. 
Ath Luain, AMone^ 12, 13. 

B6thar na gCarbad, 53. 

B6thar na Muilte, 53. 

Breagh, dat. pi. Breaghaibh, in Co. 

Meath, 40, 69. 
Breifne, Counties Leitrim and Cavan, 6. 
Buidhe, ri na Buidhe, Bally adams. 

Queen's Co., 58. 

Chaire Ebroc or Aibhroc, gen. York, 29, 

38. 

Chaim I N€id, gen., Mizen Head, S. 

Cork, 52. 
Caiseal, gen. Chaisil, Cashel, 53, 68. 
Ceann Coradh, near Killaloey 21, 41, 50, 

69, 70. 
Ceann-eich, now Kinneigh^ Co. Kildare, 

Ciarraighe LtiachrX, North Kerry, 30. 

Cilldara, Kildare, 60. 

Cill Maighneann, Kilmainham, 24, 39, 
42. 

Chille Muine, g., KiUevin, St. David's, 
Pembrokeshire, 26. 

Cin6il gConaill,.g., Tirconnell, Co. Done- 
gal, 15. 

Cin^il Eoghain, g., Tyrone, 15. 

Cin^il Laoghaire meic Floinn, gen., 
Iveleary, Co. Cork, 30, 53. 

Chinntire, g. Cantire, 26. 



Claonloch Sl^ibhe Fuaid, near Newtown- 
Hamilton, 19. 
Clann Briain, 43, 47. 
Clann Duinnchuain, 29. 
Cloinne Cais, g. 53. 
Cluain Fearta Breanuinn, Clonfert, 71. 
Cluain Finnabhair, 2. 
Cluain loraird, Cionard, 60. 
Cluain mic N6is, Clonmacnoise, 48. 
Cluana Tarbh, g., Clontarf, 32, 41, 54. 
Coill Chomair, Comar, now Castlecomer 

in Ossory, O'D., 10. 
Coir na Liag6g, 26. 
Conmhaicne, in Counties Longford and 

Leitrim, 29. 
Conmhaicne Mara, Connemara, 31. 
Connacht, 6, 13, 14, 24, 31, 39, 69. 
Corcabhaiscinn, in Co. Clare, 31. 
Corcaluighde, S. W. of Co. Cork, 6. 
Corcach, g. Corcaighe, d. Corcaigh, 

Cork, 2, 4, 6, 67, 68. 
Corcamruadh, Corcomroe, Co. Clare. 
Corr-Bhreathnaigh Chille Muine, Corr- 

Britonsof-S/. David'' s, Pembrokeshire, 

26. 
Craoibhe Tulcha, g. Crewe Mount, Co. 

Antrim, 14, 15. 
Cro Inis Locha hAinninne, Croitinish in 

Lough Ennell, Westmeath, 61. 
Cruachdin, Rathcroghan, in Connaught, 

69. 

D4il n-Araidhe, gen., Co, Antrim, 16. 
Dil Cais, 6, 28, 29, 32, 33, 42, 44, 47. 
Damhliag Ciandin, Duleek, Co. Louth, 

34, 39- 
Deisi, Decies, Co. Waterford, 30. 
Deasmhumhan, South Munster, 30. 
Ddn Droighn6in, Dundrinane, near 

Bandon, Co. Cork, 53. 
Dtin Saidhbhe, 53, see Raith Saidbhe. 

Eachaidh di eo, petter Achadh-da-eo, 

d., Aghadoe near Killamey, 19. 
^adair, Ben Edair, Howth, 24. 



teAbAti omis 



III 



Easruaidh, Assaroe, near Ballyshannon, 

17- 
EiUbh, d. pi. of EUe or EU, Ely 

O" Carroll, in King's Co. and Co, 

Tipperary, 64. 
Eireann, gen., passim, 
Eireannaigh, 36. 
Eoghanacht Locha L^in, E. of Lake 

Killaraey, 58. 

F4il, gen., bfear bFaU, 52. 

Fan mic Caoinreach, or Fan-Connrach 
in Co. Waterford (?), 3. See Cog, 
Gaed.y cxxxix, n. 2, and p. 102, n. 2. 

Fomorchaibh, d. pi., Fomorians, 36. 

Fear Manach, Fermanagh; 30. 

Fear Muighe, gen. pi., Fermoy, 30. 

Fraingc, dat., France, 39. 

Gaill or GoiU, Danes, 3, 9» 24, 25, 28, 

29» 32, 35» 38- 
GaiU Atha CUath, 8, 14, 23, 29. 3^1 32. 
Gaill Eireann, 8, 11, 16. 
Gaothlaighibh Meodheonacha, 27, t,e, 

the Palus Afaeotis, G4ethlach Meo- 

tecda,LL.,p. II *. 5^^ Meyer: Cath 

Finntraga, p. 76. 
Gleann da Locha, Glendalough, 60. 
Gleann M4ma, near Dunlavin, Co. 

Wicklow, 8, II. 
Gleann Sarahuisge, 36. 
Gr6ig, dat., Greece, 51, 52- 
Gr^in Cliach, 58. 



larthair Laighean, 30. 

larthair Lifife, 38. 

Imligh lubhair, gen., Emly, 4. 

Innsi an Ghoill Duibh, in the Shannon, 

SO. 
Innse Cat, gen., 26. 



Laighen, Laighnigh, Leinster, Leinster- 

men, 8, 9, 10, \2, 14, 17, 23-25, 28, 

29, 32» 38» 42, S^y 66. 
Leasa M6ir, gen., Lismore, 4. 
Leath Cuinn, northern half of Ireland, 

7, 12, 22. 
Leithe Mogha, gen., southern half of 

Ireland, 7. 
Leithlinn, Letghlin, in Co. Carlow, 58. 



Leodhusa, Isle of Lewis, 26. 

Liffe, 30. 

Loch Derg Dheirc, Lough Derg, 6. 

Lochlann,Lochlannaigh, Norway, Norse' 

men, 8, 9, 26, 27, 29, 31-33, 36, 38, 

53 ; Fionn Lochlann, 33 n. 
Locha Ldin, gen., Killamey, 30. 
Loch Rai, Loch Ree, 6. 
Lughmaigh, dat., Louth, 34, 39. 
Luimhneach, Limerick, 

Magh nAoi, between Roscommon and 

Elphin, 57. 
Magh Airgead-rois, on the Nore, Co. 

Kilkenny, 60. 
Magh Breagh, Plain of Bregia, Co. 

Meath, 23. 
Magh GuiUdhe, 47, 48, 54. 
Maighinn an Choruinn, dat., in Con- 
naught, 21. 
Maigh Line, dat. Moylena, King's Co., 

16. 
Maigh Luirg (Muighe Luirg), gen,, Moy- 

lurg, Co. Roscommon, 31. 
Magh Muirthemhne, in Co. Louth, 22. 
Magh Nuadat, Maynooth, 7. 
Manainne, gen., Isle of Man, 26. 
Midhe, Meath, 6, 9, 14, 23, 32, 69, 70. 
Muinntire Murchadha, 31. 
Mullach Maistean, Mullaghmast, near 

Athy, 42. 
Mumhan, gen., Munster ; Muimnigh, 

Munstermen, 2, 3, etc. 
Muscraighe hAodha, gen., 31. 
Muscraighe Bhreoghain, bar. of Clan^ 

wHliam, S. W. Co. Tipperary, 31. 

Oiledn Lochlannach, 26. 

Oiligh, gen. of Oileach or Aileach, 

ELagh, Innishowen. 
Oirir Graoidheal, gen., Argyle, lb. 
Oirghiall, Oriel, 30. 
drthanniin, the Jordan, 51. 
Osraighe, Ossory, 5, 24, 45, 46, 69. 

Parrthais, Paradise, 51. 

Port da Chaomh6g, 7. 

Port Lairge, Waterford, 2, 6, 14. 

Rdith R4ithleann, in parish of Temple- 
martin, near Bandon, Co. Cork ; see 
a most interesting note by Father 
Lyons on site of Raithleann in Gael. 
Jour,, vii, p. 94 ; 49, 53. 



112 



R. I. BEST 



Raith Chuain, near R. Raithleaim, 53. 

Riith Chuirc, i,e. R. R., 53. 

Raith Chuilcin, RathculUen, near R. R. 

S3. 
Riith Ch€in, i,e, R. R&ithleann, 53. 
Riith buime Chuirc, near R. R., 53. 
Rdith na gCuach, near R. R., 53. 
Rdith bean Toma, near R. R., 53. 
Rdith Moir i Moigh Line, Moylena^ 

King's Co., 16. 
Rdith Saidhbhe, near R. R., 53. 
R6imh, dat., Romey 53. 



Saxon, gen., Saxons^ 39. 

Sgithi, Skye, 26. 

Siol or Sleacht £ibhir Fhinn, 48. 

Sionainn, the Shannon^ 6, 49. 

Sleachta Eoghain ^Ih6ir, gen., 28, 30. 

Sliabh Fuaid, Fews Mountain^ Co. 

Armagh, 16, 19. 
Sleibhtibh Riffe, dat. pi., Riffeanor Ural 

Mountains, 27. 
Sord Coluim CiUe, Swords, Co. Dublin, 

34» 39, 60. 

Teabhtha, part of Counties Longford and 

Westmeath, 29, 59. 
Teamhra, gen., Tara, 61. 
Tearmann Caimin, 24. 



Tearmann Feichin, Tertnonfeckin, Co. 

Louth, 33. 
Tire an tSneachta, Norway, 27. 
Tuathmhumhan, Thomond, 29. 

Ui Briain, 29. 

Ui Cairbre, in Co. Cork, 30. 

Ui Caisin, in Co. Clare, 63. 

Ui Cinnsealaigh, Hy Kinsela, Co. Wex- 
ford, 59, 66. 

Ui ConaiU Gabhra, ConneUo, Co. Lime- 
rick, 30, 72. 

Ui Conaill, iarthar Laighean, 30. 

Ui Cuanach, Coonagh, E. Limerick, 31. 

UiEachach, Iveagh, Co. Cork, 6, 42, 

44» 53. 
Ui &da, S. of Innishowen, Co. Donegal, 

31. 

Ui Failghe, Offaly, Co. Kildare, 30. 

Ui Feichin, 53. 

Ui GioUa Phidraig, 72. 

Ui Liath&in, near Barrymore, Co. Cork, 

30. 
Ui Maine, Hy-manyy Counties Galway 

and Roscommon, 31. 
Ui Maoildoraidh, 59, 60. 
Ui Muireadhaig, in S. Co. Kildare, 71. 
UiNeill, 11,51, 59, 60. 
Uiisneach, in Co. Westmeath, 6. 
Uladh, gen., Ultaibh, dat., Ulster, 14, 

15. 22, 51. 



THE DEATH OF CONLA. 

THE following version of this well-known tale is here edited 
and translated for the first time from the only copy in 
the Yellow Book of Lecan, pp. 2 140-2 15^. 

So far as I know, this is the oldest setting of the story 
that has come down to us. It may be safely ascribed to the 
ninth century, so that we can follow the development of the 
legend for a thousand years down to the versions still current 
among the people both in Ireland and Scotland. To the 
manuscript sources enumerated in Jubainville's Catalogue^ p. 16, 
may be added one contained in an eighteenth-century manu- 
script of the Advocates' Library, marked LXII. In the March 
number of the Fortnightly Review of this year, Mr. Stephen 
Gwynn has published a fragment of a poetical version taken 
down in Kerry. Mr. J. G. O'Keeffe has undertaken the edition 
and translation of a very curious version from a legal manu- 
script, which will be found infra^ p. 123. 

I am indebted to Professor Strachan for a much-needed 
collation of my transcript from the facsimile with the original 
manuscript, and for several improvements of my rendering. 

KUNO MEYER. 



114 KUNO MEYER 



Aided* Enfir Aifi andso. 

1. Cia fochanw ara^ romarb Cucuk^Wa mac? 

Ni hansa. Luid Cucnlaind do forceatal gaiscid la Scathaig 
nUanaiwd ingin^ Airdgeme il-'Le^Asi co wdergene suithi cleas 
lea.* 7 luid Aifi ingen Airdgeme chuici 7 ba torrach forfacaib* 
7 asb^/t fr/a nob^rad mac. " Bid ind or[d]nasc n-orda sa acud," 
or se, " corop coimsi don mac. Intan bas coimse do, taetadA 
dom chuindchid-sea* inn-Ere 7 nachamb^read aenfer dia conair 
7 nachasloindedh do aenfer 7 na femded' comland oenfir." 

2. Doluid in mac dia secht rnhXiadan do chuindchid a athar. 
Is and badar Ulaid 1 n-aendail oc Tracht Eisi ar a chind, co 
n-acadar> in mac cucu iarsmd farce 7 luingine chreduma fo 
suidhe 7 ramada diorda ina laim. Cam* cloch aid isin luing. 
Dobered' cloich ina crandtabaill 7 dosleged tathbe[i]m forsna 
heonu,* congebead na airb^rthe dib, it e beoa,* condaleigid uad 
isinn aer doridisi. Imfuirmed a carpad clis \tir a da laim con- 
atairthed suil. Noglesed a guth ddib, ^(7«dafoilged indara fecht. 
Dondiusced* in fecht aile. 

3. " Maith Xral' or Concobar, " mairg thir i' taed in gilla 
ucut/' or se. " Maddis fir mora na hindsi asa taed donistais, 
£^«meltais ar grian,' intan is mac bee dogni in airbert ucut. 
Eirged neach ar a cheand. Nachatelged^ i* tir it/'r." 

" Cia rag^ ar a chind ?" 

" Cia pad cia," ar Concobar, " acht Condere mac Echach ? " 
" Cid 'ma rsigad Condere ? " or each. 

*' Ni Aansa" or Conchobar. " Cid ciall 7 erlabra imab^ra, 
is Conderi as choir and." 

" Ragad-sa ar a chend,"* ol Condere. 

1. * aiged * aar ^ ingine * leaa * 77te second f inserted by 
a later hand, ^ chuindchigsea "^ femdeg 

2. 1 f inserted after con ^ crand s dobmd * o under line. 
* don^uiscedy the second d under the line. 

8. 1 a * ngrian ^ t inserted before t * cend 

* I.e. * the Strand of the Track,' as explamed in § 11. 

*» My rendering of tathhiimm is a mere guess. If the a is long, the word might 
be a compound of tdth^ * a qualm, numbness, surfeit,* P. 0*C., and denote * a 
benumbing or stupefying blow or cast.' If the a is short, the word might be 
resolved into tO'ath-beimm^ and denote a throw with a weapon which returns to 



THE DEATH OF CONLA 115 



The Tragical Death of Aife's only Son. 

1. What was the cause for which Cuchulinn slew his son ? 
Not hard to tell. Cuchulinn went to be taught craft of arms 

by Scathach Uanaind, daughter of Ardgeimm, in Letha, until 
he attained mastership of feats with her. And Aife, daughter 
of Ardgeimm, went to him, and he left her pregnant And he 
said to her that she would bear a son. " Keep this golden 
thumb-ring," said he, " until it fits the boy. When it fits him, 
let him come to seek me in Ireland. Let no man put him off 
his road, let him not make himself known to any one man, nor 
let him refuse combat to any." 

2. That day seven years the boy went forth to seek his 
father. The men of Ulster were at a gathering by Tracht Eisi* 
before him, when they saw the boy coming towards them across 
the sea, a skiff of bronze under him, and gilt oars in his hand. 
In the skiff he had a heap of stones. He would put a stone in 
his staff-sling, and launch a stunning shot^ at the birds, so that 

he brought down ^ and they alive. Then would he let 

them up into the air again. He would perform his palate-feat,* 
between both hands, so that the eye would not reach it (?) He 
would tune his voice for them, and bring them down for the 
second time. Then he revived them once more. 

3. " Well, now," said Conchobar, " woe to the land into which 
yonder lad comes ! " said he. " If gjrown-up men of the island 
from which he comes were to come, they would grind us to 
dust, when a small boy makes that practice. Let some one go 
to meet him ! Let him not allow him to come on (and at all ! " 

" Who shall go to meet him ? " 

" Who should it be," said Conchobar, " but Condere, son of 
Echu?" 

" Why should Condere go ? " said the others. 

" Not hard to tell" said Conchobar. "If it is reason and 
eloquence he practises, then Condere is the proper person." 

" I shall go to meet him," said Condere. 

the hurler like the boomerang. Either meaning would suit our passage as well as 
all others where the word occurs : compare } 7. See Windisch, s.v. tdithbUm, 

<^ na airberthe dib is obscure to me. 

^ a carpad cits, literally * his palate of feat.* Cf, uball cliss, Bodl. Dinds. 38. 

K 



Ii6 KUNO MEYER 

4. Luid Condere larum 7 is and rogab in mac traig in tan 
sin. 

"Is loor dotheig, a macain," or Condere, **co fesamar cid 
notheig 7 can do chenel." 

"Nimsloindem do aenfiur," or in gilla, "7 ni imgabaim 
enfer." 

" Ni targa i^ tir," or Conderi, " co rudsloindi." 

" R6gaf a lefA dia tuitched,"' or in gilla. 

5. Imsai as in mac. Is and asbert Conderi : " Tinta frim/ 
a mo maze, ad m5rgnima» at fola ferdomna ardan errad Ulad 
cucad. Ardodcobra Conchobar. Cairptine cleitiniu clar cle 
conid san erredo JJlad uargab«^. Ardo[t]cobra Concobar. 
Contaidis cluas duid dian do thrift. Tinta co Concobar, co mac 
nithach Nesa, co Sencha mac Coscra, co ilcloin, co Cethimd mac 
faebard^fg Fintain, co tenid leonas ergala, co hAimirgin n-eices,* 
CO Cumscraid* mdrmwmech. Mochen ardad Conall Cemach 
cobrat^ar tAurtAea* ceola gairi latAlond Cathb^ bad buada 
bron la Blai brigiu bem* sechai. Cia so laech daig ni»iardraic 
ilar ruice lasoaitA berar atr^tsa* fod^n Concri co tulad com mac 
argair curaid acAf bages dam-sa ar inti Conniri tuidecht ar 
ceand in gilla;* cen ulcha cen caither acAf manip irlat^^ di 
Ultaib." 

6. " Is maid ron [p. 214 6] taedais,"* or in gilla. " Rodbia-so 
didtu th' acallaim. Glesus gotha lee sin uaim irchora cen imrolla 
cairpthineb comlamuis cainsreth saigthinwj ' ar cletinib cianaib 
cen ich n-errad nsdlius. baigsi«a ar mdrgnimaib gaiscid nad- 
ragbad nech forbuis form fasaig seo let co hUlto in (eraim sea 
for galaib aenfir no ar linaib fer fomdul. Sai as aridisi ! " ar in 
gilla. " Air gia nobe^A nert ceit let, nida tualaing mo ergairi." 

" Maith," ar Conderi, " taed nech aile iarum dot acallaim." 
Luid iarum Conderi co hUltu 7 adfed in sin. 

7. " Ni ba fir," ol Conall Cernach, " enech Ulad do breith 
c€iv} am* beo-sa." 

Luid sem dXdiu do saighidh in maic. 
" Is alaind do cluichi,' a macain ! " ar Conall. 
" Ni ba frit bus etchiu," or in gilla. 

Dolai in gilla cloich ina tabaill. Dusleigi isann adr .i. tath- 
beim, co riacht a bressim 7 a torand ac techt siias co Conall. 

4. la 2tuit/tced 

6. 1 altered into tintai rim ' eigis ^ cums added above the line, 

* e inserted under the line. * perhaps bein * the second t inserted under the line. 



THE DEATH OF CONLA 117 

4. So Condere went just as the boy took the beach. 

" Thou hast come far enough, my good boy," said Condere, 
" for us to know whither thou goest and whence is thy race." 

" I do not make myself known to any single man," said the 
lad, " nor dd I avoid any man." 

" Thou shalt not land," said Condere, " until thou hast made 
thyself known." 

" I shall go whither I have set out," said the lad. 

5. The boy turned away. Then said Condere : " Turn to 

me, my boy,' Conchobar protects thee Turn to 

Conchobar, the valiant son of Ness ; to Sencha, the son of 
Coscra ; to Cethem, the red-bladed son of Fintan, the fire that 
wounds battalions ; to Amergin the poet ; to Cumscraid of the 

great hosts. Welcome he whom Conall Cernach protects 

to go to meet the unripe,** beardless youth, unless the men of 
Ulster permit it" 



6. " Thou hast ... us well," said the lad. " Therefore shalt 
thou have thy answer. . . . Turn back again ! " said the lad. 
" For though thou hadst the strength of a hundred, thou art not 
able to check me." 

" Well," said Condere, " let someone else go to speak to 
thee!" 

So Condere went to the men of Ulster and told them. 

7. " It shall not be," said Conall the Victorious, " that the 
honour of Ulster be carried off while I am alive." 

Then he went towards the boy. 
" Thy play is pretty, my good boy," said Conall. 
" It will not be less pretty^ against thee," said the lad. 
The lad put a stone in his sling. He sent it into the air, so 
that its noise and thunder as it went up reached Conall, and 

■ Here follows a so-called * rhetoric,* which, like the others scattered throughout 
the text, I can only partially translate. 

b cen caither, literally, * without the hair of pubescence.' See my Contribu- 
tions, S.V. cather, and add : co corrin chaithrech, Acall. 3642 «. sgreball caethrech 
edir mn4i 7 fir, O'Don., Hy Many, p. 60. Hence also the female name Aitteti' 
chaithrech^ * fuzzy- haired,' sometimes corrupted into Etan-chaithrech, 

c etchiUf comparative of itig, * ugly,* spelt ^tach in § 10. 

6. * Altered from tidais * g added under the line, 

7. * gin 2 um cluithi 



ii8 KUNO MEYER 

Focher[d] Conall dar a cheand. Riasiu addre^A/, dobert in gilla 
sciathraig a sceith for a lama. 

" Nech aile fris ! " or Conall. 

Darad tra gen forsin sluag fon ind^^^ sin. 

8. Bai Cuculaind immorro oc a cluichiu oc dul adochum* in 
gilla^* 7 lam Emeire ingine Forgaill dar a bragaid. " Na teig 
sis I " ar si. " Mac duit fil tis. Na fer finga[i]l 'mot enmac. Co 
sechnom a mate saigthig soailte.* Ni soaig na soairle coimergi 
frit mac mbxgaimach mor n-esad artai o riad cnis focloc 5t biliu 
bai cotaith fri Scaithci' seel. Mad C^wlai cesad clar cle comad 
fortem^« taidbe^A/. Tinta frim ! Cluinti mo chlois ! Fo mo 
cose. Bad Cuculaind cloodar! Adgen-sa cid ain;;^ asi^^d on 
masa* Conlai enmac Aifi in mac fil tis," or in bean. 

9. Is andsin asbert Cuculaind : " Coisc, a bean ! ni coisc mna 
admainiur morgnimaib asa coscaib gle. Ni gnithear do ban- 
cobro bam ^ gnim buadach no buideach na ruisc na ruireach dc 
fola form chnis cru cuirp Conlai. Cain sug set gai in cleitine 
cain. Cid he nobeith and, a hen" ar se, " nangonaind-se* ar 
inchaib Ulad. 

10. Is and sin luid sfs^ fesin. " Is alaind, a macain, in c.uichi 
dogni," or se. 

" Is etach for cluichiu-se cetamus," or in mac bee, " nach taed 
dias iiaib coromsloindi-sea d5ib." 

" In curub eigin mac lecci* im farrad-sa on," or Cuculaind. 
" Adbela-so immorro menx sloindi." 

"Bid fir," or in gilla. 

Adnaig in mac cuici. Immustuaircid. Nosb^n- in gilla 
mail fair cosin claideb .i. bem co fomus. 

" Is CO cend in cuidbiud ! " or Cuculaind. " Tiagam do 
imthrascrad AidiuV^ 

11. "Ni rosi do chris," ol in mac. Rogob in mac for da 
cloich, CO tarad Coinculaind eitir na da coirthi fo thri 7 ni 
rogluais in mac nechtar a da chois dona corthaib co ndechudar 
a traigthi isna clochaib conici a da n-adbrond. Ata slicht a da 
chos and beos. Is de ata Traig Esi la hUltu. Lodar didiu 
isin muir do imbadud^ co rambaid in mac fa d5. Luid risin 
mac iarum ata uisci co robregai cosinn gai mbulga, ar ni 

8. ^ addocfon {the first d cutded under the line), > added under the line. ' The 
second c inserted under the line, * After masa a later hand has inserted mat, 

9. * Perhaps bain ' nomgonaindse 



THE DEATH OF CONLA 119 

threw him on his back. Before he could rise, the lad put the 
strap of his shield upon his arms, 

" Someone else against him ! " said Conall. 

In that way he made mockery of the host 

8. Cuchulinn, however, was present at his game, going 
towards the boy, and the arm of Emer, Forgall's daughter, over 
his neck. " Do not go down ! " said she. " It is a son of thine 
that is down there. Do not murder thy only son ! ... It is not 
fair fight nor wise to rise up against thy son. , . . Turn to me ! 
Hear my voice ! My advice is good. Let Cuchulinn hear it ! 
I know what name he will tell, if the boy down there is Conla, 
the only son of Aife," said the woman. 

9. Then said Cuchulinn : " Forbear, woman ! Even 

though it were he who is there, woman," said he, " I would kill 
him for the honour of Ulster." 

10. Then he went down himself. "Delightful, my boy, is 
the play which thou makest," said he. 

" Your play, though, is not so," said the little boy, " that two 
of you did not come, so that I may make myself known to 
them." 

" It would have been necessary to bring a small boy along 
with me," said Cuchulinn. " However, thou wilt die unless thou 
tellest thy name." 

** Let it be so ! " said the lad. 

The boy makes for him. They exchange blows. The lad, 
by a properly measured stroke with the sword, crops off Cuchu- 
linn's hair. 

" The mockery has come to a head ! " says Cuchulinn. 
" Now let us go to wrestle ! " 

11. "I cannot reach thy belt," said the boy. He got upon 
two stones, and thrust Cuchulinn thrice between two pillar- 
stones, while the boy did not move either of his feet from the 
stones until his feet went into the stones up to his ankles. The 
track of his feet is there still. Hence is the Strand of the Track 
in Ulster. 

Then they went into the sea to drown each other, and twice 
the boy ducked him. Thereupon Cuchulinn went at the boy 
from the water (?), and played him false with the gai bulga ; for 

10. ^sisi "^ Looks as if altered from \}Qcc\ 

11. * imbadad 



120 KUNO MEYER 

romuin- Scathach do duine riam in gaisced sin acht do 
Coinculaind aenur. Docorustar don mac triasinn uisci co mbai 
a inathar fo chosa. 

1 2. " Is ed on tra," or se, " na romuin Scathach dam-sa ! 
Mairg [p. 215 a] domcrechtnaigis ! " or in mac. 

" Is fir," or Cuculaind. Geibid in mac iarum itir a da laim 7 
nusfuga^ CO tall as 7 nombeir* co tarlaic de ar belaib Ulad. 

" Aso mo mac-sa duib, a Ultu," ar se. 

" Fe amai ! " ar Ulaid 7 " Is fir," ar in mac. " Dia mbeinn- 
sea etraib co cend coic mhliadan, no silfind-se firu in betha 
reimib for each le^A 7 congabthai righi co R5im. Inid ed so 
fill and, inchoisc dam-sa na firu amrai fil isin baile, co romcelebra 
doib.'' 

13. Dobeir iarum a di laim im braigid each fir aruair dib 
7 celebraid dia athair 7 adbail fo chetoir. 

Rolad tra a gair guba 7 a fert .7 a lia ocus co cend tri trath 
nicon reilgthe laig dia mbuaib la hUltu ina diaid. 



FINIT. AMEN. 



11. - ana added above romuin 

12. ^ f inserted above the line, ' ninb^«> 



THE DEATH OF CONLA 121 

to no man had Scathach ever taught the use of that weapon 
save to Cuchulinn alone. He sends it at the boy through the 
water, so that his bowels were about his feet. 

12. **Now, this is what Scathach never taught me! "cried 
the boy. " Woe that thou hast wounded me ! " 

" It is true," said Cuchulinn. He takes the boy between his 
arms, and . . . took it out and carries him till he lets him down 
before the men of Ulster. 

" Here is my son for you, men of Ulster," said he. 

" Alas ! " said the men ; and " It is true," said the boy. " If I 
were among you to the end of five years, I should vanquish the 
men of the world before you on every side, and you would hold 
kingship as far as Rome. Since it is as it is, point out to me 
the famous men that are on the spot, that I may take leave of 
them!" 

13. Thereupon he puts his arms round the neck of one after 
another, bids farewell to his father, and forthwith dies. Then 
his cry of lament was raised, his grave made, and his stone set 
up, and to the end of three days no calf was let to their cows by 
the men of Ulster, to commemorate him. 



FINIT. AMEN. 



ANECDOTON. 

THE following hymn to the Blessed Virgin is printed from 
the MS. 23 N 10, R.I.A., p. 18. In the MS. it bears the 
superscription "Columcille c^aW/**: — 

A Muire min maithingen tapair {\xrtdxht dtin. 

A cnol chuirp cAomdeta ! a comrair na run ! 
A rigAan na rigAraide, a nao;«ingen ogh, 

Ail diin co rodilgaitAe triut ar tdLvmth&ct trogh. 
A tn)cuire, a dilgedach, co rath spirat^ ngloin, 

Guid lind \n ri firbr^/AacA don cloind cumhra cain.' 
A croeb do cloind lesse isin cAollcaill coimh, 

Ail damA ^^ombisse* dilgud mo cuil chloin. 
A Muire, a mind mormaisech, rotsaorais ar sil. 

A lesmaire lormaisech ! a lubgort na riogA ! 
A ligach ! a loinderrda co ngni;« gensa ngil ! 

A argoir cain coindealta ! A noeimgein do neimh ! 
A mathuir na firin«e, rocindis ar each, 

Guid^ lemsa do pnmgeine Aom saorad a mbrath. 
A buadach, a bunata, a buidn^r^, a bale, 

GuidA lend Crist cu/«arA/ach, t'athuir is do mac. 
A retla ran roguide ! A bile fo blath ! 

A sudrall tren toguide! A grian guides each t goires each! 
A arr^rf* na hoUoirbe tresacing each caid^, 

Gurab tu ar comairge docum rigtig* rain. 
A chathair caom cumraidAe dodraogAa in ri 

OllaigAe boi at urbruinde txemsi co ba tn. 
A rigdorais rogaidAe tnasarchin i eri 

Grien taithnemAach togaide Isu m^e De bii 
Ar egnaire na caomgeine rocompred it bru, 

Ar ecnaire in aongene is airdrig in cacA dii, 
Ar egnare a croichesium is uasle gach croich, 

Ar ecnaire a adnacail atrana,cAt i cloieh, 
Ar ecnaire a esergi asraracht ria each, 

Ar ecnaire in naobtA^AlaigA as gach du do brath, 
Gorop tu ar comairei a flaith comde cain, 

Condechssim la Alsagan alme cenbe (?) mair. 

J. STRACHAN. 

^ Under a is written e. * After the verse which ends m the 

middle of a line comes a scribal note : spaigA asgol nocotigi lua» aoine dotsuifuradA. 
3 leg. conomb^-se ? * leg, drad * leg, rigi 



CUCHULINN AND CONLAECH. 

THE following tale, dealing with the death of Conlaech 
(called here Ainfer Aife) at the hand of his father 
Cuchulinn, is taken from a miscellaneous vellum codex in 
Trinity College, Dublin (H. 3, 17, p. 842), consisting mostly of 
Irish law tracts. Compared with the many extant versions 
(most of which are in verse) of the death of Conlaech, the 
present text gives but the merest skeleton of the tale. It seems 
evident that it was designed to serve as a peg on which to 
hang the characteristic legal discussion with which the text 
concludes. 

J. G. 0»KEEFFE. 



124 J. G. O'KEEFFE 



CUCHULINN AND CONLAECH. 

Dia ndechaid CuchijAaind do foglaim gaiscid ind-Albain co 
Sc&thaig 7 tuc Sc4thach a hingtn d6 a. Aife, 7 rotoirrchestar 
hf 7 tiinic {6in i nErm«, adubairt fria-si : " Accseo dornasc 6ir 
duit," ar s6, "7 m4d mac beras tii, intan bus lin a rig don 
domaisc, I6ig liait chuccam-sa hi ind-Eirinn 7 tabair Aenfer 
Aife d'ainm fair 7 abbair ris cen a sloinded d'denduine i 
n-Eirinn." 

Ocus rucc si mac. Dorigni ris amlaid sin 7 rofoglaim na 
huili cleas cinmotha cleas gdi bulgai nami. Uair rucc a 
stiiatr roime 1 nEir/«« in gdi bulccai, 7 tdinic roime d'indsaighid 
hEirenn, ocus is and bad<zr Ula^i/ a n-air^A/us hi Maig hEine 
ind, 7 itconcadar chucca in curach, 7 docw^Ved Munramur dia 
fis, 7 doboi occ fiarfaigid sc6I de 7 adubairt -som, na dingnead 
a sloindid d'denduine, 7 dorala et«/Tu 7 Munramar 7 tuc cris 
a chlaidim tar^ a domaib Mu^ra/wa/r, 7 docuired' Dubthach sis 
annseicc. Dorigni in cetna fris. Dochuaid Ciichulatnd sis 
andsin 7 ni derna sc61a d6-sdicc f6s, 7 atorchair eturra 7 
Coinculaind 7 nir chumaing Ctichula/iw/ ni d5 ar tin 

" MatA th' engnum mara mar at4 t'engnum tire/* ar se 
C^chulaind, "is maith do chomlann." 

" Darleam-sa ni messa m' engnam mara," ar se; 7 dochuador 
for muir, 7 nir'chumaing Cuchulaind ni d6 fos, nocor l^icc in 
g4i bulgai chuice 7 gor'marbh L 

" Dena do slondud bod^^/a," bar Cuchulaind, " uair taimic 
dor6." 

"Ainfef Aiffe missi," ar s6, "7 mac do ChomcvXatnd mac 
Suallaimy' 7 rucusdar leis ar a muin ^ connic in mbaile irrabdar 
Ulaid, ocus deismirecht air :— 

" Trom n-aire 
tucus lim tar Mag nEne I 
airm m6ra mo mate im'laim 
iss a faidb 'sa[n] laim eile." 



1 tara MS. ' docuirid MS. 



CUCHULINN AND CONLAECH 125 



Translation. 

When Cuchulinn went to study arms in Alba with Scathach 
and she gave her daughter Aife to him, and he left her pregnant 
and went himself to Ireland, he said to her : " Here is a gold 
arm-ring for you ; and if it be a son which you will bring forth, 
send him to me in Ireland as soon as his wrist fills the ring 
Call him Ainfer Aife, and tell him not to reveal his name to any 
single person in Ireland." 

She gave birth to a son, and did with him as she had been 
told. She taught him all feats of arms except the Gai Bulga 
feat, for his father had taken the Gai Bulga with him to Ireland. 
When Ainfer Aife came to Ireland, the men of Ulster were 
assembled in Mag Ene. They saw the curach coming towards 
them, and Mu^remar was sent to ask tidings of him ; but Ainfer 
Aife said that he would not tell his name to any single person. 
Then ensued a combat between him and Munremar, and he put 
the belt of his sword across the wrists of Munremar. Then 
Dubthach was sent down. He did the same to him. Cuchulinn 
then went down, and still he did not tell him any tidings. Both 
fought, but Cuchulinn was not able to do anything to him on 
land. 

" If your skill at sea is as it is on land," said Cuchulinn, 
"your fight is good." 

" Methinks no worse is my skill at sea," said he ; and they 
went out to sea. Still Cuchulinn was unable to do aught to 
him, until he hurled the Gai Bulga at him and killed him. 

" Tell your name now," said Cuchulinn, " for your time has 
come." 

"Ainfer Aife I am," said he, "son of Cuchulinn, son of 
Sualtam." Then he takes him on his back to the place in which 
the men of Ulster were, and there is a token of it [viz. this 
verse] : ^ 

" Heavy the burden 
I have borne across Mag Ene ! 
The great weapons of my son in one hand. 
And in the other his spoils." 

^ Lit. ** There is an example on it" — a phrase of common occurrence in the Laws 
and Glossaries. 

L 2 



126 J. G. O'KEEFFE 

[P. 843.] Rohagrad Cuchulaind annsin \J\taib 7 urraid 
achtaigthi he a nAJWtaib 7 \eth corpdire uad ina mac, Uair a 
n-imraichni romarbustar € 7 indilsech^ ar-rkA/ dilsigh d, ciarbo 
chomracc. 

Cid {odersL \eth corpdire uad ind 7 a marbad a n-imraichne 
7 ^(Tmd comracc dorignestor ? 

Is ed fath fo^r/^ ger' comracc 6. Uair ni haititin' tuaithe 
na cineoil dorind6. 

Cid {odera, \eth corpdzre d*ic do Choincula^W ina mac ? 

Uair ropo deoraid' a ti-UlUaid 6 mad roba hi sidaib 
dosein. Fead trichad* c6t Muirthemne dob6i d'feronn dilis 
aicce ind-Ulltaib 7 urraid essem 7 deoraid a mac 7 a breith do 
C^ncobhur in k/A corp^re. 

Cid fod^ra a breith do Concohur in k/A ? 

Ni hansa. Iss ^rf fodera. Fingalach CuchuXainn^ 7 nocha 
b^^r i«d fingalach dibad na corpdiri. Iss e coibdelach is nessa 
do C(?;2cobar ocus in k/A corprfi>e do breith d6. 

Mdd rob Ulliachy is dilsech hirricht dilsigh 6, Muna roba 
dib et^r 6, is dilsech i«a richt fein a breith do Choncohur a 
diialgus dfgai«dechta. 

1 inddilsec MS. * haititin corrected from haititi MS. ' deoraig MS. 

* trichaid MS. 



CUCHULINN AND CONLAECH 127 

Cuchulinn was then sued by the men of Ulster ; and he was 
adjudged a native of Ulster, and half the wergeld was [exacted] 
from him for his son. For he had slain him in mistake, and 
he was an innocent person in the guise of a guilty person, 
although it was a combat. 

What caused half the wergeld [to be exacted] from him for 
it, and his killing him in mistake, and that it was combat which 
he made ? 

This is the reason which caused it, though it was combat: 
that it was not with consent of tribe or race that he did it. 

What was the cause that Cuchulinn should pay half-wergeld 
for his son ? 

Because he was a stranger in Ulster, even though he 
belonged to them (?). The extent of a cantred of Murthemne 
was his own land in Ulster, and thus he was [adjudged] a 
native, and his son a stranger, and to Conchobar was given the 
half-wergeld. 

What caused the half to be given to Conchobar ? 

Not difficult. This is the cause. Cuchulinn was a parricide, 
and the parricide takes not inheritance or wergeld. Conchobar 
was the nearest kinsman to him, and the half-wergeld was 
[accordingly] given to him. 

If he had been an Ulsterman, he would have been a guiltless 
person in the guise of a guilty one. If he had not been of them 
at all, he was a guilty person in his own guise ... * to be given 
to Conchobar as the price of indemnification. 

^ Something seems omitted before a breith. 



128 T. P. O'NOWLAN, M.A. 

THE QUARREL ABOUT THE LOAF. 

Book of Leinster, p. 46 a. 

In gitlA.. 

nucun-f ^.igbe t'lmfnA'otix), 
nococ-A.iri* |ti tA.jen x)e, 
ItA^gA. 1 nx)e5A.i'o v^ feicce. 

In CA^ttec. 

"RAC-A.in tritnticAn* tTiotbcA.c, 5 

jt^c-iMn Ce|tbA.tL' if CobcA^c* ; 
|t^c-A.in l/OjtCAn tuA.t)ef 5A.1t, 
|\A.c-A.in T)otTinAtt mi0.c tnu|\CA.it).* 

In gitt^.. 

11ic-A.in jTingin* n^ AititV 10 

ocuf U^t)c tlA^ctint) |\obinx) ; 
nic-Ain T)oninA.tt' ^ T)un l/Aijt, 
nic-A.in Subne tha^c CottTii.in.' 

In CA^ttec. 

llA.c-A.in tnA.etcA.itne^° nA. ca.c, 
|\A.c-A.in Oen5tif" nA. n-A.|tt)|tA.c; 
|\A.c-A.in 6cA." tl5|tA.n" A.|tt) 15 

|\oc-A.in Ujteff A.C ocuf Ua.'oc. 

In 5^^^^- 
11ococ-A.in" X)ont)CA.t) ttia^c Hint), 
ni. CettA.CA.n Aich itn5|\inx) ; 
nococ-A.in" ConA^tt nA. ca.c, 
nA. CA.chA.|tnA.c'' nA. CobcA.c." 20 

1 niCAin Facs. Another possible emendation would be nfc-Aincf e ; so below, 
|\oc-Aincfe (21) (J. S.)- ' -i. f^ ^tiA itltifTOAig. ' fi tA^eti. * f i 1Poca|\c 
flAif a quo HubA CobcAig tiowitiACtif. * \si Iiua tijAbtA. • f 4 ITItiniAii. 

' f 4 buA CotiAitt SAb|u^. 8 |\i T>efaf c h6\<enn. • fi CiAfiu^i^e. 

1° ^i tiA IPofctiAC. " f^ liUA IPAilge. ^' Over the a an illegible letter. 

Professor Strachan thinks it may be ^, abbreviated for proprium^ * a proper name.* 



THE QUARREL ABOUT THE LOAF 129 



Translation. 

The Gillie. 

O loaf, thou art in danger ! 

Thou shalt not get thy protection ; 

The King of Leinster will not save thee from it,* 

Thou shalt go after thy fellow.^ 

The Old Woman. 

Glorious Moi^an will save thee ; 
So will Cearbhall and Cobhthach ; 
So will Lorcan who sets fight in motion. 
And Domhnall, son of Murchadh. 

The Gillie. 

Finghin will not save thee, nor AilioU ; 
Nor* Tadhg of sweet Rathlinn. 
Domhnall from Dtin L4ir will not save thee. 
Nor Suibhne, son of Colman. 

The Old Woman. 

Maolcailne of the battles will save thee, 
And Aonghus of the high bounties. 
Noble Ugran will save thee ; 
So will Tresach and Tadhg. 

The Gillie. 

Donnchadh, son of Rinn, will not save thee. 
Nor keen, very pleasant Ceallachan ; 
Conall of the battles will not save thee. 
Nor Cathamach, nor Cobhthach. 

He suggests fACAitiecA, a peculiar 6 future from AiipT>. "|\< tAijfi. 

** tiodonocAin Facs. ** tiiCAiti Facs. *• \i\ Iiua CAff A15. 

*' |\4 hUA 1tlt)AT>A1t1t1A. 

* Viz. from the danger. ^ Viz. the other loaf. ^ Literally * and.* 



130 T. P. O'NOWLAN, M.A. 

In CA^llec. 

octif Cett^c tn^c Ce|ibMll.* 

In 5^^^^' 

11ic-b6|iA.c l/-6.5in tojA 25 

6 t^ntx)etbA.c boji^m^ ; 
nococ-jeb^c a jteo g^ix), 
nic-be|t-6.c leo ^ bimm^jib^ij.* 

In C^^ttec. 

Ailitt tnoji m-6.c X)untMn5 "ouint), 
pobjiif f ecu c^c-6. fO]A tec Ctiinx), 30 

|iob]Aiff f ecu c-^CA. Mte 
pojt tnumA^in n-6. jtigji-M-oe. 

5t^etip tntiniA.n 6 CA]An co Cliu 

immoc* biAeic A.ff a leic a.x)iii ; 

5]Aenx) Conn^cc ^ bCccge u-m|i, 35 

jlient) fe]A n1i4penn |\-6. 1i6en-UAi|\. 

X)^ ct6|iA. jii tiA^mn^ t^n, 

p]Af-Mt)e|t in c-itTitTipo|i]AAn,^ 

becif colt^ ve c^n cenx), 

vi^ mb^t) e b|i-6.nx)tib boitbcenx). 40 

ITI0 cob^if t)o jtij nime, 
•o' 6en-mA.c tn^iive injine, 
ni cu-^t^^ jtig hjb^v fe|i]A cpuc 
n6 jtif-mA^t) f e|t|\ A^ntpcitit). 

Hi cu^t^ 1^15 bti'6 fe^\\ ci^tt 45 

[i]ni. b|\A.nt)tib n^ mbo|tb-5i^tt, 

ni. x)o cA.i|\nitini A.nptA.CA. 

' niAC IPefpif A A Ipo^Af CAib. 2 .,, it)eTn 7 CofbA 1 tihtiib t>^ndAX>A. 

' f 4 pef tiA Cen^l. * f 1 . . . . * AniitiitiA^ibAi^ Facs. • Z^-^. 'moc 

' inciitiTnof |\Aii Facs. 



THE QUARREL ABOUT THE LOAF 131 

The Old Woman. 

Lorcan of Liamhain will save thee, 
And Tadhg from beside larb (?), 
Ciarmac of slender Slane will save thee, 
And Ceallach, the son of Cearbhall. 

The GiUte. 

Fiery Leinstermen will not carry thee off 
From Toirdhealbhach of the tribute ; 
They will not seize thee by perilous fight : 
They will not take thee with them from contention. 

The Old Woman, 

Great Ailioll, son of Dunlaing the Dun, 
Won seven battles over Conn's Half ; 
He won seven other battles 
Over Munster of the kings. 

The challenge (?) of Munster from Carn to Cliu 
About carrying thee hence. 

The challenge of Connaught from cold Slieve Aughty, 
The ch?illenge of the men of Ireland at the same time. 

If the perfect king of Liamain should hear, 

The battle will be fought ; 

There would be bodies without a head in consequence of it,* 

If it were fierce, strong Brandubh.^ 

My confession to the King of Heaven, 

To the only son of Mary the Maiden ! 

I have not heard of a king that was better of shape. 

Or who liked music better. 

I have not heard of a king of better understanding 

Than Brand^bh of the proud hostages. 

Nor better to wage battle. 

Nor for the putting down of tyranny. 

» Le, of eating the loaf. *» Viz. that were alive now. 



132 T. P. O'NOWLAN, M.A. 

If |iif A.C]Atib-Mf c in |ii 

tn^et'ouin, [jio] b-6. f^c co fi : 50 

" c^igex) ]Ai L^sen 'oa|i TYitii|t, 

116 CAb]A-6.t) 51^11 CO UeTYiit^ig !" 

In centj ^ff-6.ciAub-M|\c f em, 

1Tli.elt)i3in, []ao] b^. ipi^t co neim, 

If 6 TDpAntJub |to bent)* -oe 55 

•oiA. tn^^if c A.f niA.15 ALmA^ine. 

Hotn^fb Aititl Conn-6kCC cfUA^it) 
iffin teifs |\i Uemf A15 ^uu^ix) ; 
|\otn-6.fb X)ont)CAt) tn^c n6itt gt^^in 
ifpn* c§ci.in 6f Ch^ittn^n-m-Mj. 60 

Stt3A.i5 tntrniA^n, If tn6f in •o^l, 
c^ecf^c cf epn n-imnifof f ^n,'' 
ITIumnij ocuf n^ t^-^gtiiS 
com|\-6.iqnc im 6en-bAf gin. 

1Tlit)i5, Conn^dcAij ^\\ cinx) 65 

octif tllcAig n^ n-Af x)minx) ; 
fl6i5 1fnum-6.n cufn^^ h-^bnib, 
conx)ficfA.c itn 6en-b^f gin. 

Pf 1i4|ienn 6 cbtiint) co cuint), 
ni himm-6.f b^ig im m6f -f uitl, 70 

noco b6|\-6.c 6 t^jnib, 
x)iA.mbcif bti'015 t)' 6en-bA.if Jin. 

A. 

gilt^ f^5 tlfltim^n 7 cALtect)o tA^gnib ■oofinjni in n-inini^|t. 
b^ig feo A.C tiff n^ CaUiji 1 cint) tn^ige t)^lA.. tlA.i]\ 1 
mbiAC-Mgecc fo b^i fi ^n-opn vo fig t^gen .1. "do Cbef b^^tt 
m^c triufic^in. Co c^nic giU^ fig tnutn^n Af bi^A^nnA^dc t>^ 
C15-P, Af nA. cuf t)o fig tnutn^n "o'fiff ^ cec-6., A.f bi. bA^jA^c 
A.n'oiuic in cb^ltec. If A.nt) f o btii funi n^. n--Mf etn^n ^.f cint> 
in 51U-6.1 1 C15 n^ C-6.U151. UucA^x) in cb6c-bAf gen f fuineo 
'oefix)e 1 fiA.t)n-6.ip in 51IIA.1 bonx)UA.it), tl^^if ni pcif in chA.tte6 
t\^c t)o foi5t)i cenA. c^nic in gill^. tlob^f imtnoff o ^c ftini 

* Recte f o ben. ' Leg. 'pti. ' tiiwAff aw Facs. 



THE QUARREL ABOUT THE LOAF 133 

It is to him spake the king, 
Maolduin — 'twas a cause with venom — 
** Let the king of Leinster go over the sea, 
Or let him bring a hostage to Tara." 

The head that said that — 

Maolduin — 'twas a cause with venom — 

Tis Brandubh that cut it off, 

On a Tuesday, on the plain of Allen. 

He slew brave Ailioll of Connaught, 

In the plain to the north of Tara ; 

He slew Donnchadh, the son of pure Niall, 

On the Wednesday, above the plain of Carman. 

The hosts of Munster — great is the deed — 
Will fisrll through the contest. 
Munstermen and the Leinstermen 
Will encounter each other about one loaf. 

Meathmen, Connaughtmen in front (?), 
And Ulstermen of the high diadems, 
The hosts of Munster to the rivers 
Will come together about one loaf. 

The men of Ireland from sea to sea — 

It is not a contention about great pride (?) — 

Will not carry off from Leinster, 

If they should be thankful for one loaf. 

A servant of the King of Munster and an old woman of 
Leinster made this dispute at the abode of the woman at the 
end of Magh Dala ; for she was there in hospitallership to the 
King of Leinster, ix. to Cearbhall, the son of Murican. A 
servant of the King of Munster came on billet to her house, 
having been sent by the King of Munster to ascertain her per- 
mission (?) ; for the old woman was contentious and stubborn. 
There was baking for the ploughmen, when the servant arrived 
in the woman's house. The first loaf thereof that was baked 
was put before the servant, so that he ate it, for the woman did 
not know that it was not simply to beg that the servant had 



134 T. P. O'NOWLAN, M.A. 

b^ijigene A.ite 'ooriA. A.iiiemnA.ib. Conit) ^nt) ^cbe|tc in jittA^: 
"A ben," ^\i f6, "t)6n^ in ibb^pgin pn ni ^y fe|t|t A.nt)if 
x)0|iin5nif in ihb^i^gin a. ci-6.nMb." " Ci^ t)eciciti i f A.iti-pu 
x)on b^^itgin uc P'* a|\ in cb^ltec, " ija.i|^ n^ t'A.|ti-pti ceic |\ia.." 
**U6ic immo|\|^o/' a.|\ in gitt^, "t3A.i|\ mVipigit) in b^^pgen a. 
ciA.nA.ib 7 mo [^]|tini-cbtiic in b^^jigen uc, ua.i|\ if fO]A buA.nnA.dc 
•00 t)ecA.'otif 6 |i^5 1fntimA.n." "1a. 6n 6mni !" a.|\ in dA.ittec, 
"|\o 5A.b A. comniA.i|\5i fO|\c in bA.i|\5en yo; 1^^^\^ A.ci. p fO|i 
commA.nt5e |i^5 l/A.5en." 

ConiT) A.nt) A.cbeiic in 51 Ha.: "A b^ipgen A.ci^i 7 ]\U'' 
tlA.coni|iA.icfec l/A.gin 7 p|i 1TlumA.n imme pn, co |io cti|iic c|ti 
CA.tA. ectntjiti. 



THE QUARREL ABOUT THE LOAF 135 

come. Another loaf, however, was being baked for the plough- 
men. And then the servant said : " Woman," says he, " make 
that loaf better than you made the loaf a while ago." " Why 
do you trouble yourself about that loaf," said the woman, " since 
it is no business of yours?" " It is, then," said the servant, "for 
the cake just now was my first snack, and that cake is my chief 
portion, for it is on billet from the King of Munster I have 
come." "Oh ! indeed !" said the woman. "This loaf has got 
its protection against thee, as it is under the protection of the 
King of Leinster." 

'Twas then the servant said : " O loaf, thou art in danger, &c." 
On that account the Leinstermen and the men of Munster met 
together, and three battles were fought between them. 



00 cii|i 1 n-e^5^|i 5^n i^ifo-congn^t) •o^f^gi^it 6 ti^ h-ott^nin^ib 
onfoeA^jtc^ 7 n^ l^iS-fSoli^Htib g^cbilse ij-o m^\\ ^ca Se^g^n 
Sc|i^c^n 7 Cuno ttlei'but. f^t) f^og^it 7 fon^f ojic^ ^jt^on. 



136 T P. O'NOWLAN, M.A. 



NOTES. 

L. 3. The King of Leinster^ i.e. Cerball mac Muirec&in. For an account of this 
king, see Dr. Kuno Meyer's edition of Dalian's poem on Cerball's sword, Rev, Celt, 
XX., p. 7. 

L. 5. inti|\icAii .1. \S litiA inti|\it>Ai5. See note to tr^li^xe Aongtif a, 21st June, 
**iti Dipti|\c "OiAtxniAUA 1 n-iaib tYltii|\eT)Ai5." Castledermot, Co. Kildare, is in 
"htii mtit\iT)Ai5. Ua Muireadhaigh was the tribe-name of the O'Tooles (Index 
Ann. Uls.). 

L. 6. CobcAd .1. \\ ^ochAitxc tlAif a quo HubA CobcAig nominatur. King of 
Fotharta Naas, from whom Rathcoflfey (?) is called. Rathcoflfey is near Clongowes 
College, nine miles north of Naas. Cy. ttubA CotiAitt, A.U. 802. Modem, 
Rathconnell. 

L. 7. Lorcan : see note on 1. 2t 

L. 8. Domhnall, son of Murchadh (ITIu^dAit) metri gratis /)r intit\6AT>A), \S btiA 
ti^AblA, which is in the south of Co. Kildare. The F61ire of Aengus, in a note to 
May 16, speaks of the rule of Domnall, son of Murchad, hi flAicb "OowtiAitt tnic 
in«|\c1iAT)A. 

L. 9. Vitigm xS mtiniAti. " irioiingtiitie, \\ tTluthAti, -oo WA^bA-b tA a den^L 
f4in ** (FM., A.D. 897), AU., A.D. 902. In the previous year : ** Coethctot> ^1 J 1 
CAiput .1. CojxwAC WAC CtiitetitiAiii UA|\ ^p CinngejAiti .1. ptingtune. For the 
double spelling ITitipn and iriinigtiiiie, cf. B. of Lein., p. 274, b 23; **rtlAt\bpn5in 
iA|\fUT)iti cotiT)e*AiT)-p CO CacaLI mACC pingtiitie." According to the Index to 
Ann. of Ulster, he was the son of Dublachtna. 

Ih, Ailitl, \i\ litiA ConAill 5Ab^A, a territory corresponding to the present 
baronies of Upper and Lower ConneUo, in Co. Limerick. 

L. 10. llAclitit). According to O'Donovan's note to the Four Masters, A.D. 903, 
a place in Co. Cork. 1l6c tAOi near Macroom (?) 

L. 12. Subtle WAG Cotm-^m, the father of VogA^CAch .1. eciiAiT)e wac Suibne, 
cigeiMiA CiA^^Aige Cuijxde (now the Barony of Kerrycurrihy in Co. Cork), who fell 
in the Battle of Ballaghmoone. See the Four Masters, A.D. 903. 

L. 13. mAetcAitne, x^\ tiA Ipo^cuAC (viz. tAigeti). He was the son of Fergal. 
See Three Fragments, p. 212. 

L. 15. ecA, as a proper name, occurs in AU. 780, 795, 8oa 

Ih. tIgixAn « Aug^An ttiAC Cenn^cig \S tAidfe, AU. 917. He perished in the 
Battle of Cinnfuait (Confey, in the Barony of Salt, Co. Kildare), against the Norse. 

L. 16. C^teff Ad, identical with C^teff Ad mAC beccAin pi huA wbAitdi, mentioned 
in a poem by Dall&n mac M6re, LL. p. 47 a 46. 

L. 17. t)otifidAt> mAc llifiti. The surname Ring is still not uncommon. 

L. 18. Cellachan, King of Cashel, died 954 (AU.). 

L. 19. H/Atiti WAG CotiAitt, Abb ImtedA ibAijx (i.e. of Emly, Tipperary), died 
A.D. 904 (AU.). 

L. 20. CAcbAt\tiA<5, pi buA CAffAig, King of Ui Tassaigh. According to 
O'Donovan (Three Fragments, p. 218, note p). Cam Tasaigh was the residence of 
the chief of Ui-Liathain, now the Barony of Barrymore, Co. Cork. 

L. 21. tojxcAfi tiAititiA, i.e. of Liamain, otherwise called Diin Liamhna, now 
Dunlavan, Co. Dublin. Cf. 1 CAeb tiAWtiA a Uluig tAigeti, Ffl. Oeng., May 3. 

L. 22. CopbA 1 tibuib 'OijtidAT)A. Cf. O'Don., FM., A.D. 956: "The Ui 
Dunchadha were a tribe seated in that district of the county of Dublin through 



THE QUARREL ABOUT THE LOAF 137 

which the Dodder flows." Cf. F€l. Oeng., March 3 : 6 Cliitl C*li Cp^fc 1 n-6ib 
T>^n6AT>A 1 t^ipiib ; ib,, fii ci^ r1iAq\A a n-^ib t)un6AT>A ; ib,, Dec. 31, todAn 7 
6nr>A 6 Citt m^tiAd 1 nh^Aib Ound^'OA acAc. 

L. 34. Cett^d mAC Ce^tb^itt Zem^id^d, AU. 908. 

L. 29. ** Aititt mAC O^ntAinge regis Laginensium a Nordmannis interfectus 
est," AU. 871. 

L. 33. CA]\n. Ca]\ti til tleiT), near Mizen Head. C^^n ^oc1ia]\ca> Camsore 
Point. Ctiu, near Knockany, in Limerick. 

L. 35. edcge, now Slieve Aughty, or Baughta, Co. Clare. 

L. 46. Brandttbh, son of Eacha, was King of Leinster from a.d. 574 to 604 (AU.). 
In 589 he defeated the Ui NeiU at Magh Octair in Kildare [cf. U. 59, 60). In 596 
he slew Cumttfc^cYi m^c Aef>A at t>6n btid^c, Dunboyke, Hollywood, Co. Wicklow. 
In 597 he slew the high-king himself, Aedh, son of Ainmire, at Dunbolg, near 
Donard, a little to the south of Dunboyke. This Aedh most be the Maeldun of 
U, 50, 54. It is strange that each of these lines is too short by a syllable in MS. 
In 604 he was defeated by the Ui Neill at Slaebhre, and treacherously slain. 

L. 57. I cannot trace the reference. 

L. 60. W. M. Hennessy, stib an, 840, AU., places Carman in the south of Co. 
KQdare. 

Fingin, or Fionnguine, nicknamed Cenngegan, gave place to or was deposed by 
Cormac mac Cuilennain in 901, and was slain in the next year. Dubhlactna, King 
of Cashel, that is, of Munster, died in 895 (AU.). So the dispute about the loaf 
most have taken place between 895 and 901. 

The Leinstennen and the Munstermen fought three battles against one another 
in consequence of the dispute. 

StoigeA<> Ia Ipldnn wac ITlAOilfeclitAitin 7 tA Ce|\bAll wac muipejAin co 
pof\A WuthAti 50 i\o liionti|\A<) te6 6 ^liobpAn 50 tuimtieAd (FM. 901, recte 905). 

Battle of Moylena (906), between Munster and Leath Cuinn. 

The great battle of Ballaghmoone, in 908. 

No great expedition against Fingin is mentioned by the Four Masters, or by the 
Annals of Ulster. 

uotriAS p. tiA nuAttAin, tn.e. 



ANECDOTON. 
MS. 23 N 10, R.I.A., p. 20. 

M* oenaran im aireglan gan duinen im gfnais :} 

Robu inmatn ailethran re ndul a ndail bais. 
Bothan derrit diamarda do dilgud gach claoi;;, 

Cubus direch diamm doc[h]uw nime noeimh. 
Noemad cuirp la sobesuib saltra ferrda fair (1. for), 

Suili tiaithi do d^raib do dilgud mo tol. 
Tola fandu feogaide, freitech domain ce, 

Coigle bana beodaige,* ba si digde De. 
Donala co ndHocAta dochum nime nel, 

Coibsen fiala firelta,* frosa diana d/r. 
Dergud aduar aitigi' amuil talgud troch, 

Codlad gairit gaibtigi,* diucra minic moch. 
Mo tuaru mo tuinide robu inmuin cacht : 

Ni dingena cuilide mo longad gan acht, 
Aran toimsi tivmaide tailc donair tend gnuis 

Uisri' lerga ligmaisi, basi deoch nodluis. 
Longad serba semide, men, mil, lebar leir, 

LamA in cacA fn ceilide, coubus rotend reidA. 
Robad inmazn airaide (.i. eccosc) ainim ne^rA/a naom, 

Leicne tirma tanaige,' gnuis coignide caol. 
Reim fn seta soiscela, sailmcetal each tr^h, 

Cluas fn rath fri rosce/a, filliuci glune ngfnatA. 
Crist mac De dom ait[h]iged, mo duilem mo ri, 

Mo menma mo atacAhi gusin flaith ambidA. 
Ba si baes fomtemadar eter lesuib land, 

Locan aluind iladlan 7 me am aonar and. 
M*aonaran dam am akecldn am aenar firfi luatA, 

M'oenar tanac forsan mbith am aw^ar dolluidh' uadh. 

M 

J. STRACHAN. 

* = be6daide * Ug, firetla Meyer ^ Ug, 4ichthide Meyer. * Ug^. 

giibthide Meyer. * This is probably what is meant, but the word would more 

naturally be read uisin. ^ = tanaide. ' If^;-. dollod Meyer. 

[Like the poem on p. 122, the present poem had to be transcribed and printed at 
the last moment to fill a vacant page. When it was already in type, an edition and 
translation arrived from Professor Meyer. Some textual emendations of his have 
been added. His translation and notes will appear in the next Part. — ^J. S.] 



MISSIN5: 



V.l:2 & v,2:l 



E R I n 



be Tonrnal of the Sch<)ol of 1 
Learniuic, Dublin 



JOH 



fAM 






[scHor- 

■HODGKS. n 



'■^'-'.l 



L4»fw»*" 



OdL OF l 



Uf DAWiOif Sfiitr, DuJittn 



Ki^m Si« WiiUiM 1i»n#A. 






i^dMihitfcj* IdeMJCx ^. k, Ci»&iA §Ub^ CfiLL*- 



cutiitjj' to 1 

and 



lai hltbtiito boeo kr 



til tlie cidv iifrii?TP£:i 



■jula; i'L 



)iie ofi: 



i 



ERIU 



j The Journal of the School of Irish 

Learning, Dublin 



EDITED BY 

KUNO MEYER & JOHN STRACHAN 



VOL II 



DUBLIN 
SCHOOL OF IRISH LEARNING, 33 DAWSON STREET 
HODGES, FIGGIS, & CO., Ltd., 104 GRAFTON STREET 

LONDON 
DAVID NUTT, 57-59 LONG ACRE 

1905 



Printed at the 




By P0N80NBY A GIBBS 



CONTENTS 

Page 

The Eulogy of Cdrdi (Amra Chonr6i). Whitley Stokes, i 

The Song of Cr6de, daughter of Guaire. Kuno Meyer, ... 15 

The Tragic Death of Cdrdi mac Ddri. R. I. Best, ... 18 

The Future Tense in Modem Irish. O. J. Beroin, ... 36 

The Five Munsters. J.H.Lloyd, ... ... ... 49 

The Hermit's Song. Kuno Meyer, ... ... ... 55 

Addenda to Eriu i. John Strachan, ... ... ... 58 

Welsh RY- = Irish RO- of Possibility. John Strachan, ... 60 

Cormac's Rule. John Strachan, ... ... ... 6% 

Trdcht Fuirbthen. J.H.Lloyd, ... ... ... 69 

An Irish Folk-Ballad. Douglas Hyde, ... ... 77 

The Priest and the Bees. E. J. Gwynn, ... ... 8^ 

Miscellanea. Kuno Meyer, ... ... ... 84 

A Prayer. M.E.Byrne, ... ... ... ... 89 

Prayer to the Archangels. T. P. O'Nowlan, ... ... g% 

Poem ascribed to Suibne Geilt. Kuno Meyer, ... .. 95 

The Evernew Tongue. Whitley Stokes, ... ... ... 96 

The Graves of the Kings at Clonmacnois. R. I. Best, .... 163 

Duties of a Husbandman. Kuno Meyer, ... ,. .... 17^ 

Cath Boinde. Joseph O'Neill, ... ... ... ... 173 

The Three Drinking-horns of Cormac ua Cuinn. E.J. Gwynn, i 86 

Cdin Domnaig. J. G. O'Keeffe, ... ... ... ... 189 

Further Remarks on Welsh RY-. John Strachan, ... ^15 

A Fragment of Old Irish. O. J. Bergin, .. ^ai 

Two Monastic Rules. John Strachan, ... ^^7 



SUPPLEMENT 
Tain Bo Cuailnge. John Strachan & J. G. O'Keeffe, 33-64 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA TO * OLD-IRISH 
PARADIGMS.' 

p. 2, 11. 12, 13, 15, to boill should have been added bail! 
p. 3, 1. 21. For d£u, d(o, read deu, deo 
p. 3, 1. 30. Professor Thurneysen suggests, with pro- 
bability, that pi. demnae is based on a Lat. daemonia 
p. 4, 1. 23. For bindachtae read bendachtae 
p. 6, 1. 20. For (masc.) A ungai, read ungai n- 
p. 8, 1. 22. After betha add D. biuth 
p. 15, 1. 18. For Mam u read Mumu 
p. 15, 1. 26. Add N. PI. genitne Sg. 208" 14. 
p. 21. It should have been added that isel and dasal 
are inflected in the plural likewise like -/- stems : cf. 
Ascoli, Gloss. Ixxxiii, cxxvii. 
p. 23, 1. 6, col. 2. For trib read teoraib 
p. 26, 1. 22, col. 2. For -marbaim read -marbam 
p. 28, 1. 5, col. I. Professor Thurneysen questions 
bered, comparing indnadad Wb. 11** 14. But cf. na 
fridoirced Wb. i4'27. The matter calls for further 
observation. 

p. 32, 1. 12. The deponent ending is found in finnamar 
LU. II2^ Eriu II. 100. 
p. 38, 1. 10. For nolabratar read labratar 
p. 43, 1. 7. For -leicfiter read -Ilicfiter 
p. 73, last line. For dogninn read dogniinn 
p. 78, 1. 15. For doti^am read dotiagam 
P- 79> 1- 5- For dotei read dotei 

For a number of the above corrections, I am indebted 
to Professor Thurneysen. 

J. s. 



A POEM ASCRIBED TO SUIBNE GEILT 

THE following poem is one of several ascribed to Suibne 
mac Colmdin Chiiair, King of Ddl Araide, who lost his 
reason in the Battle of Mag Rdth (A.D. 637), and thenceforth 
lived a wandering life among the woods and wildernesses of 
Ireland, whence he was called Suibne Geilt. For similar poems 
attributed to him, see the Thesaurus PalcBo-hibernicus, ii., p. 294, 
and O'Donovan's edition of the Battle of Moira^ pp. 234 and 
236. 



H. 3. 18, P. 6o^ 
SUIBHNI XC. SO THIOS 

1. Fiiarus inb^r soirchi sunt, uair is h6 in Coimdhi rascum, 
folil mu menmain dia ^is it^r fedhaib fo din[8]6is. 

2. Ingnadh adbul asromtha for mu chraidhi fo c^rdba, 
mu heith mar atu re trell it^r fidbadhaib Erend. 

3. Ba-sa tan nl folabrainn ilach gamh, 
intan romidhinn cu moch, luidhind for caei co romoch. 

4. Cumhain lim gersam sni.^ihach Fiadat find ; 
sunna^ cin co fuilim faihV/ bitis ainfir *mailli frim. 

5. Uch mar 'tu ! fig^^^ mor caor ocus cnii, 
is he Isacan romb^;^, ni ibhim fleidh 'maille friu. 

6. Uch is truagh mar atii-sa 5 chuan co cuan : 

\ i^diXid ce romba-sa taun, anocht damh a ndithrub fiiar. 

f 

I KUNO MEYER 



1 legf. sunn 
K 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 

TENGA BITHNUA, ' Evernew Tongue/ is the title of a 
dialogue between the Hebrew sages, assembled on Mount 
Zion on Easter-eve, and the spirit of the apostle Philip, who is 
called by the household of heaven * Evernew Tongue,' because, 
when he was preaching to the heathen, his tongue was nine 
times cut out and nine times miraculously restored. In answer 
to questions put by the sages, the Evernew Tongue tells them 
about the creation of the universe, and treats especially of the 
seven heavens : of the seas, wells, rivers, precious stones, and 
trees of the earth : of the sun and stars : of birds, men, and 
beasts. The order of the six days in Genesis, c. i., is here 
followed. Lastly, the Evernew Tongue describes hell, dooms- 
day, and heaven. 

The source of the tractate is unknown to me ; but I suggest 
with much hesitation that it may be a version of a lost Latin 
Apocalypse of Philip : for, excepting the existence of seven 
heavens (§§ 15, 25, 26, 27, 136), the nine ranks of the celestial 
hierarchy (§§ 17, 133), the horned monster cast ashore on the 
night of the Nativity (§ 57), and the use of the number seventy- 
two (§§ 89, 107), the folklore in it is found in no other Irish 
composition. Fragments of the origfinal Latin appear to be 
preserved in §§ 16, 20, 23, 24, 26, 32, 48, 55, 64, 65, 97, 106, 
108, 121, 139, 160; and the gibberish quoted as Hebrew, * the 
speech of angels,' * the language spoken in heaven,' in §§ 7, 9, 
15, 24, 31, 56, 61, 63, 64, 89, 96, 97, and no, resembles in its 
unintelligibility the Alemakan^ tkasame, marmare^ vcLchamati, 
n^tranam^ achaman ascribed to Mariamne in The Acts of 
Philip} There is, however, in the Latin apocryphal literature 
known to me, no trace of such an Apocalypse. 

^ For similar gibberish see the Divina Commedia^ Inf. xxxi. 68, and Ci>ptU 
Apocryphal Gospels, ed. F. Robinson, pp. 57, 60, 71, 75, 158. 



THE E VERNE W TONGUE 97 

The text, now for the first time published, is a copy of 
the recension in the ff. 46*- 5 2* of the Book of Lismore, a 
fifteenth-century MS. belonging to the Duke of Devonshire, 
and described in Lives of Saints from the Book of Lismore^ 
pp. v-xliv. This recension is, so far as I know, unique; but 
there are six abridgments of it : one, YBL^ in the Yellow Book 
-of Lecan, coll. 700-707 (facsimile pp. 81* 49-86^28) ; another, P, 
in the Paris MS., Biblioth^que Nationale, fonds celtique et 
basque, No. i, ff. 24*1-27^3; a third, C, in the Cheltenham 
MS. 9754, ff. 7*-9* ; a fourth, -£, in Egerton 171, pp. 44-65, a 
paper MS. in the British Museum ; a fifth, F^ in the Liber Flavus 
Fergussiorum, now in the library of the Royal Irish Academy ; 
;and a sixth, R, in the Irish MS. at Rennes, ff. 70*^74^ The 
Rennes copy has been edited, with a French translation, by 
Professor Dottin, in the Revue Celtique, t. xxiv, pp. 365-403, 
and extracts from it will be found at the end of the present 
publication and in §§ 5 n., 39 n., 98 n. 

None of these six abridgments is older, in date of writing 
or in language, than the fourteenth century ; Ey indeed, was 
written in the eighteenth ; and, so far as I have examined 
them,^ they give little help towards the restoration and 
interpretation of the corrupt and difficult Lismore text. This, 
to judge from the survival of the neuter gender, and from the 
deponential and other ancient verbal forms, may safely be 
ascribed to the tenth or eleventh century, when Old Irish was 
merging into the Early-Middle Irish of the Book of the Dun 
and the Book of Leinster. The numerous interesting words 
contained in our tractate are collected in the Glossarial Index ; 
and here, as in the tentative translation, I am indebted to 
communications most kindly made by Professors Strachan and 
K. Meyer. 

W. S. 

London, October, 1905. 



^ I have transcribed P and F, read R in Prof. Dottin* s edition, photographed /i , 
and copied part of it ; but I have not wasted time and eyesight on the facsimile 
(so-called) of YBL, 

K2 



gS WHITLEY STOKES 



TENGA BHITH-NUA ANNSO SIS 

1. In principio fecit Deus caelum et terram et reliqua. 
Airdri domain as treisi ca^r^^ righ, is ardiu carA cumh^rA/ai, as 
feochru each ndrac(?m, as cennsa ca^rA mac, as giliu grianuibh, as 
noibiu ca^A sen/ as diglaigiu feruibh, as boidhi carA mdthair 
[.1.] OenMac De Athar ro Xhidhnaic a scel-sa do iltuatha[ib] 
domuin .1. do dheilbh 7 do th^^tin an betha. larsindi na fes 
cissi dealb n-atrabhai nach ret do neoch atcither isin bith acht 
Dia nama ; ar ba * cenn i mbolg ' 7 ba * b[u]ith* i tigh dhorcha/ 
do sil Adhuimh iarsindi na fes riam cissi dealbh ro bai f^rsin 
domufty nd cia dhorigne, co tainic a scel-sa do nim fri erslocud 
chelle 7 intliuchta caich, co n-airesta 7 co fogabtha set beth^wT 
7 icce do anmandaib. 

2. Ar ba f^^^dhorcha each ret do shuilib shil Adhaim, acht 
atchitis tuirthiud na rend .1. esce 7 grene 7 na rend archena,. 
immateighdis ca^A dia cen chumsan^xd dogr^s. Atchitis da^;^ 
tiprata 7 aibne in Aomuin nat chumsantais do dibairsi^ dogr^s in 
ca^rA aimsir. Atchitis A^,no tobron in talman 7 cess 7 cotlud 
inna soilse 7 inna torudh la tetacht ngaimridh. Atchitis dana 
esserge in domuin com, thess 7 a shoilse, cons, blathaibh 7 a 
torthib la er^e samraidh doridissi. 

3. Ni fetatar cia dogene colleic co tainic a scel-sa thusten in 
domhain cona, dhealbaib 7 a thimthirechtaib [amal] ro[n]da- 
sudigestar Dia. F<7rdhorcha didu anisiu uili con-eces a scel-sa,. 
conid erslaic in Tenga Bithnua labrastair a clethe nimhe uas 
oena^A [46*2] Slebhe Sion. 

Ar ro teclumod ceti airthir an betha .1. doneoch bdi o slebib 
Abian conice trachtu* Mara Ruaidh, ocus otha Muir Marb 
conici insi Sabair;/d. Ocus ba he Hn in terchomraic .1. coic escoip 
.Ixxx. ar cethir citaxh ar tri milib, ocus .ix. rig .Ix. ar .ix. c^/aib 
ar .iiii. milib ar .1. milib di rfgaibh an beatha. 



» leg. san, which is translated. 

3 bidg Pi * a start * ; beith a piis^n cumang R, * being in a narrow prison.' 

5 MS. do dibairsi nat chumsantais 

* Ml. I27»I7, nom. sg. tracht, infra, } 58. 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 99 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE HERE BELOW 

1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the 
•earth, etc., the High-king of the world Who is mightier than 
any king, higher than any Power, fiercer than any dragon, 
gentler than any child, brighter than suns, holier than any 
saint, more vengeful than men, more loving than any mother, 
the only Son of God the Father, hath given to the many 
tribes of the world this account of the form and creation 
of the universe. Since the shape that aught visible in the 
universe possesses was unknown save only to God : since for 
Adam's race it was * a head in a bag ' and * being in a dark 
house,' ^ never having known what shape was on the world, nor 
Who created it, until this account came from heaven to open 
-every one's sense and intellect, so that the way of life and 
of salvation might be ascertained and found by souls. 

2. For everything was obscure to the eyes of Adam's race, 
save that they used to see the course (?) of the stars, to wit, of 
the moon and sun and the other stars, which used to go round 
^very day continually without resting. So they used to see 
the world's wells and rivers flowing without cessation always 
at every time. So they used to see the sadness of the earth, 
and the trance and sleep of the light and the fruits at the 
coming of winter. So they used to see the resurrection of the 
world, with its warmth and light, with its flowers and fruits, 
at the rearising of summer. 

3. Still they knew not who wrought (that) until there came 
this story of the creation of the world, with its shapes and 
services as God had arranged them. Obscure, then, was all 
this until this tale was set forth, until it was revealed by the 
Evernew Tongue who spake from the roof of heaven above the 
assembly of Mount Zion. 

For the concourse of the east of the world was gathered 
together, to wit, all that were from the mountains of Abian as 
far as the shores of the Red Sea, and from the Dead Sea as far 
as the islands of Sabarn. And this was the number of the 
congregation, three thousand four hundred and eighty-five 
bishops, and fifty-four thousand nine hundred and sixty-nine 
icings of the world. 

^ Proverbial expressions. 



lOO WHITLEY STOKES 

4. Ro boi dsifzo 2L n-oinach sin co cend .1111. miss for hW^datn 
.1. sam, gam, ^xxach, fogamur, fo noi c^/uib seol findanart co- 
mindalb ordhaibh i mulluch Sl/^i Sion. Cdt'ca ar n(fi c^/aib ar 
cSu milibh do thuredhchaindlibh 7 lecaib logmaraib adhannaitis- 
fri fursannad na cete, ar nach derban^^d nsich sin in each aimsir. 
Coica ar dib c^/uib escop 7 coic ce^ sacart 7 teora mile do 
gradhuib ecailse, 7 .111. mac n-ennac 7 coic c^/ airdrig cona, 
sochr^rte remib. No thegtis medon aidche^ i nHierusalem o 
gothaib CO taigtis ca^rAoen iarmerghe co ceoluib inna failti 
canar isna noibnelk^'^ .i. Gloria in excelszs Deo et reXtqua. 

5. Fos-ergitis isLtum in tsloigh na cete itirda, ipag araciund la 
tintudh inna himirce-se 7 inna slogh i Sl//^ Sion cosin chiul inna 
failte CO ceolaib aingel ar grddaib dligthechaib in airdrig.^ 



r2 



6. Talmaidiu iarsein, intan ba deadh n-aidche' inna case, co 
clos ni, a ndeilm* isnaib neluib dimal fhogur torainn, nd ba 
cosmail re cichnaig thened dara.* Ba tinfisiu thorni coUeic, con- 
aeces in talmaidiu in grianbruth ^Ltnal gr6m n-et;aicht i medon 
in delma. Immesoid (?) macuairt in gnanbruth etracht sin, co- 
T\3u:A tairthed rose sula, ar ba etraehtu* fo shecht innas in gnan. 

7. Talmaidiu iarsein co clos ni, ar ro bhatar sella in tsloigh oe 
frescse in delma, ar dorum^watar ba hairdhe bratha, co clos 
[47^1] ni, in guth solus labrastar o b^Hu ainglecdha Hceli habia 
felebe/cB niteia temnibisse salts sal .i. eluinidsi a seel-sa, a maecu. 
doine, domroidedsa o Dhia do far n-acallaimh. 

8. Talmaidiu iarsin docorastar cess 7 huamhon ior na sluagho, 
Ni bu fubthud cm damna. Astoided fogur in gotha ama/ gair 
sloigh, acht ba soillsiu 7 ba gleu gothuib doine colleie. Tormatd' 
uasin ndun^d ama/ gair ghaeithi moire nad bu aidbliu comrad' 
earut 1 cluasaibh caich colleie 7 ba binne ceoluib [in domain P]. 



1 MS. aighthe 

» MS. CO cedlaib 7 aruigrethaib 7 deligaibh each rig. But R has : co ctelaib aingel. 
ar gradhaib dlightheacha an airdrigh. 
3 MS. naigthe 

* MS. indeil 

* MS. 7 ara (with d above 7) 

* MS. etrachta fo 
^ MS. cobraib 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE loi 

4. Now that assembly lasted to the end of four months 
and a year, to wit, summer, winter, spring, autumn, under nine 
hundred awnings of white sheets, with golden diadems, on the 
summit of Mount Zion. Five thousand nine hundred and 
fifty tower-torches and precious stones were kindled for the 
illumination of the concourse, so that no storm should at any 
time hinder it. Two hundred and fifty bishops and five 
hundred priests, and three thousand [other] ecclesiastics, and 
thrice fifty innocent children, and five hundred high-kings 
with their army before them. At midnight they would enter 
Jerusalem with musical voices (?), and at every nocturn they 
would come together with melodies of the gladness that is sung 
in the holy clouds, Gloria in excelsis DeOy etc. 

5. Then the hosts of the concourse were going between 
two plains before them, as this expedition and the hosts 
on Mount Zion turned with the music of the gladness, with 
melodies of angels according to the lawful ranks of the High- 
King. 

6. Suddenly thereafter, when it was the end of Easter-eve, 
somewhat was heard, the sound in the clouds like the noise 
of thunder, or it resembled the crash of the fire of an oak. 
Meanwhile there was a thunderous (?) blast, and suddenly was 
seen the solar glow like a radiant sun in the midst of the 
sound. That radiant solar glow turned round and round, so 
that eyesight could not overtake it, for it was seven times 
more radiant than the sun. 

7. Suddenly after that somewhat was heard, when the ^y^s 
of the host were expecting the sound ; for they thought that 
it was a sign of the Judgment — somewhat was heard, the clear 
voice that spake in the language of angels : " HcbU habia** etc., 
that is : " Hear ye this story, O sons of men ! I have been 
sent by God to hold speech with you." 

8. Suddenly thereafter swooning and fear fell upon the hosts. 
It was not a * frightening without cause.' The resonance of 
the voice was . . . like the shout of an army ; save that at 
the same time it was clearer and plainer than the voices of 
human beings. It sounds over the multitude like the cry of 
a mighty wind, which yet was not greater than the converse 
of friends among them in the ears of each other ; and it was 
sweeter than the melodies of the world. 



102 WHITLEY STOKES 

9. Fnscartatar ^maidhi na n-Ehrazde,et dixerunt: Findamar 
uait do ainm 7 do thothacht 7 do dixnugud. Co clos ni : in 
Tenga Bithnua labrastar o ghuth ainglecda : Nathire uimbcB 
lebicB ua un nimbisse tiron tibia am biase sau fimbliafebe ab le 
febia fuan .i. Ba la tuatha talman em, ar se, genarsa, 7 do 
coimp^rt fhir 7 mna cotamaipr^d. Issed mo ainm, Pilip Apsta/. 
Tomraid in Coimdi co tuatha* gente do precept doib. Noi 
fechtas imruidbed mo tenga as mo chind la geinte, 7 noi fechtas 
donarrasar aitherruch do precept ; conidh do sin issed mo ainm 
la muinnt^y nime, Tenga Bithnua. 

ID. Ro raidsetar ecnaide na nEhratde: Finnamar uait cia 
berla no labraithear frind ? 

Ro raid-seom : Iss^^ labra s(u)t aingil, ar se, 7 uile gradh 
nimhe a mbelra-sa no labraimsi dhuibsi. Mad mila mara 7 
biastai 7 cethrai 7 eoin 7 mXhratg 7 demnai atgenatar-side, 7 
iss^^ a mbelra-sa lab^rtait inna huile 1 mbrath. 

11. ISs^^ di^^^, ol se, immomrachtsa cucaibsi, do reidigud 
daib in sceoil amrai atchuaid in Spir«/ ^dtb tria Moyse mac 
Ambra de th«^tin nime 7 teXman cosnaib hi [47^2] docuissin 
indib. Ar is do denum nime 7 tdiman dorime a seel sin. IMtha 
samlaid 7 is do cruthugad in domain immoroilged la. essergi 
Crist o marbuib isind aidhchi si* na case, ar each adbar 7 cdicA 
duil 7 each aicned atcither isin domun C(?«rairceda uile isin 
coluinn i n-esserract Crist .i. i colainn C2jch duine. 

12. Ata ann chetamw^ adbhar de gaeith 7 aer. Is de 
forcoemnacair tinfisiu anala i corpaib doine. Ata d^jio adbar 
tesa 7 chombruithe ann di then,^ iss^^ dogni dergthes fola 
insin 1 corpaib. Ata ann d^no adbar di grein 7 rennuibh nimhe 
oulcena, conxd ed dogni Hen 7 soillsi 1 suilibh doine. Ata ann 
d^no adbur di serbai 7 saldatu, comd ed dogni serbha inna nder 
insin, 7 domblas n-o[e] 7 imb«d ferga i cridib doine. Ata ann 
d^no ad(bar) di clochaib 7 do cr/aidh thalma;^, comd edh dogni 
Qfymusc feola 7 chnama 7 ball isna doinib. Ata dam? ann adbur 



1 MS. tuathu ^ MS. isinnaighthisi ^ leg. thenid ? 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 103 

9. The sages of the Hebrews answered and said : " Let 
us know from thee thy name and thy substance and thy 
appearance." Somewhat was heard : the Evernew Tongue 
spake with an angelic voice : " Nathire^' etc., that is : " Among 
the tribes of earth in sooth I was born ; and of the conception 
of man and woman I have been conceived. This is my name : 
Philip the Apostle. The Lord sent me to the tribes of the 
heathen to preach to them. Nine times hath my tongue been 
cut out of my head by the heathen, and nine times I continued 
to preach again. Wherefore this is my name with the house- 
hold of heaven, the Evernew Tongue." 

10. The sages of the Hebrews spake : " Let us know from 
thee what language thou speakest unto us." 

He said : " That there is the speech of angels," quoth he, 
^' and the language which I speak to you is that of all the ranks 
of heaven. As to beasts of the sea and reptiles and quadrupeds 
and birds and snakes and demons, they know it, and this is the 
languagewhich all will speak at the Judgment. 

II." This, then, is what has driven me to you : to explain to 
you the wondrous tale, which the Holy Ghost declared through 
Moses, son of Amram, of the creation of heaven and earth 
with all that exists therein. For 'tis of the making of heaven 
and earth that that tale tells : even so and of the formation 
of the world, which has been effected by Christ's Resurrection 
from the dead on this eve of Easter. For every material and 
every element and every nature which is seen in the world 
were all combined in the Body in which Christ arose, that is, 
in the body of every human being. 

12. " In the first place is the matter of wind and air. Hence 
came to pass the afflation of breath in the bodies of men. 
Then there is the matter of heat and boiling from fire. 'Tis 
this that makes the red heat of blood in bodies. Then there 
is the matter of the sun and the other stars of heaven, and 
'tis this that makes colour (?) and light in the eyes of men. 
Then there is the matter of bitterness and saltness ; and 'tis 
that which makes the bitterness of tears, and the gall of the 
liver, and abundance of wrath in the hearts of men. Then 
there is the matter of the stones and of the clay of earth ; and 
'tis this that makes the mingling of flesh and bone and limbs in 
human beings. Then there is in it the matter of the flowers and 



I04 WHITLEY STOKES 

di blathaib 7 ligdathaib talm^«, conid eadh dogni forbrice 7 
eirfhinne inna ngn«^e 7 dath i ngruaidib. 

13. Asreracht in doman uile leis, uair ro bui aicnedh na 
ndula uile isin choluinn arroet Issu. Ar mani chesad in Coim- 
diu darceand sil Adhaimh, 7 mani eseirghedh iar mbas, doleg- 
faide^ in doman uile'* la sil nAdaim la tfchtain in bratho, 7 
nocha n-athgigned na^A duil do muir na \hslmam, acht no 
lasfatis nimhe conice in treas nemh. AcA^ tri nimhe ind 
richidh uasail namma ni airisfedh ann cin loscud. NocAo biadh 
talam na cen/1 de biu na marbh isin domun, act iffernd co nam 
mani'^ thised in Coimdiu dia tathcreic. Atbeltais na huili x:en 
athnugud samW^. 

14. IS do dodeochadsa, or Pilip, far ndocumsi co n-ecius 
duib a scel-sa, ar is dall fordorcha duibsi denamh dealbhai in 
domutn amal doruirmed o chein.' 

Maith didu, olt (sic) ecndiidz [47*1] na n-Ebra, indis dun 
dona adamraibh diairmidib forcoimnacair ann, ar is dall erund 
mani ecestar dun doleir. 

15. Co closs ni, in Tenga Bithnua labhr^/^air o berlu 
angelacda dicens Lee uidefodea tabo abelia albefab^ quod latine 
dicitur .i. in pnncipio fecit D^«s caelum et t^rram ; et dicit : 
Ambile bane bea fabne fa libera sqlese tnbtla tibon ale sibotua 
^uan. Mall uile a thuiremh tresan Ebrai a n-aisnit^r ann. Nad 
ro bai ordug«d inna ligboth. Nat ro bai XAam cona sleibib 7 a 
thuathaibh, na muir con2, indsibh, na iffernd con^ phianaibh 
riasiu asrobrath no beitis duili.* Nad batar cuarta' secht nime, 
na niuil di thursitin talm^«, na crithir, na esruth sin. Nad 
batar tire forsa tesimtis, nad bai fleochadh na snechta. Nad 
batar* lochait na tinfisiu gaeithe na thoruind. Nad' boi rith 
ngr^e, na imthoiniud escai, na brecht^ad rind. Nad batar* 
bledmila muiridi. Nad boi muir i snaitis. Nat batar srotha 
na halmai, na biastai, na henlaithe, na d^acoin, na nathraig. 



» MS. dolegfaidi ^ ^s. mli ^ MS. mane 

* MS. duile * MS. nat batur cuartu ® MS. nat batt/r 

' MS. nat 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 105: 

beautiful hues of earth ; and *tis this that makes the variegatioa 
and whiteness of the faces and colour in cheeks.' 

13. "All the world arose with Him, for the nature of all 
the elements dwelt in the Body which Jesus assumed. For 
unless the Lord had suffered on behalf of Adam's race, and 
unless He had arisen after death, the whole world, together 
with Adam's race, would be destroyed at the coming of 
Doom ; and no creature of sea or of land would be reborn, 
but the heavens, as far as the third heaven, would blaze. Save 
only three heavens of the high welkin, none would abide 
without burning. There would be neither earth nor kindred,, 
alive or dead, in the world, only hell and heaven, had not 
the Lord come to ransom them. All would have perished 
thus without renewal. 

14. " For this," says Philip, " I have come unto you, that I may 
declare to you these tidings ; for obscure to you is the making, 
of the form of the world, as it hath been recounted of old." 

" Well, then," say the sages of the Hebrews, " relate to us 
some of the innumerable wonders which have happened there ;. 
for it is dark to us, unless it be diligently declared to us." 

1 5. Somewhat was heard, the Evernew Tongue, which spake 
in the language of angels, saying, " La uidel' etc., " In the 
beginning God created the heaven and the earth," and it saith : 
^'Ambile bane^' etc. "Slow it were to recount through the 
Hebrew all that is there uttered : that there was no ordering of 
the colours, that there was no earth with its mountains and its 
tribes, nor sea with its islands, nor hell with its torments, before 
He said that these elements should exist : that there were no 
circuits of the seven heavens, nor clouds to irrigate the earth, nor 
spark, nor dispersal of storms : that there were no lands whereon, 
they would pour : that there was neither rain nor snow : that there 
were neither lightnings, nor blast of wind, nor thunders ; that there 
was neither course of sun, nor vicissitude of moon, nor variation 
of stars : that there were no marine monsters : that there was no 
sea in which they would swim : that there were no streams, nor 
herds, nor beasts, nor birds, nor dragons, nor serpents." 



1 cf. T'hree Irish Glossaries^ p. xl, where the eight components of the human 
body are said to be earth, sea, smi, clouds, wind, stones, the Holy Ghost, and the 
Light of the World (Christ). Cf. Four Ancient Books, ii. 8. 



io6 WHITLEY STOKES 

1 6. Responderunt sapientes Ebreorum : Qeht, cid ro boi isind 
aimsir sin nacan raba mch ret asrobrad co se ? 

Ro frecair in Tenga Bithnua : Bai la hamrai c^h duil .i. 
Dia cen tosach, cen fhorcenn, cen bron, cen aes, cen ercA^a. Ni 
rabi uair na haimser^ na re nad- ro bai. Nocho n-oo, nochon 
sinu in c^Aiu, nach nochon robai ni ba decmaic^ do denam. 
Imroraid imradud. Nicon rabai tosach dond imradho^/ sin. 
Imroraid ni bad shairiu ara.[47*2] n-aiciste a chumachta 7 a 
mhiadamla* diasnese nad bai in nacha reduibh ailib, cenud 
bai-sium fadesin. 

17. Talmaidiu dXdu asennad inna imrati dogene soilsi. Ba 
si soilsi dogene .i. cuairt ind richidh co noi n^rzAaib aingel. 
Sechtmoga a IKn do thuathaib cosna cetheora[ibj gnan[brug]uib 
.XX. ar se ceduib, co ceoluib 7 ligbothaib am/j/ tongab fo[r]na 
,uii. ndealba ind richid. Doroine A^no isind oenlo cuairt inna 
ndealb .i. domna dia ndernad in domaw. Ar is delb chuairt- 
chruind ceta-demai Dia do deilb in Aovaain. 

[18. Adubradar ecnaidi na n-Ebraide annsin. Innis duinn 
anois, cindus atat suidighthi fil for[s]in domun coll6ir, uair atdm 
'na n-anfhis 7 'na n-aineol«j cech neich dibh.] R. 

19. Friscart in Tenga Bithnua: cenco accid-si, ol se, is i 
cminne dorraladh c^ch duil cid iar ndelbuib domam. Ar 
is i torachta chruinne doralta na nime, 7 is i torachta doronta 
na secht muire immacuairt, 7 is i torachta dor6nad* in \aXafn. 
Ocus i torachta cruinne doimchellat na renda roth cruinn in 
domuin, 7 iss i cruinde dhelbha atchit^r na hanmand iar 
n-escumluth a cor^aib, 7 iss i cruinde atchither cuairt in richidh 
uasail, 7 iss i cruinne zXcxther cuairt grAie 7 esca. IS deithbeir 
uile sein, ar is toruchta cen tosach cen forcend in Coimde ro 
bhithbhai 7 bhithbias 7 dorighne na huili sin. Is aire is i 
ndeilb chruind ro damnaiged in doman. 

20. Dix// pleps Ebreica : Ceist, cid ro boi isin chruind chuairt 
ildelbhaig ba damna domhain ? 



1 MS. haimsiur * ms. nat ^ MS. decmach * MS. inserts ba 

^ MS. doronta 



THE EVERXEW TONGUE 107 

16. The sages of the Hebrews answered : "A query: what 
was there at that time, since that nothing he has hitherto 
mentioned existed?" 

The Evemew Tongue answered : ** Every creature was with 
a marvel, to wit, God without beginning, without end, without 
sorrow, or age, or decay. There was no hour, nor time, nor 
space that He existed not. He is not younger or older (now) 
than at first. There was nothing that was hard for Him to do, 
(but) He thought a thought, and to that thought there was no 
beginning. He thought of somewhat nobler that His power 
might be seen, and His dignity indescribable that was not in 
any other things, although He Himself was it. 

17. "Suddenly then, after the thought. He created Light. 
This was the light He created, to wit, the circuit of the celestial 
vault with nine ranks of angels. Seventy was their number of 
tribes, with the six hundred and twenty-four sunny plains, with 
melodies and beautiful colours such as are upon the seven shapes 
of the celestial vault. So, in the same day. He made the 
circuit of the shapes, to wit, the matter whereof the world was 
fashioned. For of the shape of the world God first made the 
shape of a round circle." 

18. Then said the sages of the Hebrews: "Tell us now 
diligently what arrangements are in the universe, for we are in 
ignorance and darkness concerning every one of them." 

19. The Evernew Tongue answered : " Though ye see it 
not," quoth he, "'tis in roundness every thing created has 
been cast according to the shapes of the world. For 'tis in 
circularity of roundness the heavens have been made round 
about, and in circularity the seven seas have been made, and in 
circularity the earth has been made. And in circularity of 
roundness the stars traverse the round wheel of the universe, 
and in roundness of form the souls are seen after issuing from 
the bodies. And in roundness is seen the circuit of the high 
celestial vault, and in roundness is seen the orbit of sun and 
moon. Reasonable is all that, for circular without beginning or 
end is the Lord, who hath ever been, who will ever be, and 
who made all those (things). Therefore the world has been 
embodied in a round shape." 

20. Said the Hebrew populace : " A question : What was 
there in the round multiform circuit, which was the material 
of the universe ? " 



io8 WHITLEY STOKES 

21. Ro fhreacair in Tenga Bithnua: Ro boi, ar se, isin 
chuairt toruchta domna domain .i. uacht 7 tes, soilsi 7 dorcha 
trom 7 etrom, lind 7 tirim, ard 7 isiul, serba 7 ailgine, sonarte 7 
enairte, esgal mara 7 fua[i]m toraind, bolud blatha 7 andord 
aingel [7] tuirith ten^rfh. 

22. Rabatar na huili-se, tra, ol se, issind dluim* [47^ i] chruind 
ildealbhach doron^d do domna domain, 7 is ann ro thwjmed 
adb^r iffimd, ar ni d^mad in t-iflfe/T^^ focetair co ndeoch^^*// in 
t-archaingeP dar reir 7 co «-erlai a rrecht ind rig dodrigne cosinn 
arbar diairmidi na n-aingel. Ocus co sin, ol se, ni d^mad 
ifiR^rnd, acht ro bui a damna i fe^miud isin mais chruinn 
ildealbtf/^as* terpad in domun cosnaibh uilib chenelaibh docoissin 
isin domun. Ocus dia fedligtis ind aingil ro imorbosaigsetar 
isind aicniudh i ndernta 7 isin etrachta angelacdai, ro soifide 
damna ind iffz'rn i flaith Hgaig luachtidi* sunal in flaith na 
n-aingel noeb. 

23. IS e, trsiy inso gnfmh in cetna lai i tindscan Dia denamh 
in domumy licet scriptum est: qui uiuit in aetemum creau't 
omnia simul.* 

24. Artibzlon alma sea sahie e heloia flules elbicB limbce 
lasfania lire, quod latine dicitur: Fecit quoque Deus firma- 
mentum inter aquas, et diuisit aquas quae erant super firma- 
mentum ab his quae erant sub firmamento.* 

25. Doroine Dia daw^, ol se, isind laithe tanaissi .i. fraig na 
secht nimhe immacuairt cosna Hnnib nemdaib. Ar rofit^V in 
Coimdiu intan dorosat in mbith no regad duine' dar a timna 
asbreth fris. IS aire ro ssudhighedh fial ind nime fri gnusi 7 
sella daine arna hactis findfiud nime 7 rfghsuide De. 

26. INt^fTogauerunt plebes Ebreorum : Indica nobis naturas 
absconditas et mistma septem caelorum et quinque zonas quae 
circuerunt caelos. 

27. Ro freacair in Tenga bithnua : Na secht nime emh, ol 
se, imchomhaircid-si immon mbith. Nem cet«^ et;acht soXus 
nelda as nessamh dhuib as*toidi esca 7 esruth rind. Da nem 

' MS. issindlogom * MS. an tiffern ^ ms. an tarchaingel 

* MS. luachtigi '• Ecclesiasticus xviii. i « Genesis i. 7 ' MS. duini 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 109 

21. The Evernew Tongue answered: "There was," it said, 
''* in the orbital circuit the material of the universe, to wit, cold 
and heat, light and darkness, heavy and weightless, wet and 
dry, high and low, bitterness and mildness, strength and feeble- 
ness, roaring sea and noise of thunder, odour of flowers, chant 
of angels, and pillars of fire. 

22. "All these, then," quoth he, "were in the round, 
multiform cloud which was made of the material of the 
universe : and 'tis there that the stuff of hell was produced ; 
for Hell was not made at once ; not until the archangel trans- 
gressed (God's) will and forsook the law of the King who had 
created him, together with the innumerable crowd of the angels. 
Till then," quoth he, " hell was not made ; but its material 
was stored away in the round, multiform mass out of which 
the universe was separated, with all the kindreds which exist 
therein. And if the angels who sinned had remained in the 
nature in which they had been created, and in the angelic 
radiance, the material of hell would have been turned into a 
beautiful, bright kingdom, like unto the kingdom of the holy 
angels. 

23. " This, then, is the work of the first day on which God 
began the making of the world, although it hath been written, 
* He that liveth for ever created all things at the same time.* 

24. " Artibilon alma^' etc. " God also made the firmament 
between the waters, and divided the waters which were above 
the firmament from those that were below the firmament. 

25. "Then," quoth he, "on the second day, God made the 
wall of the seven heavens round about with the heavenly waters. 
For the Lord knew when He created the world that man 
would transgress the commandment which was declared to 
him. Therefore, the veil of heaven has been set overagainst 
the .faces and eyes of men, so that they might not see the 
blessedness of heaven and the throne of God." 

26. The populace of the Hebrews asked : " Point out to us 
the hidden natures and the mysteries of the seven heavens, and 
the five zones that surround them." 

27. The Evernew Tongue answered : " The seven heavens, 
in sooth, around the world (as to) which ye ask (are) : first, the 
radiant, bright, cloudy heaven which is nearest to you, whereout 
shines the moon and the scattering of stars. Over this two 



no WHITLEY STOKES 

luachtidi lasardha uasa side co n-imsitnib aingel indibh 7 esruth 
gaith. Nem^ [47^2] uar Rigreta, uas [sjudib as glaisiu ca^A 
ligdath, as sechtuairiu snecta as'toidi grian. Da nem aile 
luachtide lasardhai (or suidib assa* toidet tenedrind doberat 
toirthigi i niulu^ 7 muir. 

28. Ardnem tentide* an uasaib-side is airdem dib uili fora 
forramad cuairt ind richid. Nem gr[i]anna tentide* seon i mbi 
saethar la cocetal ceol 7 clasa aing^/. 

29. Hi cressaib, tra, na secht nime fus-luget in da crithmhil 
dec cosnaib tenedcennuibh uasdaib inna c^puib nemdaib, doin- 
fidet di gaeith dec imon mbith. Isnaib cresaibh cetnaibh dsino 
contmlet in dracoin co n-anak/^ tened, dracoin turethcind 7 
tedmann foraibh inna toibaib dogluasset cichnaig inna torand 7 
doinfidet luachtiu di lessaibh sell. Do imchealla[t], ol se, didu, 
creasa immon nem, 7 is sechtchuairt in nem (?) immon tslmam 
imacuairt. 

30. Criss uardhai aigr^ta* chetamw^ ara fomnatar muire fo 
gruadibh in nime atuaith. 

Criss uar aigridi aili immanaisce mila mara fo muirib [7] fo 
toibaib in talman andes isin n-airm i f(!7rrumtha na noi tuirid 
tentidi*^ fri nem indes [aga imftilang, P], 

Criss an aurlasair airechta domuzn dofoscai iltor^^ talman 
CO n-erig immon mbith ara bruindib siar. 

Da chris aille ailgina ata urgala anmanna doberat uacht 7 
tes, foc^rtat tola tedmann do thoibhaib talm^w for each leath. 

31. Aibne fisen asbcd frtbcB flanis lia sieth .1. Doroine Dia 
isin tress lau linde 7 ilmuire 7 ilcenela Ms^e 7 ildealba salmuire, 
ocus cuairt in ta\man cona. redib 7 a shleibhibh 7 a fidbadhaib® 7 
a lecaib logmaraib 7 a ilceneW^ crand. 

32. INterrogauerunt sapientes Ebriorum : INdica nobis 
multa genera et mist^ria maris. 

33. Ro fhrecair in Tenga Bithnua: Atat em, ol se, teora 
linde do muir [48*1] immon mbith .i. muir co secht ndealbuib 
cetam«^ fo thoibaib in taXman fris* tormai in t-iflferd 7 fnV 

1 MS. 7 asruth Gaithnem *MS. asna' ^^s. a niula * MS. tendtigi 

6 MS. tentige * MS. aigr^ta aili ' MS. tentigi « ^s. figbadhaib 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE in 

gleaming, flamy heavens with ... of angels in them and out- 
treak of winds. Over these is a cold, icy heaven, bluer than any 
beautiful colour, and seven times colder than snow, out of which 
shines the sun. Two other gleaming, flamy heavens on these, 
whereout shine the fiery stars that put fruitfulness into clouds 
and sea. 

28. ** A high heaven, fiery, splendid, is above these. 'Tis the 
highest of them all, on which the circuit of the welkin has been 
set. A sunny and fiery heaven is that, wherein there are labour 
at harmony of melodies, and choirs of angels. 

29. ** Now in the zones of the seven heavens are hidden the 
twelve shaking-beasts with the fiery heads above them in their 
heavenly bodies : they blow twelve winds about the world. In the 
same zones, too, sleep the dragons with breaths of fire, dragons, 
tower-headed, with diseases on them in their flanks, who bring 
forth the crash of the thunders and blow lightnings from pupils 
of eyes. Thus traverse," he says, " the zones round the heaven ; 
and the heaven hath seven circuits round about the earth. 

30. "A frigid, icy zone, in the first place, by which seas go 
down (?) under the convexities of the heaven to the north. 

" Another cold, icy zone which unites the beasts of the sea 
under seas and under the sides of the earth to the south in the 
place where the nine fiery pillars were put to the south of heaven 
supporting it. 

" A splendid zone . . . the great flame of the world's assembly, 
which nourishes many fruits of the earth, so that it rises around 
the world on its breasts to the west. 

" Two beautiful mild zones which are the arenas of the animals 
that give cold and heat, (and) which cast abundance of diseases 
to the flanks of earth on every side. 

31. " Atbne fisenl^ etc., that is, ** On the third day God made 
lakes and many seas, and many kinds of water, and many forms 
of salt seas, and the circuit of the earth with its plains, and its 
mountains, and its forests, and its precious stones, and its many 
kinds of trees." 

32. The sages of the Hebrews asked: "Tell us the many 
kindreds and secrets of the sea." 

33. The Evernew Tongue replied : " In sooth," he says 
" there are three waters of sea around the world, to wit, first, a 
sea with seven shapes under the flanks of the earth, against 

L 



112 WHITLEY STOKES 

cuiredar gair imon nglend. Salmuir glas gleordai imacuairt 
imon t^^fnain di each leith togluaisse tuile 7 aithbe [7] sceas 
iltorad. Ata A^no in tres lind .1. lasarmhuir. Legtair asna 
nimib .ix. ngaetha ^t?mdnualat asa suan .Ixx. ar .liii. c^/aib ceol 
concanat a thonnai lar ndiuchtradh assa shuan. Tor»/aid [amal] 
thoruinn asa thonngar. Ni chumsana di thule o thosach 
Aovnuin^ 7 nocho bo Ian acht dia dovatxatg. I ndomnach 
docuredar 1 suan co «diuchtradar toraind inna ngaeth la t^ki 
in AomYmaig Dia de nim 7 la cocetal inna n-aing^/ n-uassai. 

34. Ataat AdLfio ilchen^la^ do muirib cen motha sein im th6ibu- 
taiman di each leith. Muir dherg cetamus eo n-ilar liac logmar, 
CO laindred fhola, eo ndathaibh diord^/^, eU'r tire Egipt 7 tire 
India. Muir gel gainmech^ co ;?dath sneehtai tuaid im innsib 
Sab[uirn]. Rosaigh nert a thuli co /^-essreidet a tonna eu airtriuth 
nel. Muir nemhthonnaeh dhub ddino fo dhath deged, nsu:A 
n-ethar rotn-ainie noeho t^moi ass acA^ oenshes nama la ^ttruma 
a retha 7 nert a gaeithe. Ocus eathu biasta* arraneatar ann. 

35. Ata da;^^ muir legthair [is]in {atrgi{?) deis i«dsi Ebian. 
diesi[gi]dir a thuliu la cetemun co tet for aitbe la gemredh^ 
Leith-blia/fom for tuiliu, al-leth aili for aithbhiu dogr^s. Eghit 
a biasda 7 a bledmila* i n-aimsir gebes aitbhe, 7 dos-e«/f^ar i 
cess 7 suan. Diuchtrait 7 failtnigit la tuile, 7 forb^rat tipfait 7 
aibhne 7 srotha in domuin, is tria glinde tiagait co taigrt iarcein. 

36. Ataat dsino da cen^P .Ixx., ol se,do tipratuib ildelbdaib' 
i talam. Tipra Ebion, cetamus, imshoi ildatha fri haimsir cacA 
en-laithi dogrh. Dath snecta fair o thurcbail grAie co teirt. 
Dath uainidhi co ;?-ildath nathra^rA o theirt co noin. Foc^rdtar 
i ndath fholai [48*2] o nonai co fescur. Nach beoil blais^ ni 
thic faitbiud na gen gairi fon-a i mbethaidh. 

37. Tipra Assian i tirib Libia immifoilngi combrite do mnaib 
ciat aimriti riam. 



'- MS. ilchenelu * MS. thoiba ^ ^s. gemnech * ms. biastu 

& Its. blegmila '^ ms. cenel* ^ ms. ildealbdaim 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 113 

ivhich Hell makes a mighty noise ; and against which it raises 
a cry round the valley. An ocean green (and) luminous round 
about the earth on every side, which brings forth flood and 
ebb, (and) which casts up many fruits. Then there is the third 
water, to wit, a flamy sea. Out of the heavens are let nine winds 
which arouse (?) it from its sleep. Four hundred and seventy 
melodies its waves sing after it has been awakened. It makes 
a noise like thunder out of its wave-voice. From the beginning 
of the world it never ceases from flooding, and (yet) it was never 
full save on a Sunday. On Sunday it falls asleep until the thun- 
ders of the winds are awakened by the coming of God's Sunday 
from heaven, and by the harmony of the angels above it. 

34. "Besides that, there ^are ''many kinds of seas around the 
flanks of earth on every side. A red sea, in the first place, with 
many precious stones, with the brightness of blood, with gilded 
colours, between the lands of Egypt and the lands of India. 
A sea bright, sandful, with'^the hue of snow in the north, around 
the islands of Sabam. So great is the might of its flood that its 
waves disperse (?) to the lofty course of the clouds. A black, 
waveless sea, with the colour of a stagbeetle, so that no ship 
that has reached it has escaped from it, save only one boat by 
the lightness of its course and the strength of its wind. And 
battalions of beasts (men) have found there. 

35. Then there is a sea that is set in the ocean south of the 
island of Ebian. On the first of May its flood grows high, until 
in winter it goes to ebb. For half the year it is in flood, for the 
other half always ebbing. Its reptiles and its monsters wail at 
the time wl\en it takes to ebbing ; and they fall into sadness 
and sleep. At the flood they awake and rejoice ; and the wells 
and rivers and streams of the world increase. Through glens 
they go, and after a while they come. 

36. " Now," saith he, " there are on earth two and seventy 
kinds of many-shaped wells. In the first place, the well of Ebion, 
which always turns to many colours at the time of every single 
day. From sunrise to terce the hue of snow is on it. A green 
colour, with the changeful hue of serpents, from terce to none. 
From morn to vesper it is turned into the colour of blood. On any 
mouths that taste it^comes neither smiling nor laughter in life. 

37. " The well of Assian in Lybia causes pregnancy to women 
(who drink of it), though previously they are barren. 

L 2 



114 WHITLEY STOKES 

38. Tipra Presens^ i tirib Dard. fichid fn aes fingaile 7 adhartha 
idhul 7 cacha cloini. NacA beoil no blaisset ros-la (or feirg 7 
escuinde. Nocha labair iar^m co ^-aplat a beoil 1 mmbron 7 
toirrsi. 

39. Tip^ Shion 1 tirib Ebra sund nocon rodcad ar in da 
fogbad ndick baeth do lin cen forbairt dosnai forlan i ndomn<^c>i 
dogrh.^ Astoidi fn haidchi' amal roithne gr/ne. IS lia indisi 
7 epirt a ndo ligdath doadbat on t^th co araili. Ni thanic i 
ndoman di ola na fhin na mil blass na fogabtha ann. Ni cumsana 
di thuile. Ni acces a shruth nach leth. Cach aen rot-blaisi 
nocho tainic tor na b^-on menman, 7 ni ro rath ar bass. 

40. Ata smth uscz dano tigban* indsi na bian, co ^-eraig fri 
cach lin co n-anfir immodcing, noco ternann' uadh. 

41. Cet Ar3L srotha ordha i nglinnib Slebe Nabuan co forblas 
fina CO «d^;^dath [fjola, co serbai shall marai, co ngainemaib oir. 

42. Sruth Alien a n-indsib Tebe, tormaid ama/ torainn dogr^s 
isind aidhchi* ro genair Slainicid in betha i tirib Ebra, 7 mar 
atcloitsi innocht isinn aidhchi* asreract Cn's^ o marbaib. Coic 
cenela .Ix. ar xcc. do cheolaib issed tormas ann. CacA duine 
adconnaic dia focus ni ra labrastair iar^^^ in cach aidhchi* docein. 
Doadbanar as do nim thormaid. 

43. Atat danOy ol se, cethri cenSla liac logmar [isin sruth 
c6tna] CO ceil 7 chosm^/7i«^ doine. 

44. Lia Adhamain[t] i tirib India, ciar' gabthar i ngaethuibh 
7 aigredaib 7 shnechta ni fuairi-de fris. Cia thoit^r do thentib 
7 gnsaib fair ni (fil) tes ind. Cia buailt^r do bielaib 7 ordaib nf 
therbrui ni de fris : acAt fuil ind uain cosind edbairt ni fuil ni fris' 
t^rbrui [48^1]. Cach ri ro gabh for a d^mainn deis ria ndul do 
chath ro mchazd riamh. 

45. Lia Hibien 1 tirib Hab lasaid indamardall aidhchi® atna/ 

1 MS. Sheon 

2 This is very corrupt. ^ has here : Tipra ele ata a sliab Sioin, 7 ni faicter f 
dogres acht ac sirthuile 6 thosach in domain co brach [leg. br&th], 7 bidh an Ian 
uisci sin dogr€s innti acht isin domnach amdin. 

3 MS. haigti 

* Corrupt ; ti£^ may be gen. sg. of dug ' thick,' agreeing with usci; but what is 
^an ? 

^ A Middle-Irish form : so labrann 47 don-ethand 61. 
^ MS. aighthi 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 115 

38. ** The well of Presens in the lands of Darath (?) : it boils up 
against parricides and idolaters and all kinds of evil-doers. All 
the mouths that taste it it has impelled to anger and insanity. 
They speak not afterwards, so that they perish in grief and 
sadness. 

39. " The well of Zion here in the lands of the Hebrews has 
not . . . without increase. It flows full on Sunday always. 
It beams at night like the blaze of a sun. More than one can 
tell and say is the beautiful colour which it displays from one 
(canonical) hour to another. Never entered the world the taste 
of oil or wine or honey that is not found there. It resteth not 
from flood. Its outflow has not been seen on any side. To 
whomsoever tasted it neither sadness nor grief of mind has 
come ; and he has not been given for death. 

40. " Then there is a river of water which . . . the island of 
torments, and it rises against all the truthless who go round it ; 
they do not escape from it. 

41. " Four golden streams (are) in the glens of Mount 
Nabuan, with the flavour of wine, with the red colour of blood, 
with the bitterness of sea-salt, with sands of gold. 

42. " The stream Alien (?) in the islands of Tebe : it always 
makes a mighty noise like thunder on the night that the Saviour 
of the world was born in the lands of the Hebrews, and as ye 
should hear to-night in the night that Christ has risen from the 
dead. Three hundred and sixty-five kinds of melodies, this is 
what resoundeth there. Whoever has beheld it anear hath not 
spoken of it in any night for long afterwards. Tis shown that 
it is from heaven it makes a noise. 

43. "Then,'' quoth he, "there are four kinds of precious 
stones in the same stream with the sense and likeness of 
humans. 

44. " The stone Adamant in the lands of India, though it be 
taken in winds and ice and snow, not the colder is it for this. 
Though fires and embers be let fall upon it, there is no heat 
therein. Though it be struck with axes and sledge-hammers, 
nothing breaks off it in consequence. Save the Blood of the 
Lamb with (at ?) the Mass, there is nothing at which it 
breaks. Every king who has taken it in his right hand before 
going to battle has routed his foe. 

45. " The stone Hibien in the lands of Hab flames in the 



ii6 WHITLEY STOKES 

chaindil tened. Dofortai cdich neim a lleastar i furimar dia 
fagba and ara chind. Na^>% nathir donaidle no theit tairis atbail 
focetoir. 

46. Lia Istien i tirib Libia, ind inchinnib ArdiCon arrecar A, 
iarna mbas. Berbaid na linne 7 na marlocha i furimar co fichet 
dar tire. Toidid fri husci [7 tormaid] amail toruind i ngaimhr^V/. 
Tormaid i cetemam amal ghaetha. 

47. Lia Fanes i tirib Aulol a ssruth Dar[aj. Athchiter^ di 
retlainn dec 7 roth escai 7 tenedchuairt gr^e inna thoib. 
I c/'idhib inna ndracon tormth^t fo mhuir arrecar dogr^s. Nach 
duine a mbi laimh nocon rala uad, nocho labrunn goi. Ni 
thalla impi do lin na sochraidi a tabuirt i tech i mbi fer fingaili 
no adhartha idhal. Im trath cecha iarmeirghi dorddaid ceol 
mbind dind frith cosmaih*^^ fo nimh. 

48. INterrogauer^nt sapientes Eb^orum atque plebs : Roga- 
mus te Btque {sic) indices nobis diu^rsa g<?«era lignorum quae in 
creacione mundi a Deo sunt plantata. 

49. Ro freacair in Teanga Bithnua : IS deithbir duibsi, ol se 
a n-imchomarc sin, ar itat ceit^n craind dibsom i tomnait^r anim 
7 cial ^xnal hcthazd SLinge/.^ 

50. Crann Sames cetam/^j, i comruc lor 7 Dan, docuiridar 
tri toraid carAa hWddne, Torad ngelglas a torad toisech, derg a 
medonach, etract an d^idenach.' Intan is apuid a cetna torad 
is ann fhasas alaill asa hlsithazd. Nach n-esconn rotm-blaisi a 
thorad sin dorala inna chunn shlan. Nocho torchair duilli dhe o 
dognith. NzcA duine co «-ainimh no co ngalar dod-fc?rlaic inna 
fhoscudh dic^mdh a shoethu dhe. 

51. Crann Bethadh i parrdus Adhaimh, na^A beoil rodm- 
blaisiset a thorad noco ndeochaid bas iar»m, conid fobith in 
cAf^ind sin ro loingsigedh Adam 7 Eua a Pard«^, ar dia mblaistis 
torad an crainn sin nis-taidlibead b^^in nech aimsir,achtroptis* 
W tre bithu. [48^2.] Da thorad dhec docuiret[h]ar in each 
bliadazn .1. ligthorad ca^^ mis. Uidhe secA^ samhlaithe doimthasa 
a bolud Fsirrduis (7) fortugedar a foscudh. 

' MS. assrut darathchiter ^ leg. betis aingil ? ^ MS. deiginach * MS. noptis 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 117 

pitch-darkness of night like a torch of fire. It spills every poison 
out of the vessel into which it is put, if it find the poison 
there before it. Every snake that approaches it, or goes across 
it, dies forthwith. 

46. " The stone of Istien in the lands of Libya is found in the 
brains of dragons, to wit, after their death. It seethes the waters 
and the great lakes into which it is put, so that they boil over 
the lands. It shines against water, and in winter it resounds like 
thunder. On the first of May it makes a noise like winds. 

47. " The stone of Fanes in the lands of Aurol (?) out of the 
stream of Dara. Twelve stars are seen in its side, and the orbit 
of the moon, and the fiery circuit of the sun. It is always found 
in the hearts of the dragons that pass across under the sea. Who- 
ever holds it in his hand, till he has put it from him, utters no 
falsehood. Neither number nor multitude is capable of bringing 
it into a house wherein there is a parricide or an idolater. At 
the hour of every matins it sounds a sweet melody the like 
whereof is not under heaven." 

48. The wise men of the Hebrews and the populace asked : 
" We pray thee to tell us the diverse kinds of trees which were 
planted by God at the creation of the world." 

49. The Evernew Tongue answered : " Good right ye have 
to put that question, for there are four of those trees into 
which soul and reason are gone (?) like the life of angels. 

50. " The tree Sames, in the first place, at the meeting of 
Jor and Dan, produces three crops of fruit every year. A 
bright green crop is its first crop, red is its middle crop, shining 
is the last. When the first crop is ripe, then grows another 
out of its flowers. Every demented person who has tasted 
that fruit becomes sane in his mind. Since it nvas created, 
no leaf has fallen from it. Every one with a blemish or a 
disease who lays himself in its shade puts his ailments froip 
him. 

51. " The tree of Life in Adam's Paradise : whatever mouths 
have tasted its fruit have not afterwards gone to death ; wherefore 
because of that tree Adam and Eve were exiled from Paradise ; 
for if they had tasted the fruit of that tree, death would not 
at any time have visited them, but they would have been 
alive for ever. Twelve crops it produces every year, to wit, 
a beautiful crop in every month. A journey of seven summer- 
days the odour of Paradise extends (?), and its shade covers. 



ii8 WHITLEY STOKES 

52. Grand n-Alab a n-innsib Sab, samailt^r a indas fn deilb 
nduine. In blath dochuiredar fair dobadi each teidm 7 each 
neim. Uidhe se samla doimthiasa (?) a holad 7 a midchlos dia 
blathaib nana ri^A/ain. Leca logmara scinniti a thoraid. 
Dobadi feirg 7 fonnat di each cridi dara ndichet a sugh. 

53. Bile Nathaben i tirib Ebrae i ndeise^n Sl/^i Sion sund, 
ni eian uaib ita i ndeisc^rt in tslebiu i taidh. Ni fhuaratar maze 
doine eo se a crann-sa o thos^cA domain acht oinlaithi ^^wdiacht 
Cf-and do eroch^ Qxist^ eo mbu asa ghescuib dobreth c^'and inna 

^cruiche triasra iccadh in bith. 

54. Secht toraid doeuiredur 7 secht mblatha imchl(oid) cecha 
bliadna. Nach duine rodm-blaise a thorad noc[h]o tainic do 
galar na saeth,^ aM ron-ithed ria mbas nicon etarbai aestu ina 
imdhuidh* acAi cend i cotlud. Noeo ta(inie) 1 tslmain do mil 
na ola na fin ni ro soss^rf eosmaili^^ dia bias. Etrachta esce 7 
grene 7 atoidiud rind astoidiu asa hla.thaz6. Da chend .Ixx. 
do eeolaib concdLmd a bile 7 a blaith fri tethacht na ngaeth o 
thosflJcA domain, Coic eoin .Ix. ar .eee. eo n-etroehtai snechta, 
CO ;?-eitib forordhaib, eo suilibh luachthidhibh eantai ilcheolu i 
n-ilbelraib asa geseaib. Ra fes is belra dligtheeh ^^wcanat, ach/ 
nat aithgnet cluasa doine. 

55. Dixerunt sapientes Ebreorum: A coimdhiu, acht nat 
laimemar, ata and anba doneoch aisnither dun as doil/jf do 
creitiumh. 

56. Co clos ni, in Tenga Bithnua : A6ta fehle abia alitrian 
afen alpula nistien erolmea leant .i. Ainmnetach ret, ol se, cride 
CO rad rig nime innarA dortai in doman ar mod cacha huairi i 
fudomnuibh [49* i] pian iar neoch dia ecnuch 7 aithisib 7 ecraitib 
dolleici tenga caich inna gnuis. 

57. Cid na dechaidsi,' ol se, ba handsu do cmdium a mmil 
mbeannach dob^rt an mhuir la tracht Ceaphas ind aidhchi* gene 



^ lis. sueth * MS. ana imdhuigh ^ leg. d^ccidsi, which is translated 

« MS. aighthi 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE T19 

52. " The tree Alab in the islands of Sab, its state is like 
unto the form of man. The flower that it weareth quells every 
disease and every poison. A journey of six summer-days 
the odour and the scent of its flowers extend before they 
are reached. Precious stones (are) the kernels of its fruit. 
It quells anger and envy from every heart over which its juice 
has passed. 

53. "The tree Nathaban, in the lands of the Hebrews here 
in the south of Mount Zion, not far from you is it on the 
south of the mountain on which ye are. Hitherto from the 
beginning of the world no sons of men found it save on the 
one day when a tree was sought for crucifying Christ — so 
that from its branches was brought the shaft of the Cross by 
which the world has been saved. 

54. "Seven crops it yields and seven flowers it changes in 
every year. To any man who has tasted its fruit neither 
disease nor tribulation came : provided he eat it before death 
no . . . attended him in his bed, but *a head in sleep.' 
Never came on earth aught of honey or oil or wine that 
would attain to resemblance of its savour. The radiance of 
moon and sun and the shining of stars shines out of its 
blossoms. From the beginning of the world its leaves and 
its blossoms sing together two and seventy kinds of melodies 
at the approach of the winds. Three hundred and sixty-five 
birds with the lustre of snow, with all-golden wings, with 
shining eyes, which from its branches sing many melodies in 
many tongues. We know that it is lawful language that they 
sing together ; save that the ears of men do not recognise it." 

55. Said the sages of the Hebrews : " O Lord, save that 
we dare not, it is hard to believe much of what is announced 
to us." 

56. Somewhat was heard: the Evernew Tongue: ^^ Abia 
feblel' etc., that is, " A patient thing," quoth he, " is the gracious 
heart of the King of Heaven in that He doth not spill 
the earth for the deed of every hour into the depths of 
torments, after all the blasphemy of Him, and the insults and 
hostilities which everyone's tongue lets forth before Him. 

57. "Why see ye not," quoth he, "that it was harder to 
believe in the horned beast which the sea brought to the 
strand of Ceaphas on the eve of Christ's Nativity in the lands 



I20 WHITLEY STOKES 

Cm/ i tirib Ebra. Debruinnit^r srotha fina asa belaib ria mbas. 
In tsloigh na hindsi fod^rcsatar fair, dorumenator ba sUai no 
ardinis docor^wtar forsin tract. Dos-roimid snith asind aill 
dLtnal bidh a leastar 7 mid asa beluib oc anamduch .L. ar .ccc. 
adharc n-egfhiwd asa cind sair. Se radairc .1. gabais fot a delba, la 
tracht Ceaphas. Na hadharca sin tra 61 coecal ar ce^ issed thalla 
in each adhairc diibh : marait cosindiu in for cathrach^/^-si, ol se. 
Ni bu andsa a scel-sa do. creidiumh oldas creitimh 7 breith a 
aithne sin. 



58. En inna mete d^nnhaire diana^d ainm Hiruath i tirib 
India. Rosaig di meit a delba^ conid uide tri ngaimlaithe di 
muirib no tirib f rosoich fosccud a eitedh intan sgailes uadha iat, 
P]. F^Huathar ar ite oc accaill arna bledmila isin muir. Slebe 
gainme 7 grian it e guirte* in ogh docuirit^^r iar ndoth^a:^/. Lib^rn 
CO seoluib 7 ramaib dognitA^r do leth ind ugha' sin iama 
madhmaim .Ixx. .c. mile cona, n-armaibh 7 a lointib issead b^reas 
dar muir. Oc^^^ ata sochuidi mor don tsluagsa fil isin ceiti-se 
sunn is i lleth ind uga* sin dodeochatar dar Muir Ruadh. Na 
benaidh amhiris for Dia imm immut a mirbhol amal mac i tigh 
amardhall. 



59. Talmaidiu didu iarsin atraract oclach di tuaith luda asin 
ndun^sd anair .i. mac Habes m/c Gomeir mic Shala tnzc ludas 
side immorro a n-asb^rt : Ni gua em, ol se, a crand^e? «-enuibh 
Scariath mert[e] a Choimde, mac na mallacta do cein. Atraract 
na [49*2] n-ete forordha 7 cosna ceoluibh, atchuaid in fer-sa! 
Ata lem ni forchoimnacuir. Cezs^, cid docelad a mbile i medon 
in maigi ar suilib caich ? 



60. IMshoi for tuaithbiul ar belaib an tsluaigh inna cete fadhes 
i ndeisciurt Sl^'ii Sion, ^t?nacai ni focA//bir, in nel tendtighi. 
Do scai[l] in nel sin ara suilib, co ^-acca in mbile cona, ligthoir- 
thib : astoiditis a blatha amal grein. Co cuala iar soduin coicetal 



» MS. dealbu 2 ^s. guirthe ' us. ughu 

* MS uga 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 121 

of the Hebrews ? Streams of wine flow from its lips before 
death. The hosts of the island, who looked upon it, supposed 
that it was a mountain or a high island that lighted on 
the strand. A stream burst out of the cheek as if out of a 
vessel, and mead out of its lips. . . . Fifty and three hundred 
white-faced horns out of its head in front Six and fifty times 
as far as the eye could reach was the length of the shape on 
the strand of Ceaphas. There is room in each of those horns- 
for the drink of a hundred and fifty : they remain till to-day 
in your cities," quoth he. " It were no harder to believe this 
tale than to believe and accept His commandments." 

58. "A bird of enormous size named Hiruath, is in the 
lands of India. Such is the size of its form, that the shadow 
of its wings, when it expands them, extends to a journey of three 
winter-days by seas or lands. It speeds on the wing a-hunting 
for the monsters in the sea. Mountains of sand and gravel 
are what warm the egg that it deposits (therein) after laying. 
A galley with sails and oars is built out of the half of that 
egg after breaking it. Seven thousand soldiers with their 
weapons and their provisions is what it carries over sea. 
And there is a great multitude of this host in this assembly 
here, which came in the half of that egg over the Red Sea. 
Do not, like a child in a dark house, show any unfaith to God 
concerning the abundance of His miracles." 

59. Suddenly then, afterwards, a warrior of the tribe of 
Judah rose up out of the assembly in the east, to wit, the son 
of Habes, son of Gomer, son of Sala, son of Judas Iscariot, 
who betrayed his Lord — the son of malediction from old 
times. He arose and said : " A false thing," quoth he, " is the 
tree with the birds of golden wings, and with the melodies, 
of which this person has told us. Meseems that it never came 
to pass. A question : what would have hidden from every one's 
eyes the tree in the middle of the field ? " 

60. He turned withershins before the host of the assembly, 
southwards in the southern part of Mount Zion ; and forthwith 
he saw somewhat, the fiery cloud. That cloud dissolved (?) 
before his eyes ; and (then) he saw the tree with its beautiful 
fruits. Its blossoms were shining like a sun. After this he heard 
the harmony, in the many languages, of the all-golden radian 



122 WHITLEY STOKES 

inna n-en forordai luachtide asnaib ilberlaib 7 inna ndulerath 
ligdatha fri gotha na ngaeth.^ 

61. Talmaidiu larsin ni ro fhuilngsetar na suili peccthacha* 
8ella[d] frisna liga noiba. Madit a shuili inna cinn. Aitherr- 
uch ddino iarsein don-ethand athach di ghoith tentidi,* condecht 
ina bruindi 7 inna gnuis, comdar duibid/r degaid, 7 conidn- 
indsort lethmarb aridisi for medon an dunuid, et dixit : Eui folia 
faste, eui f alia fas te. eui f alia faste maria fablea nelise nam .i. 

Del chatach amirseach atamcomnaic^ ; et dixtl: Andsa piana 
ardomthaat 7 ardomnet. Sirect^c^ ligmag ad^^^^narc nad con- 
accai nech riam. Ardecnach ro raidseam, mairg fond-racht. 
Inge nama asrubairt iarsin docuiredar marb for tslmain, 

62. Ergit la soduin sloig in dunuidh uili, 7 doronsat aithrigi, 
7 issed atb^nis: A mmo Choimde noeb! ar ecnairc do trocuiri 
7 apnsci in adbhuir dian-ar-ft^rcoimnacair, arna ecmonga ait[h]- 
ber fearga for ar n-aimiris. Ealgone adcomchaissem, acht ropu 
dall ar ar suilib in ret ingnad nat fetamar. 

63. Co closs ni [49^1] (in) Tenga Bithnua : N'a itho ad nacul 
lenisteia tibon talaji ata asfa bibo lintbia fiaune .i. A failti-si do 
coibdelchaibjeit/y TaaczM 7 ingina ocus maithre 7 aithre,ce at agtha 
fo claid^^ 7 ce at agtha {or fulochtu iarum conusn-^stz, ina carnu 
.1. ba ussa fa sheacht a dilgud sein oldaas beim n-ecnaich {or Dia 
7 amirsi fair {or a duile 7 a mirboile. Ar mad beim n-ecnaig 
for Dhia 7 amirsi {or a duile 7 {or in Trinoit 7 {or na hamra 
dorigne Dia, ni fil i nnim nar-^ i talumh tindtud n-aithr/^ iccas 
nech aire, act bhithbeith %an {orz^nw i fudhomhnuibh pian. 

64. Interrogauerunt sapientes Ebreorum dicentess: Indica 
nobis quod c[o]episti. 

Co clos ni, in Tenga Bithnua: Alea fas uide uala nistien 
alme amafaus elobi reba .i. Doroine Dia isin cethramadh lau da 
chen^l Jxx. inna rind tairindredach nime la tenedchuairt inna 
grix\Q guires in mbith, co lluaithe goithe, co ceill 7 etr acta aingel. 
Astoidi da mhagh decc fo thoibaib tdXman i lies ca^rA aidhche,* 
cuairt insin fnsi ngaire tenedmhuir* 7 cuairt fris'comruicet 7 
frisa failtniget arbair aingel iar n-etractai aidche.' 

J nangaet 2 ^s. pecdhuchu ^ MS tentigi * MS. atamconnaic » MS. aighthe 
* MS. inserts 7 enlaiti, < and birds,' which is meaningless here ^ MS. aigte ar is dall 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 123: 

birds and of the beautifully coloured leaves against the voices 
of the winds. 

61. Suddenly then the sinful eyes endured not to look at 
the holy hues. His eyes burst in his head. Again, then, goes 
to him the blast of a fiery wind ; and it went into his breast 
and into his face, so that they became as black as a stag- 
beetle; and it struck him half dead again in the middle of 
the assembly ; and he said : " Eut /alia faste'' etc., that is : 
"I am a rod twisted, faithless." And he said : " Hard are the 
torments that are before me and that await me. A thing of 
longing is the fair plain I beheld, that no one ever saw before. 
Blasphemy we have uttered : woe to him that has done (?) it ! ''^ 
Scarcely had he spoken when he falls dead on the earth. 

62. Thereat all the hosts of the assembly arise ; and they did 
penance, and this they were saying :. " O my holy Lord, for 
sake of Thy mercy, and because of the fragility of the matter 
whereof we have been made, let not wrathful reproach fall 
upon our unfaith ! Wilful crimes we have committed (?) ; but 
dark before our eyes was the strange thing we knew not." 

63. Somewhat was heard, the Evernew Tongue : " Na ithol' 
etc. "If all your relatives, both sons and daughters, mothers 
and fathers, were put to the sword, and then placed on cooking- 
hearths that you might eat their flesh, it were seven times easier 
to forgive that (crime) than any blasphemy of God and unfaith as 
to His elements and His miracles. For if there be any reviling 
of God and unfaith as to His elements and the Trinity and 
the marvels that God has wrought, there is neither in heaven nor 
on earth a turning of repentance which heals anyone from it, 
but abiding ever and endlessly in the depths of torments." 

64. The sages of the Hebrews asked, saying : " Tell us 
what Thou hast begun." 

Somewhat was heard : the Evernew Tongue : " Alea fas*' 
etc., that is, "God created, on the fourth day, the two and 
seventy kinds of the wandering stars of heaven, with the fiery 
circuit of the sun, which warms the world, with the swiftness 
of wind, with the sense and splendour of angels. Twelve 
plains under the flanks of earth it illumines in the ... of 
every night — that circuit against which the fiery sea laughs ; 
and a circuit at which troops of angels meet and rejoice 
after the brightness of night." 



124 WHITLEY STOKES 

65. INtenrogauerunt sapientes Ebreorum: INdis dun na da 
mag dec sin fu[i]let fo toibhuibh taitnan fris' taitin gnan fri les 
each n-aidchi,' ar is dall erunn a fhis. 

66. Friscart di sudhiu in Tenga^ Bithnua : ISed em tete in 
gnan i fescar ca^A aidche.' 

67. Doaitne cetamus a sruth n-allmuirede co sceluibh airthir 
na Hind. 

68. Doaitne iarumh [fo. 49^2] an ardmhuir* thened dadaig 7 
na treathnu sroibthenedh imm na tuatha derga. 

.69. Toidid iarsin slogu inna m<?<rradh isnaibh meallmuig^b 
foc^rdat in ngair dochum nimhe ar uam«« in mil mharb^^j* inna 
Wmili de shloguib fo thonnuib andes. 

70. Toaitne \axum a sliab co [sjrothuib* tein^^ documnet 
inna credmaig^ co sloghuibh in coimtecta indib. 

71. Toidet iKVum airbe in mil mhoir fris n-eirgrt na ceithre 
coraid fic[h]et fns n-gairet glenn inna pian. 

72. Toaitne iarsin ircomuir a n-airbe n-uathach ilbuidnech 
i[m]me ro iad donaib iflfemdaib fothuaith. 

73. Toaitne isnaib dubglindib cosnaib srothaib sirrechtaibh 
-dara ngnuisi. 

74. Toaitne iarum airbe in mil tindnaig na ilmuiri im toibu 
taXman di cdxh leith, shuiges na ilmhuire aitherr^^cA, co facoib na 
trachtu* tirma di ca^A leith. 

75. Toaitne iarsin a tenedhshliab ro damhnaiged do teinid 
bratha fn buaig da ca^rA duil.^ 

y6. Toaitne iar«m na ilmhile coni\x\\^t in codladh nderach 
o thos^cA dom«/« i nglenn ina mhXdiha. 

yy. Toidid iarsin a mmag® ndubhach nddrach* cosnaib dfaco- 
naib foruir»«idhi fon ceo. 

78. Toaitne \dixum iaila na n-enlaithe concYi^xidX na ilcheola 
i nglinnib na mh\dtha. 

79. Toidid iarsin inna maigi etrachtai cosnaib blathaib iina 
astoidet a nglenn. 

80. Toaitne iarsaidiu fri Pardw^ n-Adhuimh co turgaib 
\9xum anair mrzdain. 



1 MS. naigthi ^ MS. teang ' MS. aigti * MS. ardmhur » srothaib P 
* MS. trachta ^ fribuaidh do each d4il P ^ MS. immag * MS. nderach 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 125 

65. The sages of the Hebrews asked : " Tell us of those 
twelve plains that are under the flanks of the earth and against 
which the sun shines for light every night ; since knowledge 
thereof is obscure to us." 

^, Then the Evernew Tongue answered : " This is [the 
way] the sun goes in the eve of every night." 

67. " In the first place he illumines the transmarine stream 
with tidings of the eastern waters. 

68. " Then he illumines the ocean of fire at night and the 
seas of sulphurous fire around the red tribes. 

69. "Then he shines on the hosts of the children in the pleasant 
fields, who send the cry towards heaven for dread of the beast 
that kills many thousands of hosts under waves in the south. 

70. " Then he shines on the mountain with streams of fire 
which traverse (?) the . . . plains, with the hosts of guardian 
(demons) in them. 

71. "Then shine the ribs of the great beast at which the 
four and twenty champions arise . . . glen of the torments. 

72. " Thereafter he (the sun) shines over against the awful, 
many-trooped fence which has closed round ... of the hell- 
dwellers in the north. 

73. " He shines in the dark glens with the sad streams over 
their faces. 

74. " So he illumines the ribs of the Beast that distributes 
the many seas around the flanks of the earth on every side, 
that sucks in the many seas again till it leaves the shores 
dry on every side. 

75. "Then he illumines the fiery mountain which has been 
formed of the fire of Doom . . . every element. 

76. "Then he illumines the many beasts who, from the 
beginning of the world, sleep the tearful sleep in the Glen 
of the Flowers. 

TT, "Then he shines on the gloomy tearful plain with the 
dragons that were set under the mist. 

78. " Then he illumines the flocks of the birds, which sing 
together the many melodies in the Glens of the Flowers. 

79. "Thereafter he shines on the radiant plains with the 
wine-flowers that irradiate the Glen. 

80. " After this he shines against Adam's Paradise, till it 
rises up from the east in the morning. 



^. WHITLEY STOKES 



g J. Kos-biadh tra mor do scelaib atfesedh f<?ra fecht rnanw^- 
t- tenga dia relad. 
t'^ a3- C^Js/, ol tuath inna n-Ebra 7 inna ilceniuil, rend tarbad- 
I tjti riam, da aicned fil indib, 7 is cosmuil aicn^ na redland 

M'* ^ Friscart dirf« in Tenga Bithnua : Ni cosmail emh [50*1] 

*\t na renn. Deichrinn^ Gabuen cetam«^ gaibthia^ crith, 7 

A|i::*^^^£^daf mongai tened dara gnuis fri taircetul plaga na 

dV* »i;a renda aili thimceallat in dotnow otha trath teirt co 

^^ -pos-cerd \axum i cess co ticc in trath cetna. 
noiti . -o enda aili da«o dob^rat rothes no^ rouacht no rofhualacht' 



S5- 



^at^- 



for t* ^giida aili da«<? rethit fri tomoltad draccon doinBdet in 

mbitl^- ^^j^^ j^ji; ja^ reithit co cenn .1. \>\iadan <w»degat 

S7- ^(julta doib. Intan gaibte* coAXud dos-lecet tuaith 

airtiser c _ jjgjjj^jjiij jnna nder. co cenn secht mbh'adan c^wtuilet, 

tenedniu» ^^^ ^^ ^^.^ ^^ senaingel' 7 la gotha inna ndracon 

- 'Set an glen- 

Araile renna rethit na sd laa 7 "a sc aidhchi' co tic in 

^^' I O thic tosach in domhna?;^ doinnscanat ilcheola, 7 

domn«c/^'. ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^.^ .^ doranacA Dia de nim.' Dos- 

'"'L Alimbea fanes arifeaste. boiafiten saMia Itbe lib ebiU 
^ /X i Doroine Dia isin coic^A la da cen^ .Ixx. do 
nab le.1 J^oe .. ^^^;^^ogat do milaib mara. CarA cen^'l 

'rlalilb 7 ^-a bes 7 con. aicned foleith. 

no Fnlaith cetam«. indsi Naboth, ni attoidi' for lar talman 
?^; ;. laindred na atoidet asa n-eitib, 7 co lecet a ndera la 
'^t I " e hta FailtnighU la tess 7 Ugdata samr«.V/. Diuch- 
;t 'Jedon a J., dogr^s. 7 .-anat ceolu tdtbindi. 

i7nl.ithi Sabes dofoilset a n-eitiu fri aimsir n-aidche" 

— — ^ TT ^ ^s rotes na 3 ms. roniualcect * MS. gaibthi 

1 MS. Drithrinn ; r[e]aDDa ^ /* * , ^^ aighthi ^ MS. dcium: cf. 

. teg, samuogel, which is translate ^ ^^ t^ithbindiu ^^ ms. aigthi 

I -^4 ad fincm •'^- 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 127 

81. " Now if the sun had a tongue to make them manifest, 
there would have been many tidings which he would relate on 
his journey." 

82. "A question," say the folk of the Hebrews and the 
many kindreds : " the stars that thou hast shown to us 
previously, what nature is in them ? and the nature of all the 
stars is alike, as seems to us." 

83. Then the Evernew Tongue replied: "Truly the nature 
of the stars is not alike. In the first place the ten stars of 
Gabuen, trembling takes them, and manes of fire are put over 
their face to foretell a plague or mortality on earth. 

84. " The other stars that surround the world from the hour 
of terce to none. Then it falls into a trance until the same hour 
comes. 

85. "Other stars, too, bring great heat or great cold or 
great moisture (?) on earth. 

86. " Other stars, then, they run to urge on the dragons that 
blow on the world. ' 

87. " Other stars, then, they run to the end of fifty years 
and (then) seek a time for sleeping. When they fall asleep, 
they let ... . fiery sea in the glens of the. tears. To the 
end of seven years they sleep, when they awake at the shout 
of the holy angels and at the voices of the dragons that dwell 
near f?) the glen. 

88. " Other stars run the six days and the six nights until 
the Sunday comes. When the beginning of Sunday arrives, they 
commence many melodies and fall asleep until God's Sunday 
follows from heaven. Then they wend upon the same course. 

89. ^' Alimbea /ones,'* etc., that is, "On the fifth day God 
created two and seventy kinds of flocks of birds, and two and 
seventy kinds of beasts of the sea : each kind of them with its 
form and custom and nature separately. 

90. " In the first place, the birds of the island Naboth. There 
shineth not on the floor of earth a colour or splendour that they 
do not radiate from their wings. They let their tears fall at 
cold and snow. They rejoice at the heat and beauty of summer. 
They always awake at midnight, and chant together string- 
sweet melodies. 

91. " The birds of Sabes, their wings shine at night-time like 
torches of fire. Whatever disease their wings when flying or 

1 Cf. } 29, infra, 

u 



128 WHITLEY STOKES 

for lu^matn is slan fonacoib. Dos-c»ndar i cess marbhdhatad 
ind aimsir gaimrid [50*2] 7 uachtai, co wdiucht^^t la cetemon. 
Canait ina cotaltaib ardcheol n-ailghen am<2/ toruinn ngaeithi. 

92. Enlaithe Abuaidi a n-indsib iU'r airrther na hAffraice 
7 nem. Ni thainic talmazn ligdath na attoidet assa sciathaibh, 7 
nochu torchair eite asa sciath<3:/^ na cluim o thos<3rc// domuin, 7 
ni ro thormacht a llfn nach a n-airiumh. Bolud 7 midclos inna 
mblatha, 7 bias na seck^ finaband documnet inna ligmuigi, iss^^ 
no-dos-sasa o Xkosach domuin. Ni chumsanat do coicetal cheol, 

7 niptar scfth co tulaid medon aidche* la andort na n-aingiul 
assind niul. 

93. Fosn-dailet iarum na teora* enlaithi .i. da en .Ixx. ar .Ixx. 
m/// in each enlaith. Medon aidche* cotn-ocuib an cetna enlaid 
a ngair 7 ^t?;^canat mokrf do Dia tria cheol, 7 asnidet donaib 
adamrfli/3 rtindaib diairmhidib incleithib na fetatur cidh aingil 
nime. 

94. Conneirigh vaxum in t-enlaith medon/?cA cosin ciul tre- 
fhiltech* la adhamhrug/^rf inna n-ingnadh doroine in Coimdi o 
thindscetul in betha' co brath. 

95. Dothaet ind ^vXaith d^idenach* fair i ndeirlud na haidhche.' 
Asnidet-side la handord chiuil j^^A^dealbaigh inna delmann 
ticfet in mbith la uath mbratha, 7 asneidet iarsaide in fodaiP 
sechtmogtaig na pian cosind Hn ataroillife, 7 indisit na da suidi 
.Ixx. inna ligboth i nimhib cosin each ataroillife. 

96. Et dtresir alba sibe alea alib me lis .1. sil n-Adaim dia 
cloitis ceol inna n-enld://hi sin ni ba i failti na mellchai dia ro scar- 
dais fria cloissin, act suamuth 7 sirrect 7 toirrsi co n-epeltais 
la cai. 

97. EJi Ita lasien ferosa filera leus dtssia nimbile nue btia 
faune [50^1] intoria tebncB^ id est Faciamus hominem ad imagi- 
nem et ad similitudinem nostram, et praesit piscibus mariss et 
uolatilibus celi et bestis uniuersae terrae. 

Ata tra di fhoiltigi cumarA/a in Coimdh^^ co bhfuil cetheora 
dealbai^^Aet for sil n-Adhaimh iar n-im[m]orb/^^. 

98. Curaid cetamw^ indsi Ebia, se traigid .1. legtair i fot 
cacha delba dib. Noco diuchtrat asa cotlud acht tria anfudh 

* MS. tualath medon aigti 2 ^s. teoru ^ ^s. aigti * MS. trefhiltnech, 

with a punctum delens under n * MS. deiginach ® MS. bethu ' MS. aighthi 

8 MS fogail. 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 129 

their shadow visits is left cured. In the season of winter and 
cold they fall into a trance of deadness till they awake at 
Mayday. In their sleeps they sing a gentle high song, like the 
thunder of wind. 

92. " The birds of Abuad in the islands between the east of 
Africa and the sky. Never came on earth a beautiful colour 
that they do not radiate out of their pinions. Never from the 
beginning of the world has fallen a quill or a feather out of their 
wings, and never has their complement or their number been 
increased. The odour and fragrance of the flowers and the 
taste of the seven wine-rivers that traverse the bright plains, this 
is what satisfies them from the beginning of the world. They 
rest not from chanting melodies, and they were never weary 
till midnight came with the song of the angels out of the cloud. 

93. ** Then the three bird-flocks are divided — two birds and 
seventy and seventy thousand in each bird-flock. At midnight 
the first flock upraise their cry ; and they chorus praise to God 
in melody, and tell of the marvels, mystic, innumerable, hidden 
which not even the angels of heaven know. 

94. " Then the middle bird-flock arises with the threefold 
melody, in admiration of the wonders which the Lord has 
wrought from the beginning of the world till Doom. 

95. "Thereon, at the end of the night, comes the last bird- 
flock. They describe with a song of sevenfold melody the 
noises that will enter the world at the dread of Doom ; and after 
this they relate the septuagenary distribution of the punishments 
with those that shall deserve them ; and they tell of the two and 
seventy seats of the beautiful houses in the heavens (which will 
be given) to all that shall deserve them. 

96. ''Et diresir^ albuy' etc., that is, " Adam's race, if they 
should hear the music of those birds, would not be in gladness 
or gratitude if they were severed from hearing it, but . . . and 
longing and grief till they die in wailing. 

97. " Efilial' etc., that is, " Let us make man in our own image 
and likeness, and let him rule over the fishes of the sea and the 
birds of heaven, and the beasts of all the earth. 

Such is the versatility (?) of the might of the Lord that, after 
the trespass, there are four and twenty forms in Adam's race. 

98. "In the first place, the champions of the island Ebia. Six 
and fifty feet are laid in the length of each shape of them. They 



I30 WHITLEY STOKES 

mara, no gair chatha n6 shloigh, n6 chobordon ceol. Intan 
adregat asa suan sollsi[gi]dir a suile am/?/ ruithnighudh rind. 
F(7rb^rat isnaib m/^mbh i tat, cu tochratar* a mbiasta 7 a 
mbledmila ior tire dia sasad. 



99. Tuatha finna forlassardha a n-indsib Odaib (?). Dothae- 
gat lasrai tein^^ assa mbelaibh fri burach ferga. Doaitnet a 
suile amatl chaindle tcined fri aidhche. Astoidet a foilt 7 a 
cuirp SLvnal snechtae fos-ceird 1 robane. lasc a hilmuireibh cen 
bruith, cen fuine, issed ro-dam-biatha. 



100. Tuatha Ithier tuath Shlebi Caucaist. A mbeoil ina 
mbminnibh : cetheora suile ina ndruimnibh.* Elscoth 7 rothes 
ina corpaibh comcA ro daim nacA cen^l aile. 



10 1. Tuatha aile etrachtai i tirib Asser. Airdiu c2u:A ceniul 
decsiu a ngniiisi. Rossaig do binne a labhartha conid binde 
ceoluib cobordon a sluag. 



102. Tuatha deiscirt India co Uaget a ndelba. An as sirem 
diib ni segat acAt cubat .u. ndorn. 



103. Bantfacht file i slebib Armenia, moo ca^r^a doeinib a 
ndelbha. Nocho b^rat acA^ ingena dogrA. Andso cacha feraib 
a bhferga 7 a ngala' oc dula do chath. Eirgit asa suan medon 
a,tdcAe ; arosclaicet toidli tein^^ assa mbel^/3 : doacmongat a 
n-ulchi conicce a n-imlinda. (3r as chainiu c2lcA forloscud arrecar 
inna [50^2] ndornaibh dessaib iarna ngeinemam dogr/s. 



104. Tuatha Fones i tirib Libiae. Lasaitt a meic imlisain fri 
feirg ama/ oible tein^rf. Ni thallai do dainib im for diib lin a 
sharaighthe ar nert. Rossaig meit 7 binde a ngotha consid airde 

1 MS. cochratar ^ MS. mbruiimibb ^ MS. ngalu 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 131 

awake not from their sleep, except for a sea-storm, or the shout 
of a battle or an army, or the sound of melodies. When they 
arise out of their sleep, their eyes shine like the radiance of 
stars. They ... in the seas wherein they are, so that the 
beasts and monsters of (these seas) are cast ashore to satisfy 
them.* 

99. " Fair, very flamy tribes in the islands of Odab. Flames 
of fire come out of their mouths at the fury of anger. Their 
eye$ shine like torches of fire at night ; their hair and 
their bodies beam like snow which is cast into great 
whiteness. Fish from many seas, without cooking, without 
broiling, this is what feeds them. 

100. " The tribes of Ithier north of Mount Caucasus. Their 
mouths (are) in their breasts : there are four eyes in their 
backs. Lust and great heat (are) in their bodies, so that (the 
womankind of) no other nation has endured them. 

loi . ** Other radiant tribes in the lands of Asser. Nobler than 
every kindred is the sight of their faces. So great is the harmony 
of their utterances that the noise of their host is sweeter than 
(any) melodies. 

102. " The tribes of the south of India, with the smallness of 
their shape. The longest of them only attain (to the length of) 
a cubit of five hands. 

103. " The women that are in the mountains of Armenia^ 
greater are their forms than (those of) any humans. They bring 
forth daughters only. Harder than (those of) any men are their 
angers and their valours in going to battle. At midnight they 
rise from their sleep : out of their mouths they loose flashes 
of fire ; their beards reach as far as their navels. After their 
birth, gold that is brighter than every blaze is always found in 
their right hands. 

104. " The tribes of [Ar]fones in the lands of Lybia. The 
pupils of their eyes flame in anger like sparks of fire. Not 
enough of men can come about one of them to overpower 
him by force. So great are the loudness and sweetness of their 

1 The Irish of this passage is obscure, ttie meaning of the verb forberat (leg. 
forhenat ?) being unknown. The Rennes MS. has : buaidhrit an mhuir re silled a siil 
CO tecait na bledhmhila a tir cucu le nert a stil, 7 ithit sin iad mar biadh, * they 
disturb the sea by the glancing of their eyes, so that the monsters come ashore to 
them through the strength of their eyes, and (then) they eat them as food.' 



132 WHITLEY STOKES 

gothuib 7 chornuibh. Dodailit a sruth fina asa mbeluib fria bas. 
Canait sirrechtcheol ina cotlud do na frith cosmhuil. 



105. Mor do dhelbhuibh cenmotha sin {orrukmelh for sil 
n-Adhaimh iar n-immorb«5. Ar in c//na duine doroine Dia i 
tosuch ba dia dheilbh 7 a chosmailiw^ doft^rsat, 7 ro bad ed in 
eland no genfed uadh mane tarmtheiss^rf. 



106. INterrogauerunt sapientes Ebreorum : Indisdun ind lin 
coibdeluch forfurim Dia (or a duilib iar n-urd. 



107. Adrimhfid^r duibh emh, ol se, .i. Da chenelach .Ixx. do 
miluibh fo murib. Da chen^acA .Ixx. do ialuib en isind aiur. 
Da cen&lacA .Ixx. do biastuib fu fidbaid." Da cenel^A .Ixx. 
di mXtachatb fnsellgett uir. Da chen^^A .Ixx. di toirthibh 
fidhbadh.* Da cen^l^A .Ixx. di gnusih retlann imrolta fo nim. 
Da cen^ach .Ixx. do airbnb aingeal i nnim. Da cenilach .Ixx. 
do cuimgib na plan isna iiemaib. Da ctnilach .Ixx. di cheoW^ 
7 ligbothaib ind nim. Da ctxiHach .Ixx. di berlaib ior tength^:/* 
doine. Da ctxiilach .Ixx. di dhainib shil Adhaimh. Acht cena 
mad iar lin tuath it e a IHn .i. .uii. tuath .1. ar c// fon mbith. Acht 
itat iltuatha fo muirib fon mbith. 



108. Dixerunt sapientes Ebreorum : Indis dun do bailechro 
a n-if^md ron-airlestar Dia fri pianadh na pecdhach. 



109. Fnscart in Tenga ^ithnua : IS doih^ eimh, ol se, a 
aisneis .i. cia no thindscanaind a ais;^^^ o thosach domi^m ni 
eicsind ria mbrath in soithar imcomaircidh uili am^ rotn-gab. 
Rossaig cetam«5 do mheit in glinde 7 dia fhudhomnai cia do- 
comladh en bad luaithiu 7 bud treisiu luama^w iss ing [51*1] 
mara soiss^^ cind mile hWzdan a dhomhnai. 



^ MS. fuidbig 2 MS. fighbudh 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 133 

voices that they are louder than (any) voices and horns. At 
death they pour forth from their mouths a stream of wine. In 
their sleep they sing a plaintive melody to which nothing like 
has been found. 

105. " Many shapes besides those have been set on Adam's race 
after the Fall. For the first man that God made at the beginning 
He created in His (own) form and likeness, and so would have 
been the children born of Adam had he not transgressed." 

106. The sages of the Hebrews asked : ** Tell us in order the 
number of the kinships which God has put upon His creatures.' 

107. " That in sooth shall be reckoned for you," quoth he, 
" to wit, two and seventy kinships of beasts under seas : two and 
seventy flocks of birds in the air : two and seventy kinships of 
beasts under forest* : two and seventy kinships of snakes that 
crawl on mould : two and seventy kinships of fruits of the 
woods : two and seventy kinships of the faces of stars that 
have been cast around under heaven ; two and seventy kinships 
of troops of angels in heaven ; two and seventy kinships of 
the anguishes of the torments in the hells ; two and seventy 
kinships of the melodies and bright abodes in heaven ; two and 
seventy kinships of the languages in the tongues of men ; two 
and seventy kinships of humans of Adam's race. Insomuch that, 
according to the number of tribes, this is their number — an 
hundred and fifty-seven tribes throughout the world, And 
under the world are many submarine tribes." 

108. Said the sages of the Hebrews : ** Tell us of the place 
of confinement in hell which God has designed for punishing the 
sinners." 

109. The Evernew Tongue answered : " Tis hard, indeed," 
quoth he, " to declare it. Even though I should commence from 
the beginning of the world to announce it, I should not have 
related before Doom all the trouble about which ye ask, as it 
(really) is. First, such is the size of the glen and its depth, though 
the bird whose flight is swiftest and strongest should set out, it 
could hardly reach its bottom at the end of a thousand years.' 

1 So in theDuan in chdicat Ceist, Celt. Zeits. iv. 235. The number 72 (= 6 x 12) 
occurs often in Middle-High-German literature, e.g. Zwen und sibenzig kiinige ; 
mit zwein und sibenzig kielen, Orendel, 402, 411. For these quotations I am 
indebted to Prof. W. P. Ker. 

2 Cf. The Tidings of Doomsday , Rev. Celt. iv. 256. 



134 WHITLEY STOKES 

no. Elestia tibon ituria tamne ito firhia fuan, Nocon fetar, 
ar se, cia de as Ha, a fil do gainemaibh fo mhuiribh ann,* a fil do 
cheneluibh biasta' in timdibe anmann a n-ithfemd. 

111. Rosaig do meit in derchainte isnaibh pianaibh ^c?«na 
cumcat ainm De do labra and ar toirrsi 7 Aer(^o\mud la meit na 
pian 7 lia n-ilar. 

112. Rosaigh do meit in tein^rf7 in loiscthe 7 in tesa, a fil do 
lindibh isin domun, etir niula 7 sn)tha 7 aibhne 7 muire immon 
tnbith, gia no dailte i ngliu//d na pian ni airdibhdhabhfl^,' ar is 
ferg Dhe fhiches isnaib iffVnlaib. 

113. Rosaig do meit in rouachta ann, dia tarlaicthe athach 
uachta samlaid (or deirc cuislinde isin mbith atbeltais a fil di 
enaib isind aiur 7 do miluib fo mutrih 7 do cech anmanda biu 
fogebad for tdXmain. 

114. Rasaig di ane in twined, dia tarlaicthe for chw^lind 
nf de, a fuigbed* do lindib iorsin bhith, no traigfedh riamh : a 
fuigbed* do anmannuib ann ro loiscfed la dechtad in tdXman 
immacuairt. 

115. Rosaig do meit inna ndorchai, dia tarluicthe ni dhe isin 
mbiuth .i. meit mate imlesan duine, a fuigbed di enuib ind aeor 
7 do doinib 7 do bhiasdaib for talmam ni fhaicfitis less na.soillsi 
la bas. 

1 16. Rosaigh do meit na brentad i llochaib na pian, oin-banna 
ft^n-uimfidhe de i mbminnib an betha, ani f<?mcfedh isin domun 
do anmandaib, et/r muir 7 tir 7 aeor, atbeldais uili. 

1 17. Ata do mheit inna gorta 7 innahitadh and, dia tarlaicthe 
oen-uair isin mbith nf dhe, a bhfuigbedh isin bhith eU'r milu 7 
duine 7 eonu atbeltais fn oinuair ar gorta 7 itaid. 

118. Ata do meit in omhain ann for na hanmunnei/^ riasna 
pianuibh, dia tiss^^ i ndom^;; beim di omhon samW^, a fuigb^^ 



anna ^ biastu ' MS. airdibhdhadhad * Ms. faigbed * O. Ir. a fogebad 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 135 

no. '' Elestia tibon;' Qtc, "I know not," quoth he, " which 
of the two IS the more numerous, all the sands under seas, or 
all the kinds of monsters for mangling the souls in hell. 

111. "So vast is the greatness of the despair in the pains 
that they are unable to utter the name of God, for grief and 
hopelessness through the immensity of the pains and through 
their multitude.* 

112. "So vast is the greatness of the fire and the burning 
and the heat that if all the waters of the world, both clouds 
and streams and rivers and seas around the earth, were 
poured into the Glen of the Pains they would not quench 
it, for it is the wrath of God that seethes in the hells. 

113. "So vast is the greatness of the exceeding cold that, if 
a breath of cold like it were cast into the world by the hole 
of a pipe, all the birds in the air, and the beasts under seas, 
and every living animal it would find on earth would die. 

1 14. " Such is the splendour of the fire that, if some of it 
were cast by a pipe, all the waters found on the earth would 
ebb before it, and the animals found there it would bum with 
the .... of the ground all about them. 

115. "Such is the extent of the darkness that, if some of 
it were cast into the world — as much as the pupil of a man's 
eye, — all the birds in the air and the human beings and the 
beasts on the earth would see neither splendour nor light 
for death. 

116. " Such is the greatness of the stench in the lakes of 
the torments, if one particle of it were placed on the breasts 
of the world, all the beasts it would find in the world, both 
in sea and on land and in air, would all perish. 

117. "Such is the greatness of the hunger and the thirst 
there that, if some of it were cast for a single hour into the 
world, all that it would find therein, both beasts and men 
and birds, would perish at the same hour from hunger and 
thirst. 

118. "Such is the greatness of the fear which the souls 
suffer before the torments that, if a particle of fear like it were 
to come into the world, all the animals found in the seas 



1 According to the Duan in chdicat Ceist^ they are 72 in number. 



136 WHITLEY STOKES 

di anmRnnatd a muirib 7 aeraib 7 talmandaib foscichr^/h [51*2] 
uili i nddLSsac&t 7 ecodhnaighi la omon, co «-epeldais de. 



119. At4 do meit inna sireck^ 7 in broin 7 na toirrsi, dia 
tarluicthi nf dhe tria, cuislind isin domon, ni boi di thete na 
mellche isin domun, na [di] gnuisibh carat, na failti na ffn doda- 
roigs^^, CO n-epelud each cridhe thadhlibed la sirect 7 choi. 

120. Cidh trsi fHsnairceb in s6eth ni eicsind uile cenco 
cumhsanaind icca aisneis ria mbrath. Airm in na closs guth 
acA^ mairg 7 omon 7 sirecht i cluasaibh. Airm in na raibhe 
cumsan^d didanta, na gne failte for gnuis. Airm in na robai 
fiadh na airmhitiu na didhnad carat, na guth ailgen, acht immut 
sroibhthein^df 7 ghaeth mbren 7 imat duibhshnecta teintidi 
cosin rouacht Dechtadh inna ndeut. F^rmuchad inna ngnuise. 
Fuidbech inna n-analai. IMet inna trichmech. Tiachra inna 
Idmchomart. Tuilged inna nder. Sirecht inna n-osn^d. Uamh- 
nuighi inna cride. Uathmhaire inna ndealbh. Timthirecht 
inna pian 7 a n-etrocuiri 7 a n-amaindsi 7 a n-aithisigi. IS 
loscud di CQcA leith. IS fubtad di cech leit[h]. IS gol 7 eigim 
di cech leith. 



121. INterrogauerunt sapientes Ebreorum : INdica nobisde 
die iudicii, et quomodo distruetur mundus, et quo tempore 
distruetur ? 



122. FHscart in 'Yenga Btthnua: IN brath imcomaircid-si 
ol se, n{ mellach cid a comaithmet. Ar cid aingil nimhe ros-bi 
cnth 7 uam«« intan forathm^wtar 7 docuredar ar c6ill.' Ar is 
damhnai moirchreatha 7 uamhain na cdtc ergala sescat ar .ccc. 
donaib tein^/hshliabhaibh do madmaim for taXmandaxh ria 
ngnuis in Rig mair isa cumh^^ta conscarfa an mbith. 



123. Cucligiu 7 maidm inna .u. nime occa filliud for tal- 
manda. 

^ MS. teindtigi > MS. ceil : this seems erased. 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 137 

and airs and earths would be thrown into insanity and sense- 
lessness by terror, so that they would die thereof. 

119. "Such is the greatness of the grief and the sorrow 
and the sadness, that if some of it were cast through a pipe 
into the world there would be no warmth nor pleasure therein, 
nor faces of friends, nor welcome, nor wine which would .... 
them, so that every heart which it would visit would die with 
grief and wailing. 

120. "Though then I should undertake (?) the labour, but 
even though I should not cease declaring it, I should not 
declare (it) all before Doomsday. A place wherein no voice 
was heard in ears, save woe and fear and grief A place 
wherein there was no pause for consolation, nor appearance 
of joy on face. A place wherein there has not been honour, 
nor respect, nor a friend's comforting, nor a gentle word,* but 
abundance of sulphurous fire, and of stinking winds, and plenty 
of fiery dark snow with bitter cold: chattering (?) of teeth: 
smothering of faces : stifling (?) of breaths : abundance of fits 
of coughing : affliction of hand-smitings : dropping down of 
tears : sadness of groans : fearfulness of hearts : horror of 
forms : ministration of torments, and their unmercifulness and 
their shamelessness and their disgrace. There is burning on 
every side : there is threatening on every side : on every side 
there is wailing and screaming." 

121. The sages of the Hebrews asked: "Tell us of the 
Day of Judgment, and how the world will be destroyed, and 
at what time?" 

122. The Evernew Tongue answered: "The Judgment 
about which ye ask," quoth he, " it is unpleasant even to 
mention it. For even angels of heaven are wont to have 
trembling and terror when it is remembered and kept in 
mind. For matter of great trembling and terror is the bursting 
of the three hundred and sixty-five ranges of fiery mountains 
on earth before the face of the great King whose might will 
destroy the world. 

123. "The tottering and crashing of the five heavens at 
bowing them to earth. 



* Love is everywhere but in hell, minne ist allenthcdben wan ze helUy Titurel, 
51, cited by J. Grrimm in his Deutsche Mythologie. 



138 WHITLEY STOKES 

124. Comeirge 7 toirm inna secht ngaeth tentidhe* [S^^i] ^ 
mimasclaigib'* nimhe la fua[i]m 7 tethacht thorainn 7 luachait 
da Q^ch aird. 

125. Torandfadach inna cSic rind sechtmogat ar .ccc. ar teora 
milib, do thutim asind nim. 

126. In t-esca do shoudh i ndath fola.' In grian do dhith 
a soilse. 

127. Biaid do Hn arbhair nime isind lo-sin con na ba cumh- 
a^A/a do nach oe«* ara tairchella rose na ara coimastar a 
n-airiumh acht mad Dia nama. 

128. Talgud inna fidbadh' 7 inna slebe la anfud tentide* di 
cech le[i]th. 

129. Eigiumh inna mbiasta 7 inna n-uile n-anmunda in 
tdXman, 

130. Fuilged tened in cech thir. 

131. Iacht<^d na xi-^v\aith isind aiur for na srothaib teinedh. 

132. BuredacA inna mbledmil' 7 inna n-iascrad isna muirib 
la trAgud® inna salmuire 7 ria ngoraid in tenedh. 

133. Toiniud noingrad nimhe, 7 gair 7 coicetulna n-anmann 
og tuidhecht arcenn a corp asind tiir. 

134. Golfadach 7 gair napecthach oc nemeli frisin Coimd^*(t/ 
ro craidset, 7 bid gairm iri fas doib, bid aithrigi iar n-assu. 

135. Gair inna n-ithfernaidhe oc tosceud inna n-anmunn 
arcend inna dala, co r«cthar breth lor cech n-oen iarna ainlh'ud. 

136. Comorcuin* na secAi nime oc tuilged tria gaetha tein^^. 

137. Cucligi in talman occa thochur dar aird 7 dar cenn. 

138. Golfoiduch 7 gair na ndemna 7 anmunn na pecduch oc 
iadhadf ind iffrind form co forcenn [mbritha]. 

139. INterrogauerunt sapientes Ebreorum quo tempore 
die uel nocte, mundus factus est uel distruetur, et Dominus 
sur[r]exit a mortuis. 

140. Ro frecair in Tenga Bithnua : IMmedon zidhche emh, 
ol se, asreracht in Coimdhiu 7 doronad in dom^«, 7 is a medon 
^idche doronad in cuairt ro ba damna*° don dom««, 7 is a medon 



^ MS. tendtighia ' MS. mmasclaidib ' MS. fholu * MS. doen ' MS. figbadh 
* MS. tentige ^ MS. mblegmil '^ MS. 14 tragud * MS. comrorcuin ^^ MS. damnu 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 139 

124. "The rising and roar of the seven fiery winds out 
of the poles of heaven at the noise and approach of thunder 
and lightning on every airt. 

125. "The thundering of the* falling of the three thousand 
three hundred and seventy-five stars out of heaven. 

126. "The moon turning into the colour of blood. The 
sun destroying its light. 

127. "Such will be the number of the host of heaven on 
that day that no one, save God only, will have power that his 
eye should comprise (?) them or be able to count them. 

128. "The laying low of the forests and the mountains by 
the fiery tempest on every side. 

129. "The crying of the beasts and of all the living creatures 
of the earth. 

130. "The hurling down of fire on every land. 

131. "The screaming of the birds in the air at the streams 
of fire. 

132. "The roaring of the monsters and the fish in the seas 
at the ebbing of the oceans and before the heating of the fire. 

133. " The coming of the nine ranks of heaven,* and the shout 
and chorusing of the souls as they go to meet their bodies 
out of the mould. 

134. "The wailing and shout of the sinners complaining 
to the Lord whom they have tormented ; and for them it will 
be * a cry to the waste ' ; it will be ' repentance too late.' 

135. "The shout of the dwellers in hell at casting forth the 
souls to the assembly, that judgment be passed on everyone 
according to his merit. 

136. "The crashing together of the seven heavens at being 
thrown down through blasts of fire. 

137. " The shaking of the earth at being turned up and over. 

138. " The wailing and shout of the devils and the souls of 
the sinners, when hell is locked upon them to the end of Doom." 

139. The sages of the Hebrews asked at what time, by day 
or by night, the world was created, or will be destroyed, and the 
Lord arose from the dead. 

140. The Evernew Tongue answered : " At midnight," quoth 
he, " the Lord arose, and the world was created; and at midnight 
was made the circle that was the material of the world ; and at 

» See infra, p, 162, note on § 17. 



140 WHITLEY STOKES 

^idche ro loingsig^d ind namha do nimh .i. Diabt?/, ocus is a 
medon ^idche doron^ delbh duine* i Pardhas. 

141. [Si»>2] IS i medon ^idche dorone Cdin in ch6tna iingail 
doron^d isin bith. 

142. IS i medon ^idche ro teilced sroibthene fomaib coic 
cathrachuib fora n-immerar a mmuir ten^/h co brath. 

143. IS i medhon zidche ro tindscan in diliu todail for in 
mbith. 

144. IS i medon mdche ro celebhradh caisc ind uain in 
Ramisse ind Egipt 

145. IS a medon 2adche \otar tuath De tre Muir Ruadh 7 ro 
baidh^^ F^mnn cona, shloghuibh. 

146. Ba i med^?^ diidche docoas for Babiloin. 

147. Ba i medon aidcAe ro genair Slrf«icid in domutn i 
mB^/hil luda. Ocus is a medon aidche ro crochad darcenn 
pecda Adaim cona shil, dr dorala amardhall aidhche' o tert co 
noin darsin mbith. 

148. IS a medon aidche dolluid iall aingel dar innsib Sab, 
CO scailseat dunebaith don bith. 

149. IS i medon ^ddche dolluid in Coimde do arcain ithfirnd, 
7 ro fhuasla/(f na hanmann asin chuimce 7 asin troighi i rrobhatar, 
ocus ro chuimhrigh in namhait 7 in malartaidh' inna ndula 7 in 
\2Xur 7 in tathaid 7 in senbrataire .i. Diab^/, i fudomnaib iffVmd. 

150. IS i medon aidche, tra, ro damnaiged damna domhain. 
IS i medon aidhche* conscarfaither. 

151. IN Comdi, tra, atraracht o marbhuibh isind aidhchi* si 
na case, is diaisneisi a chMvaachta, ocus a nert 7 a mhiadhamla 7 
a ghnimr^d 7 a thimthirecta inna dhulibh o tos^cA domum co 
forcenn mbratha. Ar a bhfil do biasd^/* fo mhuribh, 7 do 
enlaithibh ind aiur, 7 do cethraibh 7 biasduib 7 doinib i tsAmam, 
7 do aingl/^ i nnimib 7 do demnaib ind iflfem, gia thinnscandais 
o thosacA domum ni eicsitis ria mbrath ^^^AAnhadh a gnimra^ 
De. 

152. Ata do mett uathmaire a ferga cetam«5 dia craittea a 
m^«ma co comairge' fria muindt/r dorrigena, ni fhoilsatis na 
talmandai in ferg sin. Ar diataidhbed aghnuis co bhfeirg dos- 
lecfitis nimhe for talmatn 7 no traighfitis muire imon mbith. 



1 MS. duinn ^ MS. ai^^hthe ^ MS. malartaigh * Ms. aigliti 

* leg. com^irge ? 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 141 

midnight the Enemy, even the Devil, was banished from heaven ; 
and at midnight was made the shape of man in paradise. 

141. " At midnight Cain committed the first parricide that 
was committed in the world. 

142. " At midnight sulphurous fire was cast on the five cities 
on which the sea of fire is inflicted for ever. 

143. " At midnight the Flood began to pour upon the world. 

144. " At midnight the pasch of the Lamb was celebrated at 
Ramesses in Egypt. 

145. " At midnight God's people went through the Red Sea, 
and Pharaoh with his hosts was drowned. 

146. " At midnight Babylon was overcome. 

147. " At midnight the Saviour of the world was bom at 
Bethlehem of Judah ; and at midnight He was crucified because 
of the sin of Adam and his race : for great darkness of night 
came over the world from terce to none. 

148. " At midnight a troop of angels came over the islands 
of Sab, and scattered mortality over the world. 

149. " At midnight the Lord came to harry hell, and loosed 
the souls from the anguish and the misery wherein they had been, 
and bound the Enemy and the Destroyer of the elements, and 
the Robber and the Thief, and the Old Plunderer, even the 
Devil, in the depths of hell. 

I so. " At midnight the material of the world was formed ; at 
midnight it will be destroyed. 

151. " As to the Lord who arose from the dead on this eve 
of Easter, unspeakable is His power and His might, and His 
dignity, and His deeds, and His services in His creatures from 
the beginning of the world to the end of Doom. For all the 
beasts under seas, and birds in the air, and cattle and [wild] 
animals and men on earth, and angels in the heavens, and devils 
in hell, though they should commence from the beginning of the 
world, they would, not, before the Judgment, have declared one 
seventh of the works of God. 

152. " Such is the fearfulness of His wrath, in the first place, 
that if His mind were vexed and rose up against the household 
He has made, the earth-dwellers would not endure that wrath. 
For if He should shew His face with anger, the heavens would 
be cast on the earth, and the seas around the world would 
ebb, (and) the earth would perish so that nothing would remain 



142 WHITLEY STOKES 

Archiurad in ta\am conna tairisfed na^A ret and. Flaith nime 
7 aingil fos-cichred i cess co/^nach [52*1] taidbsitis in nach 
airm. Ro fh^rberad in t-iflfemd comtis annso a phiana oldas 
mar ata fo secA^. Ar is f^rg D6 fhiches isna iffi^rnaibh.* 

153. Cid budh amhra do retaib oldas in Noidiu do chotludh 
ittr lamaib na hingine, in crith forsna duih*3 7 forsna. haingh'3 
colleic 7 for nimhib 7 for talmandaib cons, aittrebthaidib' 7 forsns. 
bledmhiW^ i muzrihh 7 forna iflfernaidib ar uaman a chumacA/a 
7 ar imdidnad na ro craiditis. 

154. Ata do aille 7 edrochta a ghnuisi .1. dia ndercaitis a' 
bhfil do anmundaib ind iffzrn (or etrochta a ghnuisi ni airechdais 
saeth na pein na todernam ind iffzrn. Ata do noibhe a dhelba 
cecA oen no dercfad (or a gnuis ni coimsaitis imarbw^ iarum. 

155. Ata di etrachtu 7 ane 7 soilse a gnuisi intan astoidet 
.ix. ng/'aid nimhe, 7 bas etrachta each aingel dib fo sheet oldas 
in gnan, 7 astoidet anmann inna noeb fon n-oin cosmailiw^, 7 
intan bas giliu in gnan fo secAt oldaas innossa, soillsighfid 
tairsib sin uile etrachta gnuisi ind Righ mair ro gni each nduil 
CO f<5>ruaislig^der aingliu* 7 renna nime 7 anmand inna noeb soilse 
in Coimded, ocus amal foniaisliges soilsi grene 7 a hetrachta 
renda aili. 

156. Ata di foilte a cum^^/a, cia no labhraitis a bhRl do 
ainglib in nimh 7 do demnaib ind iffzrn 7 do doinib for talma/;/ 
7 biasduib 7 milaib fo muirib uili fn Dia, 7 cid sain b/rla no 
labhrad ce^A ae diib, ba sodai^g do Dhia taithesc do ce^A duil 
diib inna berlu shaindili//^ 7 inna aicned fadesin ind oinuair. 

157. Ata do aille a delba in Choimd^^ .1. dia bhfaillsigthe 7 
dia tarlaicthe isna if^rnaib imsoifitis iffzrn i ligbotha 7 i taitnemh 
[52*2] richidh amhail in flaith nemhdha. 

158. Ata dano do li 7 etroAta a ghnuisi asb^rthar fn car// 
n-anmain n-inglain dia ro ir Dia a dibad ceim isind adbai 
n-iffernazdi i lluag a thuile, ba handso each pein forsnaib anman- 
daib .i. tochumlud o ghnuis De 7 bithscar^d fn imchasin gnuisi 
De, oldas a fil do crochaib 7 ilpianaib ind iffz'm. 

* MS. isforornaibh 2 ms. aittrebthaigib : leg. for talroanaib cona n-ait- 

trebthaidib (?). ^ MS. i * aingle : repeated in ms. 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 143 

thereon. The kingdom of heaven and the angels would be cast 
into a trance so that they would not appear in any place. Hell 
would increase, so that its torments would be seven times greater 
than they are ; for it is the wrath of Grod that seethes in the hells. 

153. *'Of (all) things what were more marvellous than the 
Infant sleeping between the Virgin's arms, while the elements, 
and even the angels, trembled, and the heavens and earth with 
its inhabitants, and the monsters in the seas, and the dwellers in 
hell, for dread of His might and for exemption from being 
tormented. 

1 54. " Such are the beauty and effulgence of His face that if all 
the souls in hell were to look on the splendour of His countenance 
they would not perceive trouble, nor pain, nor punishment in hell. 
Such is the holiness of His form that no one who would look at 
His countenance would be able to sin afterwards. 

155. " Such are the effulgence and splendour and light of His 
face that when the nine ranks of heaven shine forth, and every 
one of those angels is seven times more radiant than the sun,^ 
and the souls of the saints shine with the same likeness, and 
when the sun is brighter seven times than now, the effulgence of 
the face of the great King Who has made every element will 
shine beyond them all, so that the light of the Lord surpasseth 
angels and stars of heaven, and the souls of the saints, even as 
the light of the sun and his radiance surpass the other stars. 

156. "Such is the versatility (?) of His power that, though 
all the angels in heaven, and devils in hell, and men on earth 
and beasts and whales under seas were to speak to God, and 
the language which each of them spoke were different, it would 
be easy for God in the same hour to answer each of those 
creatures in its own several tongue and in its own nature. 

157. Such is the beauty of the Lord's form that, if it were 
manifested, and if it were cast into the hells, they would be 
turned into the radiances and into the lustre of heaven, like 
the celestial Kingdom. 

158. " Such then are the hue and effulgence of His face that 
were it told to every impure soul to which God has given in 
reward of his desire his death-step into the infernal abode, harder 
would it be than any torment which the souls suffer, to wit,, 
faring forth from God's countenance, and eternal separation 
from beholding His face — (harder) than all the crosses and 
many torments of hell. 

N 



144 WHITLEY STOKES 

159. fiivaail as diaisneisi in Coimdi is amlatd as diaisneisi 
a fhlaith 7 a findbiuth amal addaas. Binde na gceol : failte na 
ngniise: aille na ndealb : lainderdo^A/ 7 forlasarda^A/ in tsloigh : 
glaine na n-imraitti : endcae na n-anmann : airm in na clos guth 
fergai na format na sirect na saeth. 

160. Cein mair, tra, gairther don flaith sin intan atbera (riu 
in Coimdiu : Venite benedicti Patris mei, posidete regnum quod 
nobis paratum est ab origine mundi. Ubi lumen solis non 
tegetur,* nee lunae, nee stellarum, sed Dominus lux erit quia ipse 
est fons luminis. Ubi erit sanitas : ubi marium' trancillitas : 
ubi pax ingens : ubi caritas inexpugnabilis ; ubi uita perennis : 
ubi senectus non apparebit : ubi iocunditas accipi[e]tur ubi 
sensus declarabuntur' : ubi paradissus abundans et dulcis : ubi 
splendor angelorum : ubi candor iustitiae : ubi palma regalis : 
ubi flumina aurea : ubi suauis laudacio angelorum et conuentus 
oimnium sanctorum : ubi lerusalem celestis : ubi nuUus dolor 
nee tristitia post gaudium, sed laeticia sempeterna : ubi bonum 
non defuit, non deest, nee deerit uncam. 

161. Cid budh amhra do duine oldaas in^ flaith sin, du na 
aicfider bochtu na nochtu, na gorta, na ita: [52^1] du in na 
diuailsife nech comaccobe?^ na comeicniug«d broit na bidh, acAt 
bith isin coiblid mair ordnighe tna bithu hetha i frecnarcus 
Athar 7 Meic 7 Spir/a Ndtd : du i failet na teora soillse ata dech 
legthair.l soilse ind Righ thidnaici^ in flaith: soilse na noeb dia 
tidnacar : soilse na flatha tidnacar and. 

162. Ro issam uile in flaith sin ! ro airlem ! ro aittreabam ! 
in saecula saeculorum, amen ! 



[The copy in the Rennes MS. ends thus :] 

163. Atb^rt an Tenga ^ithntm xt tiiatlw/^ [fo. 74*1] na 
nEbr^tV/^ : is bdegal dib an comm6rtus atd acaib r^ Dfa, 7 
impaidhi, a tniaghu,* o bar comhmort«j trdth no beithi in* corp 
7 anum ina ghell a pristlnaib br^na teinntidhi na pian, 6ir an 
ffr-Dia forbthi for6rdha doroine a ndiibramar d'ingantaib 7 



1 MS. digetur > MS. maria • MS. declarabantur * truadha R 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 145 

159. "As the Lord is unspeakable, so His kingdom and 
His blessedness are as unspeakable as He is. Sweetness 
of melodies ; welcome of faces ; beauty of forms ; splendour 
and flaminess of the hosts ; purity of thoughts ; innocence 
of souls : a place in which was heard no voice of anger, nor 
envy, nor grief, nor trouble. 

160. " Long-lived, then, are they who are called to that realm 
when the Lord will say to them : * Come, ye blessed ones of 
my Father, possess the Kingdom that has been prepared for 
you since the beginning of the world : where the light of the 
sun or the moon or the stars is not seen ; but the Lord will 
be the light, because He Himself is the Fountain of Light : 
where will be health, and calm of seas, and great peace 
and unconquerable charity : where life is eternal : where old 
age will not appear : where delight will be received : where 
feelings will be made clear : where there is a paradise sweet 
and abundant: and splendour of angels, and brightness of 
justice : and a royal palm, and golden rivers, and melodious 
praise of angels, and meetings of all the saints ; where there is 
the heavenly Jerusalem, and neither grief nor sadness after 
joy, but everlasting happiness : where good never has been, 
is, or will be absent. 

161. "To man what will be more wondrous than that 
Kingdom? where neither poverty, nor nakedness, nor hunger, 
nor thirst will be seen : where no eager desire or compulsion of 
raiment or food will degrade (?), but he will be at the great 
ordained banquet for ever and ever in the presence of the Father 
and the Son and the Holy Ghost ; where there are the three 
lights the best we read of, the light of the King who bestows 
the Kingdom, the light of the saints on whom it is bestowed : 
the light of the Kingdom that is bestowed there. 

162. " May we all attain to that Kingdom ! may we deserve 
it ! may we dwell therein in saecula saeculorum. Amen ! '* 

163. Said the Evernew Tongue to the tribes of the 
Hebrews : " A danger to you is the rivalry which ye have with 
God, and O wretched ones, ye will turn from your rivalry 
when ye are, body and soul, pledged to Him in the stinking, 
fiery prisons of the torments. For the perfect, all-golden very 
<jrod has made all the marvels and many various kindreds 

N 2 



146 WHITLEY STOKES 

d'ilcin^WiJ examla, itir duine 7 ixAaith 7 fomh6mcA 7 betha- 
dach, 7 do suidig^ na secht neimhe 7 an doman uile, itir der 7 
ta\mazn 7 tene 7 uisci, 7 anti do innarp Luxcifer cona 16oge6n- 
aib aingel trena dimus 7 trena n-iiab^r, 7 inti do sa^r Adham 
cona chlainn 6 ifnnn, 7 Crlv/ cum^^rA/ach do sder popul M6isi 
on Eigipt 7 Dauid o Golfds 7 I6s6p 6n prisiin, 7 intf do sder na 
huile fhdeisid^cA 7 ^aidh 7 easp^r 7 martir^c/* 7 confis6ir 7 
bannaem ar pianaib 6 laim na Pairisfneach 7 na nludatde^ acar* 
badwr a mbroid. A tniaghu,^ ar sf, ni h^id^r rim a r'airimh ri na 
n-aingel d'lngant^/^ 7 d'ilcinelfl/'3 examla ar doman. 

164. Do b6i in Ten£^ Bztknua ac slraicaWaim thuath na 
n-EhrazMe feadh an Idoi, 7 andar-le6 uile ni thdinicc den uair 
do 16 risan feadh sin ar a ieibne le6 b^/h ac 6istec/it ris. Oir do 
bf (ogur binnesa na urlabra commd sama/td re ce61 aingel gadk 
urlabra d'drchan riu. 



165. Adub^rt an Ten£3. Bithnua riu farsin : dahur tegusc do- 
curid mhisi 6 Cr/j/. Adubrad^/* tiiatha na n-Eabr^/V/Ae : do- 
b^rmdit gl6ir do Dfa fd MstecA^ riut, ar sfat. Adub^rt an Tenga 
Bithnua: da mbeitis tengta in domain ris, ni f//fadais a cum- 
dach m^t mhaithisa in Diiileman, 7 na tairgi-si, a dhieine truaghu,' 
cur r6 tuicsin cumacht an Airdrig. 



166. Do cheileba/r an Tenga 'Rithnua doib iarsin, 7 do 
imghede^r tiiatha na n-Ebr«/rfAe [fo. 74*2] iarsin da cat^rach^iiJ 
CO subach^^ d^rmatr^ 7 co fdilti m6ir, 7 do scrfbad le6 gach nf 
dd ndubrad riu. 7 bd h6 in tecw^c sin tuc in T^«^a Bithnua 
tosach in creidim. Finit. 

* dosuig/rf R ^ n-mhaide R ** truadba R * ndermair 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 147 

-we have mentioned, both man and birds and sea-monsters (?) 
and animals, and has established the seven heavens and the 
^hole world, both air and earth, fire and water. And 'tis He 
that banished Lucifer with his legions of angels, owing to his 
arrogance and their pride, and *tis He that saved Adam with 
his children from hell ; and mighty Christ has saved the people 
of Moses from Egypt, and David from Goliath, and Joseph from 
the prison. And 'tis He that saved all the ghostly fathers and 
prophets and bishops and martyrs and confessors and saintly 
women from torments at the hands of the Pharisees and the 
Jews, with whom they were in captivity. O wretched ones," 
it said, "it is impossible for me to reckon all the marvels 
and many various kindreds in the world which the King of 
the Angels has recounted." 

164. The Evernew Tongue was holding long converse with 
the tribes of the Hebrews during the day ; and it seemed to 
them all that during that time not a single hour of the day 
had come, because of their delight in listening to it. For the 
sound of the sweetness of the utterance was such that every 
speech that it made to them was likened to the music of angels. 

165. Thereafter the Evernew Tongue said to them : " For 
your instruction I have been sent by Christ" The tribes of 
the Hebrews said : " For having hearkened to you, we give 
glory to God." The Evernew Tongue said : " If (all) the 
tongues of the world were at it, they could not cover the 
greatness of theCr^Sator's goodness; and, O wretched men, 
do not attempt to understand the powers of the High King." 

166. Thereafter the Evernew Tongue bade them farewell ; 
and the tribes of the Hebrews departed to their cities with 
exceeding gladness and .with great joy. And everything that 
had been said to them was written down by them. And 
that instruction which the Evernew Tongue gave was the 
beginning of the Faith. Finit, 



148 WHITLEY STOKES 



Glossarial Index 

a[n], neuter article : a sc6l sa, i, 3, 7, 14, 57 ; a seel sin, 11 ; dn-isiu, 3 ; al-lfn,_ 
17 ; a rrecht, 22; a c6tna torad, 50; a crann-sa, 53; a crand, 59 ; a mbile, 
59 ; a mbelra, 10 ; a n-oinach, 4 ; a n-imchomarc, 49. 

Aoeaill, $8 (from *(id'Caldt), dat. sg. of a verbal noun of adcladaim * I hunt. 
Another form is acclaid (ex ^ad'Cladi-), Trip. Life, 88. 

adamaint, 44, gen. sg. borrowed from Lat. adamas. 

ad-eln, / see^ atchitis, 2 ; atchither, 19 ; athchiter, 47. Prototonic forms : -accid, 19 ; 
-actis, 25; -faicfitis, 11$; -aiciste, 16; -aicfider, 161; -acces, 39. 

ad-comchaiBsem, 62 ; leg. adcomcissem, lit. we have struck, and cf. adcomcisset 

(gl. oflfenderunt), Wb. 4«»iS. adcomchu, adcoma^ng, Windisch, T.b.c. p. 625. 
addaas, 159 (as) is : a formation from td, like indaas, oldctas. 
aestn (?), 54, meaning obscure. 

aUgine, 20, mildness , gentleness, deriv. oi dilgen * mild, gentle.' 
aill, 57 ; leg. dil or 6il, * cheek.* 

aineoluB, 18, ignorance (aine61as, P. 0*C.), from the negative prefix a«- and eolus. 
aiom&etaoh, 56, patient, deriv. of ainmnet * patience.' 
airbe, 71, 72, 74, ribs, airbhe .i. asna, O'Cl. 
airdem, 28, superl. of ar^f * high.' 
.airesta, i, past s-subj. pass. sg. 3 of aricim, / find, pres. ind. pass, arrecar,. 

47. 
airt-riuth, 34, from ard-riuth * a lofty course.* 
i^thber, 62, reproach; aithbhear, blame, reproof, censure, P, O'C.t gen. aithbhir^ 

Laws i. 20. 
aitherrneh, 9, 61, 74, again. 
aitbisige, 120, disgrace, deriv. of aithisech (is Hln aithissech farir, LL, i47*'25), 

and this of aithis, 56, 'reviling, abuse: 
aitlign«t, 54, they recognise. Verbal noun aithgne. 
aithne, 57, commandment, 
aUmnirede, 67, transmaHne, foreign, deriv. of allmuir 'foreigner,' Meyer^ 

Contribb. 
amardaU aidehe, 45, 147, great darkness of night, i tig amardall, 58 ; better abar^ 

dall, O'Mulc. 7 ; Cymr. afr, Goth, abrs, 
am-irea, 58, unfaith, gen. amirsi, 61 ; dat. aimiris, 62. 
amiraeeh, 61, faithless. 
anamduoh, 57, leg. perh. a n-amduch, meaning obscure. P. O'C, has anamhthach 

'strong, tempestuous,' but this seems a guess. 
»nba, 55, a great quanHty, v. Meyer, Contribb., ' vast, huge,' P. O'C. 
andort, 92, for andord, 95, ^t. Unorwice-. cf. dorddaid, 47. 
angelaeda, 15, 22» angelic. 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 149 

-aplat, 38, prototonic form oiatbalat * they perish*; sg. 3 atbail, 45. 

ar(B)y infixed pers. pron. of pi. i, dian-ar-forcoimnacair, 62. For other examples see 

ERiui. 161. 
arohinrad, 152, 2dy fut. sg. 3 of arcrinim I perish ; zx^chxm perishes. 

ard-eheol, 91, lofty music, ard-ecnaoh, 61, loud carping, blasphemy \ ard-inii, 

57, a high island ; ard-miiir, 68, a high sea. 
ar-dom-net, 61, they await me; leg. ardomnethet (?), from ameuth 'I await.' 
ar-dom-thaat, 61, pres. ind. pi. 3 of ar-td ' is before,* with infixed pron. of sg. i. 
ar-ieim, I find , ar-r-ancatar, 34 : see airesta, arrecar, 103. 
aroilaioet, 103, they open, pres. ind. sg. 3 of aroslaicim, pret. -erslaic, 3, inf. 

aurslocud, erslocud, q. v. 
arro^t, 13, t-pret. sg. 3 of arf6imim, J assume, I receive. 
asbinr, / say, t-perf. asrubairt, 61, subj. sg. 3 asrobrath, 15 ; asrobrad, 16, pret. 

pass, asbreth, 25. 
aaennad, 17, afterwards, at last, followed by gen. 
aaergim, I arise, t-pret. asr6racht, 13, 42 : see ess-. 
aaau, iar n-assu, 134, too laU, nom. sg. asse {?), 
astoided, 8, meaning obscure, 
aatoidim, I shine, glitter, pres. ind. sg. 3 astoidi, 39 ; astoidiu, 54 ; pi. 3 astoidet^ 

79. 99. 
atameomnaie, 61, /am, lit. < it happens {atcomnaic) to me,' atacaemnaic, he was^ 

Windisch, T.b.c. 632. 

ataroillife, 95, b-fut. sg. 3 of ad-roillim *I deserve,' with infixed pron. of pi. 3. 
atbeltaia, 113, 117; atbeldais, 116, *= prototonic -epeldais, 118, they would perish. 
at-eloit-si, 42,^^ would hear (at-cloinim) ; 'Cloit-si for 'Cloid-si, pres. subj. pi. 2 of 
the deponent rocluiniur, q. v. 

atchuaid, 11, 59, has declared (ad-co-fdith) : see ecius. 

at-fi6aed, Si, he would declare, 2dy fut. sg. 3 of adfidim : Asc. Gloss. 330. 

at-genatar, 10, pret. pi. 3 of aithgninim, / recognise, with infixed d : cf. atgnead, 

LU. 1 24*31 ; atgeoin, 7i»4i- 
athaoh iachta, 113, a hUist of cold, or extreme cold \ cf. athach gadithe < a strong 

wind,' athach mara < a high sea, swoln waves,' P. O'C. 

ath-gigned, 12, would he reborn, 2dy fut. sg. 3 of ath-gainiur, / am reborn : see 

genarsa infra. 
athnugad, 13, act of renewal, verbal noun of ath^nuigim, 
-atoidet, 90, attoidet, 92, they shine ; -atoidi, 90, shines ; verbal noun atoidiud, 54 : 

cf. aittoitech (gl. fulgida) Ml. 40^*4. 

baileohro, 108, place of confinement, Meyer's Contribb. 167. 

b6im n-ecnaig, 63, a particle (lit. a touch or stroke) ofblaspfiemy ; h€im di omhon, 
1 18, fl particle of fear. 

b^lre dligthech, 54, lawful language ; berla ainglecdha, 7, angelic language. 
benaid amiria, 58, lit. strike ye unfaith : cf. b6im n-necnaig, 63. 
bennaeh, 57, homed, deriv. of behn, F. horn. 
b^oil, 38, 51, lit. mouths or lips, seems put for human beings. 



ISO WHITLEY STOKES 

blast, from Lat. besttaj pi. nom. biastai, 15, 98, gen. biasta, 129. 

bile, 59, neut. (?), an ancient tree. In 54, bile seems a nom. pi. meaning leaves. 

Can it be from bil *hair,' used metaphorically.? P. O'C. has a bit .i. bl4th 

'bloom, blossom, O. GL* 
bith-bhai, 19, hath always been ; bith-bhias, who will be always^ 19 ; bith-beith, 63, 

being always \ bith-scarad, i^Z, eternal separation, 

blaiset, 36, they taste; no blaisset, 38, from mlaiseti rodm-blaise, 54; denom. of 

blasy 54. See/orblas infra, 
blaith, 54 (leg. bldithi ?), pi. n. of blcUh 'blossom,' 52, dat. blathaib, 12, gen. 

blatha, 21. 

bdi : ni b6i, 119, would not be, modal preterite (Strachan). 
boidi, I, for b4idiu, compar. of b4id, loving, 
brat, cloak, gen. brait, used for raiment ^ 161. 
brataire, thie/, v. senbrataire, deriv. oibrat 'prey,' gen. braite, 
brechtrad, 15 (from mrechtrad), variation, 

bnraoh ferga, 99, fury (roar}) of anger {J) ; burach, valour, prowess, P. O'C. 
buredaoh, 132, roaring = b^irfedach R. btiireadhach, valiant, brave, puissant ^ 
P. O'C. 

cacha, dat, pi. of each, atonic form of cech, moo cacha doeinib, 103 ; andso cacha 

feraib, 103. So in nacha reduib, 16. 
caise, F. 144, from pascha, gen. sg. casc^ 6, 1 1 . 

oanar, 4, what is sung, relative form of pres. ind. pass. sg. 3 of canim : cf. gairther. 
cantai, 54, which sing, 
eataoh, 61, crooked (?) ; catach, curly, Dinneen. Or catach, cattish, or * like a 

cat,' P. O'C. 
oenn i mbolg, i, head in a bag, a proverbial expression. 

0«w> 35» 91 > sadness, gloom. In 2 and 91 it seems to mean * trance,' or * torpor.' 
elte, F. 5, assembly, gen. cete, 60, dat. ceiti, 58, pi. n. ceti, 3, Meyer, Contribb. 

eetemon (leg. cetamain), 91, ace. sg. Mayday (c^t-samain), dat. cetemain, 46. 

oetheora, 17, 97, 100, fem. form of the numeral yJ?«r, Cymx, pedair, Skr. cdtasras, 

eldmach, stridor, ace. sg. clchnaig, 5, 29. Hence the denominative verb cichnai- 
gistir (gl. striderat) Sg. 152^2. 

oobordon, 98, loi, sound, noise, din, Meyer, Contribb. 402. 

eoibdelaoh, 106, 107, kinship, 
' eoibled (com-fled), banquet, ace. sg. coiblid, 161. 

ooieetal, 60, 92, cocetal, 28, 33, singing together, chorusing, P. O'C. has coicceadal. 
noise, sound, report, 

-cdimaitar, 127, redupl. fut. pass. sg. 3 ; -c6imsaitis, 154, past subj. pi. 3 ; -cumcat, 
III, pres. ind. pi. 3 prototonic forms of conicim * I am able.' 

eoUAOy 3, 6, 8, meanwhile, yet, stilly O. Ir. colUice, colleic. 

eomaMObor, 161, concupiscence, desire, 

comaithmet, 122, act of remembering: cf. foraithmet, taithmet. 

eombrite, 37, fertility, fecundity, pregnancy, deriv. of combrit * pregnant, pro- 
lific,' LL. 3SO*35- 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 151 

eombmitlie, 12, gen. sg. of combruith, boiling, concoctio (}). 

eom^ioniugud, 161, compulsion, constraint; coimh^gneagadb, P. O'C, verbal noun 

of com 'icnigim . 
conmUSrtas, 163, rivalry, Meyer, Contribb. 449. 
comoronin, 136, clashing together, verbal noun o( 'Com^orgim, 54, 90, 93. 

con-oanat, 33, 90, concinunt, conchanat, 78, gui concinunt: verbal noun, cocetal, 
28, 33 ; coicetal, 60. 

eon-diacht, 53, was sought (♦com-di-siacht). 
eonfi»6ir, 163, from Lat. confessor. 
eon-ioim, lam able: see c6imastar and cumcat. 
conn, mind, dat. cunn, 50 ; conn .i. ciall, P. O'C. : see escuinne infra, 
con-oprim, /conceive: see cotamaipred ; verbal noun coimpert, 9. 
eon-rairceda, 1 1 (from ^com-ro-recetha), pret. pass. pi. 3 of comrecim * I bring 
together,' pi. 3 -comruicet, 64; conrecatar Thes. ii. 253, 20. 

£on-80arfa, 122, conscarfaither, 150, b-fut. oi conscaraim * I slaughter, I destroy,' 
prototonic -coscraim \ verbal noun coscrad. 

con-nalaim, pres. ind. pi. 3 con-idn-ualat, 33, seems to mean * they arouse it,' but 
is prob. corrupt. 

eotamaipred (coth-dam-ad-breth), 9, pret. pass. sg. 3 o( conberim *I conceive,' 
with in^xed pron. of sg. i, and perfective 'Od: verbal noun combart. 

credmag, pi. ace. credmaigi, 70, meaning obscure. 

crithmil, 29. Lit. * a shaking beast,' but prob. corrupt. 

cnbat coic ndom, 102, a cubit Jive hands long, 

cnclige, 123, 137, tottering, quaking, swerving; cuclaige SR. 6673. 

cuimce, 149, anguish, pi. dat. cuimgib, 107. cuimhge 'narrowness,' P. O'C. 

•cumcat, iii, prototonic pres. ind. pi. 3 oiconicim q. v. 

CUT H tuiosin, 165, seems to mean understanding, comprehending, 

-d-, infixed pron., sg. 3 do-d-rigne, 22 ; do-d-forlaic, 50; but ro-t-blaisi, 39. 
-da-, infixed pron., do-da-roigsed, 1 19 ; ro-da-sudigestar, 3 ; ataroillife (ad-da-r.), 

95- 
dadaig, 68, at night. 

damnaigim, I materialise, I embody, pret. pass, rodamnaiged, 19, 75, 150, denom. 
of damna, domna, 20, 22. 

-da-n-, issed ro-da-m-biatha, 99, seems a corrupt user of the infixed da + the rd. \n, 
dar-leinn, 82, for indar leinn, it seems to us. 

4e-bniinniter, 57, pres. ind. pi. 3 of a deponent *dO'bruinniur *I spring forth.' 
But an active dubrtiinn is in Ml. 8i«i4. 

decmaio, 16, difficult, hard. 
-deoht, 61, goes, = dichet, 52 (?). 

deohtad in talman, 114, . . . of the earth, dechtadinna ndeut, 120, . . • of the 
teeth. 



152 WHITLEY STOKES 

dega « deagha .i. dael O'R., stagbeetle^ ace. sg. dubidir degaid, 6i ; gen. sg. deged^ 
34, leg. degad. Cognate with Eng. tick^ Genn. zecke, 

deichrinn, 83, ten stars ^ a compd. of deck and rinn. 
delnuum, 95, ace. pi. of deilm, 6, noises gen. delma, 7. 

d^raoh, 76, 77, tearful, deurach P. O'C, deriv. of the w-stem d^r (gen. pi. d^r, 
12) = C3rmr. dagr, Gr. 9dKpv. 

-derbanad, 4, from -derbanim (de-ror-banim), *1 hinder': ef. ni derban each a 
chele, Thes. pal.-hib. ii. 294. 

dero eniflinne, 113, the hole of a pipe, 

dereaim, I see, look at, 2dy b-fut. no dercfad, 154 : see fodereaim infra. 

derg-dath, 41, red colour-, derg-thes, 12, red heat. 

denudnn, 44, dat. sg. of dema <palm of the hand.* 

diairmide, 14, 22, innumerable, diairmhighthe P. O'C. 

dibad-eeim, 158, death»step (?). 

dibairfi, 2, act of gushing or flowing, cogn. with tepersiu, Wind. Wtb, pi. ace. 
tipirsnea, Ml. 

-diohet, 52, perfective sg. 3 of docuaid, docoas, 146, Thes. pal.-hib. ii. 292, 420. 

diesigidir, 35, grows high, cogn. with digas *high,* Ml. 32»l6, 41*9, \Q/b^iZ\ 
compar. dixu, F€l. Jan. 7. 

diglaoh, vengeful, deriv. of digal, Cjoix, dial-, compar. diglaigiu, i. 

di-oailsife, 16, meaning obscure, perhaps for di-uaisligfe, will lower, will degrcuU^ 
b-fut. sg. 3 of di-uaisligim. 

dlxnugnd, 9 (di-aicsenigud), appearance, existence, verbal noun of dixnigur, 
-dn-, infixed pron. sg. 3, ro-dm-blaise, 54, ro-dm-blaisiset, 5 1 : see -tn-. 
do-aomongat, 103, pres. ind. pi. 3 of doecmongaim, tecmongaim, /happen, 
do-adbat, 39, displays; do-adbanar, 42, is displayed; tarbad-su, 82. 
docein, 42, for long, o chein, 14. 
do-celad, 59, would have hidden, 

do-eoai for, 146, wcu overcome, pret. pass, of docuaid, has gone, with ^r&^,for, 
do-ooraitar, ^t, it alighted, 

do-eidriar, I put; do cuiredar, 50; docuirethar, 51; rel. dochuiredar, 52; do- 

s-curidar, 54, 88, 91, they are put, the passive being here expressed by means 

of an infixed pronoun. Rev. Celt. xii. 442. 
do-ouiisiii, II, docoissin, 22, exists; duchoissin Ml. io8<ii4, amal do-n-coisin Wb. 

i7*»io. The older form of the prefix is in di-choissin Wb. 21 •3, di»choisin 

Sg. 209*»29. 

do-onnmet, 70, 92 (from ^to-com-menet), meaning obscure : perhaps < they traverse,* 
root men * to go,' whence Cymr. mynedand Ir. dia tomna, .1. diati, LU.67*: 
cf. fomnatar infra. 

do-deoohad-sa, 14, I have come, pi. 3, dodeochatar, 58. 
do-6ceim, I see, I look at, dian, dercaitis, 154, from de-ro-en-cetis (Strachan). 
do-ethaim, adito, pres. ind. sg. 3 dotn-ethand, 61, where note the Middle-Irish- 
ending -and. 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 153 

do-fedim, I send : see domroidedsa and tomraid. 

do-foiliet, 91 ; leg. dofoilsiget (?), denom. oifollus. 

do-forlaic, do-d-forlaic, 50: see tarlaic, Wind. Wtb. 

do-fortat, 105 (♦to-ud-ro-semt), has created^ t-pret. oi dofuismim . 

do-fortai, 45, spills, prototonic -dortai, 56 ; verbal noun dortad. 

do-foaeai, 30, supports^ nourishes, do-d-toisged Wb. 9*6; do-s-roisecht-sa LL. 

251^5 ; do-m-roisechtatar Wb. 17^1 ; toisgim Wind. Wtb. 
do-gairet, 87, meaning obscure, perhaps appropinquant : cf. gar * near.' 
do-imehellat, they surround , traverse , 29 ; thimcellat^ 84. 
do-imtluisa, 51 ; do-imthiasa, 52, meaning obscure, and form doubtful, 
do-infldet, 29, 86, pres. ind. pi. 3 of doinfedim (-fethim), / blowy root vet, Lat. 

ve-n-tus, Skr. vdta, 
do-lecim, do-s-lecet, 87. 

do-l^aide, 13, 2dy b-fut. pass, of dol^gaim, I destroy : verbal noun dilgenn. 
do-legim : see tuilged. 

doldir, 14, diligently, «= coU^ir, 18 ; dileir Ml. 68*15. 
do-maidim, erumpo, pret. sg. 3 do-s-roimid, 57, root mad. 
domblas n-oe, 12, = domblas 4e (gl. fel), Ir. Gl. 975. 
do-moininr, /think, pret. pi. 3 dorumenatar, 7. 
domroided-sa, 7, 1 have been sent (to-m-ro-feded). 

do-n-arrasar, 9, 1 remained, I continued, sg. 3 tarrasair, Windisch, T.b.c. 2124. 
doroiaty 25, creamt (to-ro-ud-sem-t). See doforsat supra. 
dorralad, 19, has been placed (}) \ dorala, 50; pi. doralta, 19. 
-dortai : see do-fortai. 

do-minned, 14, perf. pass. sg. 3 of dorlmim I recount-, verbal noun tuirem, 15. 
do-siaaim, I satisfy, do-s-sdsa, 92, cogn. with Ir. saith, Lat. sat, Goth. s6^, 
doieai, 60. See sc4ilim. 
do-snai, 39, flows, - Cf. Ir. sndim, Lat, no, nare, 

dothad, 58, act of laying an egg, Cymr. dodi * to lay '; dodwy, dodwi * to lay eggs.* 
dothadh .i. tfodhlacadh P. O'C, who cites Cormac s. v. Mogh6me, and says 
that dothadh means * also to bear, or bring forth, as animals do.' 

dnb-glenn, 73, a dark glen, dnib-snechta, 120, dark snow. 

dnibidir, 61, as black as, equative of dub * black,' Cymr. du. 

dnlerath, 60 (leg. duiUerath ?), leafage ; duilirath\ Salt, na Rann, 1364. 

dtmebaith, 148, ace. sg«, mortality ; nom. duinebad. Hence duinebthachf RawL B. 
512, fo. I»I. 

-ecioB, -ecestar, 14; -eicsind, 109, 120; -eicsitis, 151 ; -eces, 3; prototonic forms 
of adcuaid, he declared, 11, 59. 

^eodnaige, 118, deriv. oiScodnach *non compos,' opp. o{codncu:h *sui compos.' 



154 WHITLEY STOKES 

^craite, hostility, pi. dat. ^craitib, 56 (*an-carantia) ; eacrada .i. eascaiide P. O'C. 
eg-find, 57, face-white : eg for aig, as in do Chenel Eoghain eghjind^ Tracts rel. to 
Ireland i. 52 ; ai^ind, pi. aighiionna, Windisch, T.b.c. S479. 

«ir&ide, 12, forairfinde, great whiteness. 

elgnin, a wilful crime^ crime with malice prepense, Laws i. 282, 17 ; pi. ealgone, 62. 

•em, indeed, 9, 27, 33, 59, 66 ; eimh, 109 ; emh, 140. 

^nairte, 21, strengthlessness, debility. Cymr. annerthedd. 

-epeltais, 96 ; -epeldais, 118: see atbeltais. 

-erlai, 22, evaded, forsook (es-ro-lai). 

erslocnd, i, opening, for ersolcud, verbal noun of arosoilgim, -erslaic, 3; 

aroslaicet, 103. 
esoninxie, 38, insanity, deriv. of esconn, 50, insane : see conn. 

eBCiimlath, 19) = escomlud Fd. May 2, Oct. 23, verbal noun of ascomlui * goes 

forth,* * departs.' 
-esgal mara, 21, roaring or surging of sea; co cluinter a escal amail thoraind 

dochein, Dindsenchus of Coire mBreccdin : Rev. Celt. xvi. 158, ind esgal 

(gl. estus) Ml. 96^11. P. O'C. glosses eascal by anfadh * siotm,* fuaim 

* noise,' and tonn * wave.' 
esrnth (es-srnth ?) sin, 15, dispersal, scattering of storms ; esruth rind, 27, scattering 

of stars. 
•esserraot, 21, for -esreracht, asr^racht, 13, t-pret. oiasirgim *I arise'; eseirghedh, 

13, for mani esseirred. 

-es-ar^idet, 34, they disperse, prototonic pres. ind. pi. 3 of assreidim : cf. sesnith 
(gl. aspergo) Sg. 70*11. 

esta, 63, pi. 2 subj. of ithim, I eat. 

etarbai, 54, interfuit, pret. sg. 3 oietarbiu *intersum.* 

ethar, 35, boat, (gl. stlata) Sg. 35*^ ; nach n-ethar points to the neuter gender. 

6ttmma, 34, lightness, eatroime P. O'C, deriv. oiitromm (an-tromm), 21, 'unheavy '; 
ecUrom P. O'C. 

failtnigim, I rejoice, pres. ind. pi. 3 failtniget, 90, deriv. oi fdilte. 

faitbind, 36 (fo-tib-), act of smiling, mockery. 

-fetamar, 62, we knew : see findamar. 

fiadh, 120, respect, honour, O'Dav. 875. 

file, 103, rel. form of fil, there is \ pi. 2 failti-si, 63. 

fin-aband, a river of wine, gen, pi., 92. 

findamar, 9, 10, let us know ; finnamar, 10, deponential imperative pi. i to rofitir, 
25 ; pi. I -fetammar, 62 ; *Thumeysen, Celt. Zeits. v. 19. 

find-anart, 4, a white sheet; anart (gl. linteom), Thes. pal.-hib. i. 497. 

fo-s-eerd, 84 ; fo-s-ceird, 99 ; fo-certat, 30 ; fo-s-cichred, pass, focerdtar, 36. 

fo-dercaim, I look on, s-pret. pi. 3 fodercsatar, 57. 

lo-ergim, surgo, fo-s-ergitis, 5 : cf. la sodain fo-n-^rig CtkxHainn, LL. 6o*6. 

-fdiliatii, 152, 2dy fut. pi. 3 oifulangim * I endure,' s-pret. pi. 3 ro iuilngsetar, 61. 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE 155 

foilte a enmaohta, 156; leg. foiltige a chumachta. 

Ibiltige comaehta, 97, versatility (}) of power, perhaps root vel <to turn,' Skr. 
vdlate. 

-fomnatar, 30, subeunt{?)y perhaps from deuterotonic */o-monatar : cf. documnat 

supra. 
fom6raeh, 163, a sea^monster ; pi. nom. fom6raig, LU. 2'»45, * a pirate or sea-robber,* 

P. O'C. 
forberat, 98, usually means they increase ; but some word such as huaidrit * they 

disturb * seems required by the context : forb^rat may be a scribal error for 

*forb^ffat, a possible compd. of for and benim * I strike.' 
forblas, 41, exquisite taste ; /or- = Lat super, bias from mlas : see blaiset supra, 
forbricoe, 12, variegation, deriv. of forbrecc ; brecc from ^mreknd : cf. brechtrad. 
for-eoemnacair, 12 ; forcoimnacair, 14, rel. forchoimnacuir, 59 ; dian-ar-for- 

coimnacair, 62. 

fordoreba, 2, 3, 14, very dark ; dorcha from ♦do-richae. 

forfnrim : see forimim. 

foridraoht, 61, for-id-r-acht (?), has done it, seems t-perf. of for-agim (?) : cf. 
immomrachtsa. 

fo-rimim, appono, pret. act. sg. 3 forfurim, 106 ; pres. ind. pass. sg. 3 furimar, 45 ; 

pret. pass. sg. 3 forruirmith, 105, pi. 3 forrumtha, 30 ; 2dy b-fut. forruimfidhe, 

116. 
forlassarda, 99, very flamy : see lasar-muir infra, 
fbrlasfardacht, 159, great flaminess, 

fbrloicnd, 103, a blaze, conflagration, forloscudh ' a singeing or burning' P. O'C. 
for-ltiathar, 58, seems 3rd sg. pres. ind. deponent of *forluur, I fly rapidly, f 

speed: cf. folludr (gl. volo, volas) Sg. 146^11. 
-forramad, 28, has been laid, forromhadh .i. docuireadh, forramhadh .i. cur P. O'C, 

from ^for-ro-samad \ see Asc. Gloss, s. v. sam^, 
forriofed, 116, 2dy b-fut. act. sg. 3 oiforicim * I find.' 
-fomuntha, 30 : see forimim. 
for-togedar, 51, covers, with inf. pron. for-da-tuigithar, LU. I05»>; 3rd sg. of pres. 

ind. of the deponent fortuigiur, zxX, fortuigim, Cogn. with Lat. toga, 
fo-8-ciclireth, 118; fo-s-cichred, 152, it would cast them, 2dy fut. sg. 3 of fo- 

cerdaim. 
foB-ergitii (?) : see fo6rgim. 
fresese 7, for frescissiu, expectation. 
fris-eartatar, 9, they answered, pi. of frisgart, 10; friscart, 66; ro frecair, 16, 21, 

27, 49- 
frisellgett, 107, leg. fris-selget, ♦fris-sleget, they crawl on: cf. ro selaig, Fled 

Bricrenn 31, perf. of slegim. 

friin-airc^b, J20 {fris^n-air^gib}), seems the conjunct form of ^-fut. sg. i of 
♦frisairgabim, with infixed relative. 

fabthnd, 8, threatening, frightening, fubthad, consternation, Ml. 40<'2, fubthadh 
vel futhbhadh .i. bagar, P. O'C. ; fubtad, 120, = bubtad, verbal noun of 
fo-bothaim, I threaten. 



156 WHITLEY STOKES 

ftiidbeeli inna n-analai, 120, the stifling (}) of the breaths \ fuidbech (fo-di-bech) ? 
is obscure. 

fuilged, 130, act af laying (or hurling) down, verbal noun oi fo-Ugim. 

forimar, 45 : see forimim. 

ftiBmiiid, 22, dat. sg. act of storing away i c{,fusti(^, reconditam), Ml. 50<=ii. 

gairm flri fas, 134, a cry to the waste, a proverbial expression. 

gairth«r, who is called, 160, relative form of pres. ind. pass. sg. 3 : see canar supra. 

g^nar-sa, 9, pret. sg. i of gainiur, lam bom; sg. 3, ro genair, 42, 147. 

gl^n, 8, compar. o( gU * dear, bright,' = Cymr. gloiu, 

golfadaeh, 134, 138, larnentation, deriv. oi gol 'lament ': cf. torannfadach infra. 

grianbmg, 17, sun-plain {?), sun-burgh (?) , 

grianbmtli, 6, sun-glow, 

grtiad, 30, cheek, convexity, inna gruade (gl. conuexa) Ml. 96^9, dat. pi. gniaidib, 
12. 

i, affixed pron. pi. 3, gaibth-i, 87. 

laelitad, 131, act of screaming : iachtadh .i. eigheamh na glaodh P. O'C, verbal 
noun of iachtaim, cogn. with dgim and arigim, 

iare^in, 35, after a while, 

faserad, 132, gen. ^\, fishes, collective of iasc, 9% fish, 

-id-, infixed pron. sg. 3, con-id-erslaic, 3. 

-idn-, infixed pron. sg. 3, con-idn-indsort, 61. 

iffwd, 33 (pi. dat. ifferdaib, 112), for iffemd, iffem (ithfem, 116). 

ilbnidneeli, 72, having many troops (buidne). 

ilohinela, 31, 163, many kindreds (cen^la). 

ildelba, 31, many shapes (delba). 
.ildelbaeh, 19, 22, multiform, many-shaped, 

imdilmiiii,- 1 cut out, perf. pass. sg. 3 imniidbed, verbal noun imdibe. 
imdidsad, 153, release, exemption (.') imdidnaad, Thes. pal.-hib. ii. 241, verbal noun 
of imdidnibter, will be exempted if), Wb. I5<'25, Sarauw, CZ. v. 513. 

immat^igdif , 2, they used to go round (imtiag). 

imme-ro-iad, 72, has closed round, perf. act. sg. 3 of imm-iadaim, cogn. with id 

'collar, chain.' 
imme-stfid, 6, turtts round, {or imme-sdi {?) : imsoifitis, 157. 
imwiifetl nge, 37, causes, pres. ind. sg. 3 of imfolngim, 

immo-d-eing, 40, goes round it; -cing from cengim, cognate with Germ, hinken, 
immomraelitia, 11, hcLS driven me, t-pret. oHmmagim, with infixed pron. of sg. i : 

cf. foridracht, 61, and immact (gl. iecit), Thes. pal.-hib. ii. 497, verbal noun 

immain, 

immorbofaigim (-iur?) I sin, s-pret. pi. 3, ro imorbosaigsetar, 22; denom. of 
immorbus, sin, 97, 105, = iomarbhas, P. 0*C. 



THE KVERNEW TONGUE 157 

immoroilged, ii fimmO'to-toiiged, has been caused, pret. pass. sg. 3 of immfolngim : 

cf. immifoilngi. 
im-naiieim, I unites pres. ind. sg. 3 cum rel. inf. immanaisce, 30. 
imrolta, 107, have been cast about {}) ; imm-ro-l&tha (?). 
immidbed, 9, has been cut out, imm-ro-di-bed, pret. pass, of imdibnim, q. v. 

imiitnib, 27, pi. dat., meaning obscure : bathing in imxzVtn is prohibited in the Rule 
of the Culdees, LB. 11*. Obscurum per obscurius ! 

imthi, II, so is. Laws passim, nimtha *so is not/ F61. prol. 97, 129, 137. The 
im seems cognate with Lat. imitory imago , and aemulor, 

imtlK^niiid, 15, act of coming round, iomthoineadh, vicissitude, P« O'C, see 
t6iniud, gen. t6iniuda, Thes. pal.-hib. ii. 355, Trip. Life, 48, 1. 13. 

ino^tnn, adv., 16, at first, 

indM, 52, form. 

-indiort, 61, prototonic t-pret. sg. 3 : cf. inessorgim (ind-ess-orgim) * caedo * : 
cf. arrinsartat^ar'] (gl. quaeserunt, leg. caeciderunt ?), Ml. 99<'5, insarta 
(gl. inpactum), Aug. zy^i: verbal noun indsorguin, O'Day. 1140. 

ing, no, hardly, scarcely. 

Inge nama, 61, save only, 

ir : ro ir, 158, he has granted, serves as perf. of renim, 

igft, 122, whose, O.Ir. asa, 

labraim, 10, 1 speak, pres. ind. sg. 3, -labair (for pi. 3 labrat or dep. labraiar), 38. 
iabartait, 10, they will speak, seems a t -future, like do-nn-esmart, Thes. pal.-hib. 

ii. 322, and comart, LU. 74* ad fin. Cf. perhaps the Skr. periphrastic future. 
iabmr, /speak, pres. ind. sg. 2; labraither, 10; labrastar, 7, rel. pret. sg. 3. 
i mbi laim, 47, in whose hand it is, 

-laimemmar, 55, we dare, pres. ind. pi. i of rolamur, -lamiur audeo. 
iaiaderdaolit, 159, splendour, deriv. of lainderda, glanzend, leuchtend, Wind. Wtb. 
iaiodred fola, 34, brightness of blood, 
laiar-muir, 33, a sea of flame, see forlassarda supra, 
latur, 149, robbery from Lat. latrb, whence also C3rmr. lleidr. 
legtair, 33, 98, are laid, sg. legthair, 35, and perhaps 161, where it is translated as 

if it were l€gtair. 
lAi, brightness, ni faicfitis less, 115, *leos or rather leas .i. solas no soilse,' P. O'C. 
les, 64, 66, meaning obscure ; l^s each aidche, 64, fri les each n-aidche, 66. 
libem, 58, a galley, libheam .i. long, 0*C1. from Lat. libuma * brigantine.* 
lien, 12, colour {?), obscure and probably corrupt, 
ligbotb, beauty (?), colour (?), gen. pi. 15, dat. pi. ligbothaib, 17, 107 ; ace. ligbotha, 

157. 
ligdath, beautiful colour, 27, 39, 90, 92 ; gen. ligdatha, 60, pi. ligdathaib, 12. 
ligdata, 90, f. beauty, lioghdha .i. alainn no min, P. O'C. 

iigmag, 61, 92, a beautiful plain, ligthorad, beautiful fruit, pi. dat. ligthoirthib, 
60, 



158 WHITLEY STOKES 

lin in terohomraio 3, number of the congregation : lin saraigthe, 104, number of 
outraging; harassersy P. 0*C. 

Idchait, 15, nom. pi. of lochet, gen. 16chet, a stem in nt^ like det, gen. dit, 
loiagtigiBif / exile, / banish ; pret. pass, ro loingsiged, 51, 140; denom. o{ longes 

< exile, banishment.' 
Idintib, 58, pi. dat. of I3n *food, provision': cf. ISnte cruthnechta^lLL,, 234*18. 
luachtide, 22, 27, 54, bo,fulgiduSf dat. luaichtidiu, Ml. 40^4. 

madit, 61, they break, pres. ind. pi. 3 of maidim, pret. ni maith Ml. 51*^5 ; redupl. 

perf. ro mebaid, 44, rectius ro memaid, 
maidm, act of breakings dat. sg. madmaim, 58. 
malartaid, 149, an injurer, a destroyer-, cf. malartach * profane,' O'Don. FM. 

1 1 86, and the etymological gloss malairt .i. drochordugud, O'Dav. 1236. 

marbdatn, deadness, gen. marbdatad, 91, deriv. oimarbde * mortnus.' 

maai, F., a mass (Lat. massa), dat. maiss, 22, mais Ml. 145(^6, ace. maiss n'6ir, LB. 

medtfn aidche, 4, 103, 140-150, midnight, 

mellehae, 119, pleasure ; dat. mellchai, 96, deriv. of mellach, meldach, 

mellmag (= Mag mtVL), pleasant plain, heaven, pi. dat. mellmaigib, 69. 

merte, 48, who betrayed, t-pret. sg. 3 rel. of maimim : cf. cantai. 

midehlos, 52, 92, some kind of odour. The gen. sg. midclais .i. boltanugud 

occurs in O'Dav. Gl. 1265, and Laws iii. 204, 8, and 292, 2, where it seems to 

mean Furzgestank. 
mimaselaoli (gl. cardo), Sg. 62^6, pi. dat. mimasclaigib, 124. 
mmo, 62, my, = Skr. mama, gen. sg. olahdm. 
mod, a deed, ar mod cacha huaire, 56; modh .i. gnim, O'Dav. 1268; modh .i 

obair, O'Cl. and P. O'C. 
m6irchxitli, great trembling, gen. moirchretha, 122. 

-n-, infixed pers. pron. sg. 3, do-n-aidle, 45 ; no-n-ithed, 54 ; do-n-ethann, 61. 
-n-, infixed rel. pron. acht ro-n-ithed, 54; is slan fo-n-acoib, 91; bailechro ro-n- 

airlestar, 108. 
naeha, dat. pi. 16 : cf. cacha supra. 
nelda, 27, cloudy, deriv. of nil, * cloud,' dat. niul, 92. 
nemthonnach, 34, waveless. 

nesiam, 27, nearest. Ml. 55<^i. Cymr. nesaf, Osc. nesimum, 
no, with relative sense, no labraimse, 10; no labraither, 10; no blaisset, 38. 
ndibn61, holy cloud, pi. dat. noibnellaib, 4. 

Dld&ai, oldas, 155, 159, 161, than is. 

olU 14, they say, from oldat, pi. 3 of ol, 22, 25, 82. 

do, id, younger {Cymr. iau), compar. of <fac * young' (Cymr. ieuanc). 

Furiilnfleli, 163, Pharisee, Cymr. pharisead. 
j^riM^, prison, pi. dat. prisunaib, 163. 




THE EVERNEW TONGUE 159 

resin as-ro-brath, 15. 

ro-b&ne, 99, gnat whiteness, b&ne, deriv. of bdn: cf. Skr. bhdnii, 

ro olaniur, I hear, imperat. pi. 2, dainid-si 7, dia cloitis 96, doss 120, dos 159. 

-rodead ar, 39, rodcadar (?), from ro-d€chatar (?), they saw{}), 

ro ftialaoht (?), 85, meaning obscure, perhaps moisture (?) ; cognate with /ual 

* nrina * (?), or great boiling (?) ; fualacht, boiling, cooking, P. 0*C. 

ro gnl, 155, fecit, 3 sg. pres. made a preterite by the prefix ro. 

roitime, 39 (ro-thene), conflagration, blcue, 

ro rath ar b&ai, 39, was given (destined) for death, pret. pass. sg. 3 of renim. 

roisaig do (de), loi, iii, 112, 113; rossaig, 104; rosaigh, 34; aitingit{cL r-a-saig 

attigit eum Ml. 102*8), seems an idiom meaning ' so great is,' *■ such is ' t 

cf. atdde. 
ro-t-blaiii, 39, 50, ha^ tasted it : see blaiset supra, 
ro-thes, 85, great heat, tes, gen. sg. in tesa (gl. caloris), Sg. 5*^8. 
ro-daeht, 85, 120, great cold\ uacht, Thes. pal.-hib. ii. 315 ; 6cht, Wb. io<>24. 
mithnigud, 98, conflagration (P), radiation (?) : see roithne supra. 

-■-, infixed pron. sg. 3 fem. ro-s-biadh, 81 ; manu-s-beth, 81 ; fo-s-ergitis, 5 % 

fo-s-ceird, 99; fo-s-dchreth, 118, 152; do-s-roimid, 57. 
-•-, infixed pron. pi. 3 ni-s-taidlibead, 51; fo-s-cerd, 84; fo-s-ceird, 88; fo-s- 

cichrett, 152; fu-s-luget, 29; do-s-lecet, 87; do-s-lecfitis, 152; do-s- 

curidar, 9A, 91 ; do-s-sasa, 92 ; ro-s-bf, 122. 
sainberla, 156, separate language, laindfles, 156, own several. 
saldatu, 12, saltness. 

samailter, 52, pres. ind. pass. sg. 3 of samlaim, I liken. 
seailim, loose, separate, s-pret. pi. 3 ro scailset, 148 ; sg. 3 do scii(l), 60. 
scfath, wingt pi. dat. sciathaib, 92 ; gen. du sciath (gl. alarum tuarum) Ml. 39«2i ; 

dat. hua sciathaib (gl. pinnis suis) Ml. 39^23. The dimin. sciathdn is 

commonly used, P. 0*C. 
soinniti, 52, pips, kernels {}), corresponds with sgeallain in P. P. O'C. has 

scinnide, hence scinnideach, but does not give the meanings of these words, 
seeht-ehnairt, 29, having seven circuits. 

secht-delbach, 95, septiform, gen. sg. m. secht-n-delbich, Thes. pal.-hib. i. 496. 
seohtmogtaoh, 95, septuagenarius^ deriv. of sechtmoga, 17, seventy, gen. secht- 

mogat, 89. 
secht-narin, 27, seven times colder. 
sen in the phrase noibin each sen, i, hardly means old. The context here and in { 87 

indicates a word meaning saint or holy. Should it be san, ** pro sanct 

* holy,* " 0*Br., a loan from Lat. sanctus, like Prov. sains^ Ital. san ? 
sen-aingel, 87, holy angel: see sen, and cf. na n-aingel nceb, 22. 
sen-brataire 149, an old plunderer ; brataire, deriv. of brat 'prey, plunder.' 
ses, oen-shes, 34, a boat, properly a bench or rower^s seat in a boat. 

sfn, weather, storm \ ar nach derbanad nach sin, 4; gen. pi. esruth sin, 15; gen. 
sg. uacht sine, Fiacc's h. 27 : Cymr. hin. 

O 



i6o WHITLEY STOKES 

sir-aoallam, 164, a long colloquy, 

ilreelit, 159, sadness ^ music, gen. sirechta, 119; ace. sirecht, 119; sirrect, 96: 
sircacht .1. tniagh, P. O'C. Cymr. hiraeth * longing.' 

aireohtaeh, 61, sad, musical; sirrect[ach]aib, 73 ; sireachtach A, ceolmhar, P. OX., 
who explains streacht as ' the melody or hannony of sirens (!).' 

tHa^itUihM, 10/^, a J>laintive melody, 

-■n-, infixed pron. pi. 3 fo-sn-dailet, 93. 

fodaing, 156, easy, opposite to dodaing 'schwierig, gefahrlich,* Wind. Wtb. 
dodhaing .i. doiligh no docair, P. O'C. 

floillsigfld, 15s, itwUl shine, b-fut. sg. 3 oisoilsigim^ denom. of solus, pres. pass. 

pi. 3, toUsidir, 98, leg. sollsigitir (?). 
firoibthene, 68, 142, sulphurous fire; sroibthened, 120; sroib {now ruibh), borrowed 

(with metathesis of r) from Fr. sou/re, Prov. so/res, Lat. sulfur, 

«iiamiith (.'), 96, meaning obscure. P. O'C. has suamh * sleep, trance, swoon.* 
«tLt, 10, from lit with prefixed s. 

-t&igtiB, 4, prototonic impf. pi. 3 of do-tiag, I come, 
taireim, loffer^ try, imperat. pi. 2 tairgi[d]-si, 165. 
tairindredaoli, 64 (to-air-ind-rethach), traversing, coursing, wandering. 
-tairthed, 6, would overtake, *to-&ir-rethed. 

-talla ixnpi, 47) lit. there is room round it, is competent ; ni thallai do dainib, 104. 
t&lgiLd, 128, quieting, dying. FS. Oeng. Oct. 29, LL. Ii7»>50, i83»»i9: verbal 
nomi of dO'dlgaim * I quiet, I appease ' (^to^ad-leg.). 

tahnaidiu, adv. suddenly, 6, 7, 8, 17, 59, 61 ; in talmaidiu, 6. 

«tarlMUUtii, 82, thou hast displayed, 

tarm-th^iiMd, 105, would have transgressed^ 2d past subj. sg. 3 of tarmitiag. 

t4tliaid, 149, thief I perh. a scribal error for tdid (gL fur), Sg. 47^. 

tatlMreie, 13, ransom (to-ath-creic). 

teidm, disease, pi. n. tedmann, 22 ; gen. tedmann, 30. 

t^tbiiid, string^melodious, t€itbindi, 90. Hence the modem t^id^bhinneas, 

tened-ohenn, 2% fiery head, tenedohvairt, 47, 64, fiery circle, tenedmuir, 64, 87, 
fiery sea. tenedrind, 21, fiery star, tenediliab, 75, \Z2, fiery mountain. 

-terbrni, 44 (to-air-br6i), breaks off: see briiim. Wind. Wtb. 

-tenuum, escapes, 40 (to-ema). 

-terpad, was separated, 22 ; verbal n. terbadh, O'Dav. 1517. 

-teiimtii, 15, they would pour, prototonic form of do««ssimtis. 

1. Ute, 66, which goes, rel. fomi of t^it. 

2. t^te, 119, warmth, luxury, comfort. 

tetha«ht na agaetli, 54, tethacht thorainn, 124 (♦to-ethacht) aditio. 



THE EVERNEW TONGUE i6i 

tiaehra, ajffliction, tiachra inna limchomart, 120, v. F^l. Oeng. Ap. 29, deriv. of 
tiachair .i. doOigh, O'Dav. 

tigban, 40, meaning obscure. 

timdibe, no, cutting offy mangling, : see imdibnim supra. 

tindtud n-aithrige, 63, turning to repentance, 

.tiniisiii thomi (?), 6, tinfisiu anala, 12 (cen tinfissin n«anala, Salt. 2108), t. gaeithe 

15. 
-tn-, infixed Ipers. pron., ro-tn-ainic, 34; rotm-blaisi, 50; co-tn-ocuili, 93; amal 

ro-tn-gab, 109 : see -dn-. 

tobron, 2, grief, a scribal error for dobrdn (?). 

toehnr dar aird 7 dar eann, 137, turning up and ever : cf. -tochratar, 98. 

todail, 143, a pouring. Trip, xlviii, pi dat. todalib (gl. austibus). Ml. 30^1, verbal 
noun of doddlim * 1 pour.' 

tdidim, / shine, I beam, toidet, 27, 71, -toidi, 27, toidid, 69 : cf. Cymr. tywydd, 
O. Bulg. w<in< CZ. iii. 281. 

tdidli teined, 103, splendour of fire, toidhle, splendour, lustre^ P. O'C. Or is toidU 

p\.o{ toideli?). 
tdinind, 133, act 0/ coming, gen. t6iniuda, Thes, pal.-hib. ii« 355. 

-tdla tedmanii, 30, abundance of diseases : cf. di th61u sechtrann, Thes. pal.-hib. ii. 
256. 

tonmaiter, 49, are gone (?) : cf. dia tomna .i. dia M, LU. 67>25« 

■tomoltad, 86, act of urging or egging on ; tomoltod, Wb. 14^26 ; imperat« pi. 2, 
ni-m-thomoldid, Wb. 20^4. 

tomraid, 9, to-m-ro-faid, has sent me : cf. do-fedim supra. 

tor, 39, sadness, .i. torsi, YBL. 53*3. 

toraebta, 19, roundness, cuairt torachta, 21, a round circuit: cf. creodai no thoracht^ 
(gl. ad similitudinem uasis fictilis) Ml, 18*11. 

itorad ngelglai, a torad, a cetna torad, 50, show that torad is neuter. In 54 the 
nom. pi. toraid should therefore be torad, 

torannfftdaob, 125, a thundering, deriv. oitorannx cf. golfadach, supra. 

-tormai, 33, makes a loud noise (toirm, tairm), tormaid, 33, 42, rd. tormas, 42, perh. 
torbaj, Thes. pal.-hib. ii. 352. 

tormth^t, 47, for tarmthit *■ traverses.' 

^omi, 6 (tinfisiu t.), a gen. sg. meaning noise {^) ; cona eirgenn toimi na ngaeth, 
P, fo. 25'>2. 

"toie^nd, 135, spewing forth (?), verbal noun oido^cHm * evomo.' The simplex pres. 

ind. sg. 3 rel. is sceas, 33. 
tothaeht, 9, substance, 
ttreiiltoeh, 94, triple : cf. filliud ' turning,' < folding.' 

triohmeoh, 120, a collective of trichem, now tritheamh <a fit of coughing' 
(Dinneen). 

^nathbel, withershins, dat. sg. for tuaithbiul, 60 = for tu&thbiul, LL. 277^27. 

O 2 



i62 WHITLEY STOKES, THE EVERNEW TONGUE 

tuilged, act of throwing down, dropping, verbal noun of do-legim : tuilged tria 
gaetha teined, 136 : tuilged inna nd6r, 120 : cf. fuilged. 

tuir, piUary pi. n. tuirith, 21, tuirid, 30. Compds. tored^ohaindel, 4, towering 
torch ; tureth-ehenxiy 29, towering head. 

tuirthiud, 2, course (?), from to-rithiud (?). 
-tnlaid, (^2^ prototonic form of du-luid came, 
tursitin, 15 (to-air-ess-sem-tion), watering, irrigation, tairsitiu (gl. inundatio)* 

Thes. pal.-hib. ii. 229. Hence tursitnech (gl. irriguus), ib. 73. 
tustin, gen. tusten, 3, dat. tustin, 11 : tuistin .i. cruthaghadh, creation, P. O'C. 

damnftige, 120, fearfulness, deriv. of uamnach < fearful ' and this oiuaman * fear.' 

uasssi, 33, above it {her) ; tiasaib, 28 ; dasdaib, 29, above them. 

datlunaire'f 120, 152, horror-, uathmairi na haisnisen, LL. 238°, deriv. of tiathmar 
* terrible,' and this of uath A. 6mhan no eagla, P. O'C. 

urgal (aurgal, irgal), arena, dat. ergail (gl. scammate), LH. 3^, pi. urgala, 30. 

-us, aflSxed pron. pi. 3, gaibthius, 83 (♦gaibith-us). 

-HSU-, infixed pron. pi. 3, con-usn-esta, 63. 

ADDITIONAL NOTES 

P. loi, i 7» A sign of the Judgment. — For the fifteen signs of Doomsday, sec 
Liber Flavus Fergussiorum, part I, fo. 12*1. The third is: dobeirid ainmighi na^ 
mara gair mor 7 docluint^r isin cathrai^ neamhdha lad, * the beasts of the sea give 
a great cry, and they are heard in the heavenly city.' 

P. 107, § 17. Nine ranks of Angels.^They are, according to the pseudo- 
Dionysius the Areopagite — Thrones, Seraphim, Cherubim : Dominions, Authorities, 
Powers : Principalities, Archangels, Angels. 

P. 109, { 27. The seven heavens. — In the Liber Flavus Fergussiorum, Part 11., 
they are called— i Aer, 2 Ether, 3 Olimpos, 4 Firmameantum, 5 Celum igneum, 
6 Celum angelorum, 7 Sedes Trinitatis. And see the poem cited from H. 3. 18, 
p. 34, in the Martyrology of Oengus, 1905, p. 464. 

P- Ii7> § 50- At the meeting of Jor and Dan. — These wells were, according to 
St. Jerome, the two sources of the river Jor-dan. 

P. i'9» $57- ^^ homed beast which the sea brought to the strand ofCeaphas 
on the eve of Chrisfs Nativity. — This was the fourteenth marvel that then took 
place. In .iiii. hingnad .x. mil mor do cur Muir Torrian fo[r] tracht Marahcn, 7 
muidhi tri srotha asa bel .i. sruth loma 7 sruth ola 7 sruth fina, 7 .1. adharc ro 
baidh fair, 7 ol .1. ar qH oclach in gach adhuirc dibh. *The fourteenth marvel r 
a whale which the Tyrrhene sea cast upon the shore of Marahen (?), and (there was) 
a burst of three streams out of its moutJi, to wit, a stream of milk and a stream of oil 
and a stream of wine ; and there were fifty horns upon it, and the drink of a hundred 
and fifty warriors in each of these horns.' Liber Flavu* Fergussiorum, Part i., 
fo. 12*1. 

P. 127, § 20. Abundance of sulphurous fire. ^Zf. J>aer bi^ swefle fyr, Salomon 
and Saturn, ed. Kemble, p. 84. 

P. 141, § 142. The five cities.^Ste Genesis xiv. 2. But Zoar or Bela was^ 
spared. 



THE GRAVES OF THE KINGS AT CLONMACNOIS 

THE following poem on the heroes of Leth Cuinn buried 
at Clonmacnois is taken from the well-known codex^ 
Rawlinson B 512, a manuscript of the fifteenth century in the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford. There is another copy of it in 
H. i. 17, a paper manuscript in Trinity College, Dublin, tran- 
scribed in 1755 by Hugh O'Daly. It is there ascribed to 
Conaing Buidhe O'Mulconry. This version has been edited and 
translated by Hennessy in Miss Margaret Stokes's edition of 
Petrie's Christian Inscriptions^ where it will be found in vol. L, 
pp. 79-81. As the Rawlinson copy contains seven additional 
stanzas, and preserves on the whole better readings, it seemed to 
me that an edition of it would not prove unacceptable. The 
principal variants from 0*Daly's recension are given in the foot- 
notes. If they do not always accord with Hennessy's printed 
text, it is because the latter has silently emended his original. 

The Rawlinson MS., to judge from the excellent collotype 
from which I have worked, is very faded in places ; consequently 
it is hard to detect marks of length in every case. Some 
restored by me are probably present in the original. In this 
edition gh^ bhj dhy mh stand for 5, tf, o> ni, which are less 
frequently dotted in the manuscript ; infected c and t are some- 
times expressed by h in full, but the punctum delens is never 
used. 

For the identification of the different personages mentioned 
in the poem, readers are referred to Hennessy's edition, loc, ciU 
There also will be found two similar poems on the same subject. 

My thanks are due to Dr. Kuno Meyer for several valuable 
suggestions and corrections. 

R. I.. BEST 



i64 R. I. BEST 



(RAWLINSON B 512, FOL. 121 a) 

A reilec laech Leithe Cuin« 
cia dot maithib nach molui;;^ ! 
A greis ga« locht ar a lar ! 
A port ar arc[h]es Ciari« ! . 

A t[h]empaill moir molait each 5 

fdt chadhus is fdt cAonsich. : 
dias m^irseng, rob mln a ngI6ir, 
dd righ Erend fdt alt6ir ! 

ToirrdelbwTii don leith deis di, 

Rtlaidri don leith aird eili, 10 

dfas gairgmm ga« tdidhi treall, 
dd airdrf[g] dilH Eirend ! 

On c[h]randchai«gel sfar dr sin, 
leabazd mic Ruaidri rathmair, 
slat 6icfir dobf ar bn)gadh, 15 

rf each c6icidh Conchohor. 

Diarmait mac Maghn^^^a M6ir. 
ddr ordaigh Isa onoir, 
craeb do chin 6n Aed Engach, 
tdeb re tdeb is Toirrdelbhach. 20 

A lec-sa leptha Guaire, 
Roghellach f6t uir uai«e, 
Muredhach, Tadhg na tn Ros, 
IndrecAt2Lch fdt is Fergos ! 

Murghal is To»«altach tr6n, 25 

Muirges fot miir, m6r in sc61, 
dorat Dfa cddhus do Chluain : 
na righ ailli re hdenuair f 

3. gr6s MS. ; ghreis H 4. inar ches H 7. roba MS. and min added below 
line ; roba min gl6r H 9. leadh abos di H 11. taidhe a ttenn H 13. chrann 
saingil H, leg. iar sin, H 16. ri ar an ccoigedh H 17. Maghnus H 18. ordaigfae H 
19. ro chin H 20. taobh frf taobh H 25. Morghaile, Tomultacb H 

26. Moirgbios a mhac, mor an sgel H 27. dar Dia cadhuis H 28 . mo righ naille H 



GRAVES OF THE KINGS AT CLONMACNOIS 165 



^Translation 

O cemetery of the warriors of Conn's Half, which of thy 
nobles do I not extol ! O sanctuary on whose floor is no stain J 
O place wherein Ciaran suffered ! 

O great temple which all extol for thy dignity and thy 
fortune, two with tapering fingers,^ mild was their glory, two 
kings of Erin, are under thine altar ! 

Toirrdelbach on the southern side of it, Ruaidri on the other 
lofty side, a fierce and gentle pair, without stealth for a while, 
two comely high-kings of Erin. 

Westwards from the chancel then, the bed of Ruaidri's son, 
the bountiful, a young scion who was prosperous, the king of 
every province, Conchobar. 

Diarmait son of Magnus the Great, for whom Jesus ordained 
honour, a branch which sprang from Aed Engach, side by side 
with Toirrdelbach. 

O flagstone of Guaire's bed, under thy green sod are 
Ragallach, Muiredach, Tadg of the three Rosses, Indrechtach 
and Fergus ! 

Murgal and Tomaltach the mighty, (and) Muirgius (are) 
under thy wall, great the tale. God hath given dignity to 
Cluan — the noble kings at the same time ! 



^ An epithet for kings ' Dinneen has as one meaning oitrecUl, " a ' turn ' in 

one's character" ; but cf. SR 2291, 4593, 6697, 7993, and Serg. Coni., Wi. 33, 29^ 
where this rendering would hardly apply ; Hennessy translates (?) gann taidhe attemiy 
* of unlimited power ' 



|66 R. I. BEST 

A lee na righ n-iiallach n-ard, 
flit atdt cuirp na tri Tadhg, 30 

flit atat f6s, is fir da^, 
tn Conchahutr, dd Chath^/! 

Is fut atd int Aedh Engach, 
creachaire thell^i^ Temrach ! 
Atdt fiid, foillsightA^;' rath, 35 

Diarwait, Cathal is Cellach ! 

Atdt fdt lie 'na luighi 

O hEidhi« ttaith Finnmuighi, 

Domnall is Tadhg a hEehtghi, 

Aed Balbh, Aed mae Indreehtaig ! 40 

Is deich righjichet uili 
do lueht r6ime rfgraidhi, 
do rfghaibh Cniach^« do ehreit, 
fo leie na righ at reileie ! 

Riiaidn 'san tewpul-sa tess, 45 

Diarw^ait mae Taidhg enes r6 enes, 
Conchahor Aedh eend a cend, 
da mae Riiaid(ri) righ Erend ! 

Brian Breifneeh, Mathgamaiw mi«, 

Muirghi^^ fon leie e^tna atehlw, 50 

mutnter ndr ^r neeh um nf, 
luch^ tempml rfghda Riiaidri ! 

A lee m6r hm Maelriianaigh, 
do deehain ni hord uabhair, 
^cAe ri[g] 'sa conn fat erois, 55 

atd f6n liir do diinois ! 

A lee Chuana ui Celk^^, 

maith ord in e[A]ruidh rodeen«aigh, 

oeht fir d6c do gl^iri glan, 

Ch^llaeh M6r eo Murchadl 60 

31. ataH 33. EDgachaH 34. creach oile H kg. tellaig 35. ms./m/ 
added above line ; ata fud follus a rath H 36. is Ceadach H 37. fan leie H 
38. bhmhuiglie H 43. ro chreid H 46. cnis re cnis H 49. Bfetthnech ms. 



GRAVES OF THE KINGS AT CLONMACNOIS 167 

O flagstone of the proud high-kings, beneath thee are the 
bodies of the three Tadgs ; beneath thee also, I speak truthfully, 
three Conchobars, two Cathals ! 



It is beneath thee that Aed Engach is, plunderer of the 
household of Tara ! Beneath thee, grace is shown, are Diarmaid 
Cathal, and Cellach ! 

Beneath thy flagstone down-lying are O'Heyne, lord of 
Finnmag, Domnall, and Tadg from Echtge, Aed Balb, Aed 
Indrechtach's son ! 

It is thirty kings in all of the folk of royal rank, of the kings 
of Cruachan who believed, that are under the flagstone of the 
kings in thy cemetery ! 

Ruaidri In this temple to the south, Diarmait son of Tadg, 
side by side, Conchobar, Aed, head to head, two sons of 
Ruaidri, king of Erin ! 

Brian of Breifne, Mathgamain the gentle, Muirgius beneath 
the same stone 1 see, people who refused naught to anyone, 
folk of the royal temple of Ruaidri ! 

O great flagstone of the descendant of Maelruanach, to behold 
thee is not an order (?) of pride : twenty kings, and their heads 
'neath thy cross, are under the mould which thou hast closed ! 

O flagstone of Cuanu the descendant of Cellach, good the 
order (?) of the wealth that purchased thee, eighteen men of pure 
excellence, from Cellach the Great to Murchad ! 



51. fa ni H 52. do riogh" Ruaidhri H 53. morsa H 54. tfeuchiiin is f4 

ntiadh ghoile H 55. sa ccinn H 56. ata san niiaiinh do dhuanas H 

57. H omits this stanza. MS. has sia 



i68 R. I. BEST 

A lee ua Taidhg an Teghk/^, 
saer in lucht-sa ria lenmhain, 
s6 fir d^c do gl^iri glan, 
6 Tadhg Chuana co Cathall 

A lec-sa lia Concemind, 65. 

do folchais firu ferainw, 
secht firu dec do gr6s gel, 
f6t reilic alaind aingel ! 

Atdit fat tiir chdidh^a chell, 
dd ollo»/ai/^ na hErend, 70- 

mac Coisi ar ndch ciiala smacht, 
ocus Cticuana Connacht ! 

A t[h]e»/pail chdidh cXaindi Neill, 
re lind Diarma^ drechr6idh, 
cotca rf[g] nocha gr^im bee, 75. 

\sed dotrfacht, a reilec ! , 

A reik^. 

On 16 do delb«^ in duain, 

romc[h]uir in co;;2arba a Cluain, 
do- gabh Aim a nderna int ab, 
direm do rfgh, a reilec ! 80 

A reWec. 

Dordidset cl^gh Cluana, 
nd gabh dui;^[n]e do duana, 
gabh doib f6in agd fl^^aibh, 
ddn sochair sll Muredaigh ! 

Bmm-si an saethar dr sin 85. 

CO Cath^/ hua Conchohuir, 
6 dho obsat clmgh Clua«a 
a sochar, a senduana. 



61. A leac ui Thaidhg an teghlaighe: fa s4or do lucht re leanmhuin : flaich ar 
licheadh fiid ata : do cloinn Tomulta mo ghradh : tair fine Breifne do siorghnath H 
65. H omits this stanza 69. Ata fat tiir chaidh cheall : doUambnaibb 



GRAVES OF THE KINGS AT CLONMACNOIS 169 

O flagstone of the descendants of Tadg of the Household, 
noble this folk to follow them : eighteen men of pure excellence, 
from Tadg Cuana to Cathal ! 



O stone of the descendants of Concenainn, thou hast con- 
cealed men of estate : seventeen men of shining valour 'neath 
thy comely angelic cemetery ! 



Beneath thy chaste mould, O church, are two oUaves of 
Erin : Mac Coisse, sway over whom I have not heard of, and 
Cuchuana of Connacht I 



O chaste temple of the children of Niall, in the time of 
Diarmait of the smooth face, fifty kings, 'tis no small portion, 
have come to thee, O cemetery ! 



Since the day I fashioned this song, the coarb sent me away 
from Cluain ; the abbot took from me what I had made, the 
account of thy kings, O cemetery ! 



Said the clerics of Cluain ; sing not thy songs to us f sing to 
themselves at their feasts a poem to the profit of Muiredach's seed ! 



Therefore, I carry the work to Cathal the descendant of 
Conchobar, since the clerics of Cluain have refused its profit, its 
ancient songs. 



uaisle Eirionn : mac Coise air nach gcualla smacht : ag c6. choiinne C, H 
73. H omits this and the four following stanzas 77. dglbus"] I conjecture -us, 

MS. being quite illegible here 



470 R. I. BEST 



Atlochar do rfgh neiwe, 
do Dfa herim a buide, 90 

xocktsin rfgh Tua»«a 'gdtdm, 
6 bor^/aibh Cliiana Cfardn. 

Gur coim^ta CWly/ na cerd 
mac mo rfg Cath/z/ Croibhderg ! 
gur saera Dfa int€ da tic, 95 

is6 is rlar do each reilic ! 

A reilec. 



93« Criosdta H 95. go saoradh Dla os dhe do thig H. 96. os6 H 



GRAVES OF THE KINGS AT CLONMACNOIS 171 

I give thanks to the king of heaven, to God I give thanks, 
for having come to the king of Tuam, with whom I am, from the 
paupers of Cluain Ciaran. 



May Christ of the arts hold in His keeping the son of my 
king, Cathal of the Red- Hand ! may God save the person who- 
comes : that is a wish for every cemetery ! * 



1 Hennessy translates:— * May God preserve, since from Him all things cqme; 
for he is the Lord of all cemeteries.* 



THE DUTIES OF A HUSBANDMAN 

23. N. 10, p. 87 

1. Dia mba trebthach, ba trebor, ba fuarrach fri each ; 

ba failidh fri h6igedu,^ cia tisat gach trath. 

2. In dull IS Crist cech 5igi,^ aslondath ni dis, 

ferr umla, ferr ailgena, ferr eslabra fris. 

3. Ba dechmadach primedach, do briathar bad' ffr, 

nl farcba ni ar do chiil* do dliged ind Rlgh. 

4. A ndober6 ar Dia do thriun no do thruagh, 

sech ni maithe nl maide, daigh fogeba' a luach. 

5. Figell, aine, ernaigthe,* almsan tan nosgene, 

nib ar adbchloss do doinib/ ba ar Dia gacha ndene. 

Translation 

1. If thou art a husbandman, be prudent, be benign unto all ; 
l>id guests welcome, though they should come at every hour. 

2. Since every guest is Christ, — no trifling saying ! better is 
humility, better gentleness, better liberality towards him. 

3. Pay tithes and first-fruit, let thy word be true, neglect 
nothing* of the law of the King. 

4. What thou givest for God's sake to the strong or weak, 
... do not boast, for thou wilt get its reward. 

5. When thou performest vigil, fasting, prayer, alms, let it 
not be for glory before men, let it be for God whatsoever thou do. 

KUNO MEYER 

* haidedu ^ oedeg ' bat * cul * fogebu • eraaigedi ' docne 



• literally, * leave nothing behind thee,' 



CATH BOINDE 

THE following story is taken from Book of Lecan 351*, 
353 a} Another copy is found in Rawl. MS. B. 5 12, fo. i'2- 
fo. 2*2, described by Stokes in the Introduction to his edition of 
the " Tripartite Life of St. Patrick," where it is called " Per- 
chuitred Medba." Nearly all the variants of the second text 
have been added at bottom from photos. It differs little from 
the Lecan text, but contains a greater number of later forms. 
The language of the texts is late Middle Irish, and presents few 
difficulties, though there are a few forms about the precise 
meaning of which I am still doubtful. The chief interest of the 
story lies in the personal and place names, and to these I have 
given fairly full references in notes to the English translation. 

JOSEPH O'NEILL 



1 cf. Windisch, Tain B6 Cualnge, p. 850. 



174 JOSEPH O'NEILL 

CATH BOIATDI ANDSO* 
[Book of Lecan, 351 ^-353 «] 

Rig* rogob* rigi for Krind feacht n-aill .1. Eochaid Feidleacb 
mac Find, m/c Rogen^ Ruaid, mic Easamain Eamna,* do shil 
Rifaid* Scuit, on* tor' Neawruaid® ille,^ ar is do sil Rifaid*®^ 
Scuid" each*'* gabail rogob*^ Eiri^^d," cenmota*' Cesair nama. 
Is airi adbeartha*' Eochaid ¥^\A\each fris .i. feidil" la each he .i. 
inraic'^ la each W^ rig*^ si«. Ceathrar** mac'* lais .1. na tn 
y?/2deamna^' (.i. Eamaiw'* raed'* nach dealaigth^r, 7 d*aentairb/>/^* 
rucad*' .i. Breas'^ 7 Ndr 7 Lothar a n-anmand,*' 7 is iad^" 
dorigni" Lugaid trt^ riab'*' n-d^rg rena'* siair bodein'* in agaig^* 
reim'^ chath'^ Dro///acriadid^^ do thobairt*® da n-athair, corthoit- 
sead" and" na triur le h-Eochaid Feidleach, corob" e Eoch^/^ 
YdiAleach rochuiwdid" in" itchi*® nae/«da*' cen mace indeog*^ a" 
athar for Erind cobrath*^; cor^^firad sin) 7 ConaH Anglondach 
mac Echach Feidlig, diatat'* Cowailli la firu Breg/' Bai" 
iardraigi mor lais in" rig si«, la" h-Eoehaid Feidleach .1. Eili,*' 
iiig^en EchacA, bean" Fheargaili** mic Magach*^: is uaithi ita®* Bri** 
Eili la Laigniu — Ba" bean** hi, indiaid** Fhergail, do Shraibgi«d 
mhac Niuil do Ernaib, co rue mac do** .i. Mata mac Sraibg/W,*' 

♦ **Ferchmtred Medba indso*' is the title of the story in the Rawlinson text. 

Variants from the Rawlinson text : — 

^ Ri ^ rogdihastar ^ Roig^en * mic Easamain Eamna is omitted 

5 Ritfatha « o ' thur » Nemruad » illeth ^o RipAaith 

1* Scuitt *2 cecA 13 rogab ** Ereind i* genmotha ** atb^artha 

1' fedAil 18 indruic i» an «<> ri ^i jrf 22 mic 23 Hndemhnae 

24 Emum 25 raott 26 aontoirbirt 27 after ruccad this text has ** iatt ** 

-"* Bres 29 anmanda ^ iatt ^i dorindi »2 omjt aa g^ab 

34 Ye 3* fadein ^6 an aduig ^7 ^e ^8 ^uth 39 Dromacriad 

*^ do thabairt is repeated in this text evidently by mistake of scribe *i thnitsed 

42 « and" is omitted here and inserted after " atriur " *3 corub6 ** dochuindig 
45 an *• etgit *' nemd^a *8 andiaid 4^ an *® co bracA 

51 gur M diataitt " Hui Conaill ra firu Bregh ** Bdi »* ind 

5« .i. *' Ele " ben ^ Fergail ^o madach ei ata «2 Brig Ele 

63 y fa «4 |)en ** indiaig *^ c ,, mac dd ,^ rucc ^ «' Sraiphgind 



» According to O'Clery's Book of Pedigrees (FM.), he was 93rd monarch of 
Ireland. There, as elsewhere, his father is not Roigen Ruad, but Fionnlogh the 
son of Roigen Ruad. He married two sisters : — Cloann (daughter of Airtecb 



CATH BOINDE 175 



THE BATTLE OF THE BOYNE HERE* 

A king took kingship over Ireland once on a time, i.e, 
Eochaid Feidleach,* the son of Finn, the son of Rogen Ruad, the 
son of Easamain Eamna^ of the seed of Rifad Scot® from the 
tower of Nimrod ; for it is of the race of Rifad Scot was every 
invasion which seized Ireland except Cesair only. It is there- 
fore he was called Eochaid Feidleach, because he was *feidil' 
to all, i.e. * righteous ' towards all was that king. 

He had four sons, namely, the three Findeamna* (*eamain' 
meaning *a thing which is not divided*), and they were bom of 
one birth, Breas, Ndr, and Lothar their names ; it is they who 
made Lugaid-of-the-three-red- stripes' with their own sister the 
night before giving the Battle of Druimcriad* to their father. 
The three of them fell there by Eochaid Feidleach ; and it was 
Eochaid Feidleach who made the holy request that no son 
should rule Ireland after his father for ever, and that was 
verified) ; and Conall Anglondach, the son of Eochaid Feidleach^ 
from whom are the Conailli,^ in the land of the men of Breagh. 
That king, Eochaid Feidleach, had a great family,* namely, Eile^ 
daughter of Eochy, wife of Fergal mac Magach; from her Bri 
Eili^ in Leinster takes its name; after Fergal she was wife to 
Sraibgend mac Niuil of the Erna, and she bore him a son, Mata 

♦ **Meadb*s husband-allowance here." Raw!. 

Uchtiethan), mother of Clothra and the triplets, and her sister Onga who was the 
mother of Mumam and Eithre ^ cf. C6ir Anmann, Irische Texte in. 332 

c I can find no mention of Rifad Scot. There is a Heber Scot amongst the ancestors 
of the Milesian Gaels * xhe " triplets " « cf. Cormac's Glossary under Emuin 
f For his story and the reason of his name, see LL. 124 b. 34, C6ir Anmann, and 
Silva Gad. 11. xxvii. He was Cuchulainn*s pupil. He succeeded Conaire M6r as 
High King; and it is to him that Cuchulainn's curious valedictory speech wa$ 
addressed on his departure to take up the High Kingship. He is also called 
Lughaidh Sriab n-Derg and Lugaidh Reo n-Derg s Now Drumcree in the 

parish of Kilcumny in Co. Westmeath. For accounts of the battle, see LL. 15 1 a^ 
Book of Lecan, 251 da and 251 dd, Rennes Dindsenchus {Rev, Celt,, xvi. 149)^ 
O'Curry's Lectures^ ii. 261, and John M*Solly's MS. inRJ.A. »» In the present 

Co. Louth, see T4in passim. For Conall Anglondach, see Windisch*s Tdin, p. 212 
» For Eochaid's daughters cf. LL. 51 a 1 1, 53 d 18 ; " iartaige '* is the usual form of 
this word, not. iardraigi i Now the hill of Croghan in King's Co.^ 

cf. ERiu, I., p. 187 

P 



176 JOSEPH O'NEILL 

athair* Aililla trn'c Mata — 7 Mumaiw Etanchaithrech,^ tn^en 
EchacA Feidb^, bean' Chonchobair* m/c Fachtna' Fhathaich, 
mathair* Glaisne m/c CAonchohaiir,'' 7 Eithne, zn^en EchacA 
Feidh^, ben aile do® Chonchobur cetne,' mathair F^^rbaidi^° mt'c 
Concohatr {y is airi" adb^rta*^ Fwrbaide" de .i. a urbad*V»^ a 
gerrad do ri^dead^' a broi«d*® a matAar iarna bath^ ar glaiss" 
Bearramam*® risa" raiter in**^ Eithne iniug,** 7 is uaithisi sloi^dter 
in" aband .i. Eithne,** 7 Diarmaid ain;« Fh«rbaidi^) 7 Clothra, 
zngen EchacA Feidh^, matAair OaoxwAxatc Chonloiwges m/c 
CA^wcobair, no isi Neasa, ingen Echach Sulbaidi, mathair Chor- 
vaaic Clfc^^loinges"; 7 Deirbriu,'* ingen EchacA Feid/tg^'' diaro- 
batar muca Deirbrend,^ et Meab*' Chruachan,'^ t'ngen EchacA 
Feidlig, bean aile do Choncobar, vaatAair Amalgaid m/c Con- 
•cob^z/r,'* con2A he'* Concobar cet fear*' Meadba, co ro-treic'* 
Meadb Concobar tre uabar** meanwan, co n-deachaid co 
Temraid i faiP® i roiW ri Eireand.'' Is i cuis fa tuc rig ExedJtd 
na hingina sin do Concobar,'* air*° is le h-Eochaid*^ FeidleacA 
dothoit Fachtna^* Fathach i cath Litrechruaidi" sa Corand,** 
^:t?«ad** na eric" tucad*' sin do," mailli re" rigi n-Ulad do gobaiP** 
■do irreicin" tar'* clandaib Rudraidi, conad he*' cet adbar** co- 
muachaid" Thana bo Cuailgw^ facbail Meadba" ar Chonchobur 
da a i«deoin. (Tindi mac Con)*Vach Cais'® do Domnandchaib** 

* athair * Aitencatrech ^ ben * Conarbair ^ Fachtnae * mathair 
' Conarbatr 8 don » .c.a ^o Forbaidi " aire " atbertha ^^ Forbaide 
^* a forbad (a is written near the top of the f) ^' roindiub ^^ bronn 
" an Glais *• Berramaiif ^» friss 2t omit ** inditi ** ind 
»3Eithm 24 Urbawfi ar tdss « **no is i Neasa . . . Ch. 
Chonloingis " is omitted in this text '« Derbri ^ diarabatar 
*8 Derblinne *• Medb '^ Cruachna ^i n mathair Amalgaid mile 
Concobair " is omitted '* 6 ^s f^ 34 c^r tr^ ^ oabharr 
^ in bail '' raibe ^ Erend ^9 jg { ciiis fa rabatar na h-ingena sin 
righ Er^d ac Conchubar The gh of righ is over the word in the MS. *^ ar 
The '*is" which follows was left out and Mrritten on the margin afterwards 
*i la Eochaid *« Fachtnae *3 Litrech ruidhi ** Chonind *« conid 
*« €ruicc « after ** tuc"* '* this text has na mni *» after " do " this text has 
** Chonchobar^* *• omit ^ do gabail d6 ** ar h-etcia " ar 
w clanduib Rugraidhi conadh 6 ** adbur ** comfuachda *« Medbha " The 
Lecan ms. is here blotted at the top comer on the right-hand side ; and the words 
and syllables which begin three lines, namely, * * Tindi mac Con-" in first line, *« Conn-** 
in second line, and ** Feicc " in the third line, are difficult to decipher. The Raw- 
linson text, however, has since confirmed the reading w Caiss *• Domnandadiaib 

• I can find no mention of Glaisne. There is a " Glas '* mentioned as a son of 
Conchobar's in Windisch's Tdiftf 8oi «» It was he who afterwards slew his 
aunt Meadb with the cast of «* tanach.** It is stated in LL. 199 a 53 that his cairn 
is on the summit of Sliabh UiUend « For Eithne* s death and the birth of 



CATH BOINDE 177 

the son of Sraibgend, the father of Ailill mac Mata ; and 
Mumain Etanchaithrech, daughter of Eochaid Feidleach, wife of 
Conchobar mac Fachtna Fathach, the mother of Glaisne* Concho- 
bar's son ; and Eithne, daughter of Eochaid Feidleach, another 
wife of the same Conchobar, mother of Furbaide^ Conchobar*s 
son; (it is therefore he was called *Furbaide* because the *urbad' 
or * cutting' of him out of the womb of his mother was per- 
formed after she was drowned in the stream Bearramain, which 
is called the Eithne*' to-day, and it is from her the river takes 
its name, namely, Eithne, and Diarmaid was Furbaide's (first) 
name) ; and Clothra, daughter of Eochaid Feidleach, mother of 
Cormac Conloingeas,* Conchobar's son (or Nessa daughter of 
Eochaid Sulbaide® was the mother of Corniac Conloingeas) ; 
and Deirbriu, daughter of Eochaid Feidleach, from whom were 
(called) the pigs of Deirbriu ;' and Meadb of Cruachan, daughter 
of Eochaid Feidleach, another of Conchobar's wives, mother of 
Amalgad, Conchobar's son, so that Conchobar was Meadb's 
first husband, and Meadb forsook Conchobar through pride of 
mind, and went to Tara, where was the High-King of Ireland. 
The reason that the High-King of Ireland gave these daughters 
to Conchobar* was that it was by Eochaid Feidleach that 
Fachtna Fathach had fallen in the battle of Lettir-ruad^ in the 
Corann, so that it was as his eric these^ were given to him, 
together with the forcible seizure of the kingship of Ulster, 
over Clan Rudraidhe : and the first cause of the stirring up of 
the Cattle-raid of Cuailngne was the desertion of Conchobar by 
Meadb against his will. Tindi,J the son of Conra*' Cas, of the 
Fir Domnand, was king of Connacht at that time, and Eochaid 

Fuibaide, see Book of Lecan, fol. 251 oa, fourth line from bottom, LL. 199^53, 
Coir Amnann, and Bodleian Dindsenchus (Stokes), p. 11. The river is the ''Inny*' 
which nms between Westmeath and Longford ^ For Cormac Conloingeas, see 

Windisch*s Tdin^ passim • cf. Windisch's Tdin, line 4459 ' For these 

pigs, see LL. 165 a 35, 167 a 30, Rennes Dind., p. 47 (Stokes* Ed.). They were the 
sons of Oengus mac Ind (5c, and the foster-children of Deirbriu. They seem to be 
connected with the fairy pigs (of the Firbolg ?) which came out of Croghan, and 
which no one could count. The Manners and Customs of Hy Fiachra, p. 26, contain 
verses ascribed to Toma Eigeas, and addressed to the great red pillar-stone at 
Roilig-na-riog, stating that under it lie the three sons of Eochaid, and their sister 
" Derbriu Dreac-maith " 8 ** Why Conchobar had these daughters of the 

High King of Ireland," Rawl. *» Lettir-ruad. I can find no further mention 

of this place. Corann is a barony in Co. Sligo * " These women," Rawl. 

J cf. Cathreim Congail Clairingnig (Irish Texts Soc.), pp. 2 and 34 ^d, Meyer's 

Contributions to Irish Lex., 478 

P 2 



178 JOSEPH O'NEILL 

ise^ ba rig* {ConnyacAt in tsin sin 7 Eochaid Dala 7 Fidig* mace 
(Feicc) don Gamanraid ic indleoch«^ na rigi. Teit® Fidid mac 
Feicc CO Temraid do theclomad® na rigi do fein,* corchui«dich^® 
Medb ar Eochaid Feid/eac/ty^^ co fuair Tindi^* mac Conrach^' fis 
in sceoiP* sin, ^r<7«darala do forairi for Fideic," con«rtarla** tar" 
srothaib Sinda/® co ro-marbsad** clanna Conrach*^ 7 Monadar'* 
mac Conrsich Fideic,^' conad^'* he si;^ ced adba f ** chocaid cloi/^di** 
Conrach Cais** 7 na Gamandraidi. Dogni Eochaid FeidleacA 
anfir*^ flatha ar Thindi,*^ cor-chuir*' i n-dithrubaib^ Connacht^"^ 
he,'* 7 c«/ris Meadb i n-i«ad^' rig»* i Cruacha/«, con/^rtarla da 
Meidb^' 7 do Thi^^di combo ceiligech'* iar cein mair na diaid^' 
si;^ ; conad^® i Cruachain ic Meidb*' dognithea aenaichi*** Eri»d,. 
7 nobidis" meic" rig Eri«d" i Cruachain" ac Meidb** in tan sin 
dia caemclodais*® cocad*' fri coiced Chonchobair. Co tainic** 
Sraibgi^d" m^c Niuil do Ernaib 7 a m^c Mata m^c Sraibg/W** 
CO Meidb" dia caewnasad" cocad iri Concobar imcheand'^ each** 
formaid" bai" etarru." Gnithir feis Temra la h-Eochaid Feid- 
Xeach^^ co cuicedaib" Fxend imi acht Meadb*® 7 Tindi.®^ 
Hirailid'* fir Fxend ar Eoch^/-a!' Meadb**' do breith sa" n-aenach.** 
Cuiris FoAiaid Searbluath*' a bain'^-eachlach ar cend Meadba®' 
CO Cruach^/». Teid** Meadb'° arna marach" co Temraid cor 
ca/>ead'* gmifne" in aenaich'* leo^* co cend caecaisi^' ar mis." 
Scailid'^ fir Fxend na diaid^® si«.^<^ Anais Concobar tar eis 
chaith san aenach" ac forairi^^ ar Meidb, condw^rala do Meidb 
dola CO Boiwd*' dia fothrucad,^* co tarla^' Concobar di an« 

1 7 is 6 * righ * see p. 186, n. *', CondatrA/ * Fidech, for Feicc, see 

p. 186, n. ^ * ac uiblichus. The Lecan reading may be * uidleochus ' « Teid 
' Fidiuc ® theglomadh ^ do fein omit »o cur cuindidh " Feidliuch 

" Tindia " Condmch 1* an sc^l ** Fidach " conustarrladar 

" ac ^® Sindu ^^ cor-marbsat 20 clanda Condrach *i Munodor 

** Fidach ** conidh ** adhbur ** clainne *« Caiss «? anfhir 

28 After Tindi this text has mhac Conrach 2» cur cuir so a n-dithriub 

81 ConAacht ^3 ^ 88 a n-i«adA »* rigA s* MeidAbA »« c^ledach 

57 na diiig '* <7<widh 3» " ic Meidb " omit *o aenuig 

"nobittfs **mic " Erend ** Cruchtf m ^^ ac Meidhbh 

*« caomclodhatais *^ coccud *» tamicc *» Sraiphgend 

»o Snripgind *^ MeidAbA «« coemhsatt «* imcend ** ce^ Aa 

w formaitt *• bui *' attar^i ^ after Feidleach this text adds " an tan sin" 
w c6icedmb «<> Medhb «! Tinm «2 Hirailit «» Medhb •« isind 

w aonach *• Srebluath-badhon «' ban echlach ar ceand w Medba 

«» 7 teitt '<>Medb '» m4irech " cur cuirietar " graithfhne ^^indaomiig 
"^^ l€o is omitted here and inserted five words further on, after mis ?< c6icis 

'7 mhis '® scoilitt '* ina dididh ^o ^ycl is written twice in this text 



CATH BOINDE 179 

Dala* and Fidig mac Feicc, of the Gamanraidi,^ were laying 
claim® (?) to the kingship. 

Fidig mac Feicc goes to Tara to assemble the kings for 
himself, and he asked Meadb of Eochaid Feidleach. Tindi, 
Conra's son, got word of this story, and lay in ambush for 
Fideic. They met over the Shannon streams, and the children 
of Conra and Monodar, Conra's son, slew Fidig, and that was 
the first reason of the war between the children of Conra and 
the Gamanraidi. Eochaid Feidleach executed a prince's 
injustice on Tindi, drove him into the deserts of Connacht, 
and set Meadb up in the royal seat of Cruachan. It fell out, 
however, that Tindi was a visitor (?)^ with Meadb for a long 
time after that, so that it was in Cruachan with Meadb the fairs 
of Ireland were wont to be held, and the sons of the kings of 
Ireland used to be in Cruachan with Meadb at that time to see 
if they might exchange war with the province of Conchobar. 
(Amongst these) came Sraibgend mac Niuil* of the Erna,' and 
his son, Mata mac Sraibgind, to Meadb, to see if they could 
make war on Conchobar for all the ill-feeling that was between 
them. The festival of Tara was held by Eochaid Feidleach, 
with the provinces of Ireland about him (all) except Meadb 
and Tindi. The men of Ireland bade Eochaid bring Meadb to 
the gathering. Eochaid sent Searbluath, his female messenger, 
to Cruachan for Meadb. Meadb goes on the morrow to Tara, 
and the fair-races were run by them for a fortnight and a 
month. Thereafter the men of Ireland disperse. Conchobar 
stayed after the others in the fair, watching Meadb, and, as 
Meadb happened to go to the Boyne* to bathe, Conchobar met 

*i isind ao«uch ^2 ac fomin ^s instead of " condusrala, &c.," this text 

has: — 7 si ac dul co Boi«d ^* dia fotracad ^^ tarrla 

» Eochaid Dala and Fidig mac Feicc are unknown to me ^ cf. 

Manners and Customs of Hy Fiachra, p. 97 <= Dr. Strachan 

has suggested to me that this word comes from the verb **ind-loing" : cf. 
Glossary to Brehon Laws ^ I have not met this form ekewhere 

« I can find no other mention of this chief. LL. 292 a 36 tells how, in the reign 
of Conaire M6r, the Cairbres slew Nemhedh mac Sraibdnn ; but it does not seem to 
be the same name. See also Irische Texte, in. 314 ' These Ema were a 

tribe of Ultonian invaders of the race of Ugaine M6r, who set the Heberian race 
aside for a while in the ruling of Munster. See Bk. of Lecan, fol. 203 aa and 
208 ba 14 ; see also Topographical Poems (ed. by O'Donovan) ix. and xi., and Four 
Masters 186 « ** watching Meadb and she going to the Boyne," Rawl. 



i8o JOSEPH O^NEILL 

CO rosaraich hi 7 co ndeachaid* na* gnais da h'Sindeoin, co clos'* 
CO Temraig sin, cor eirig rig Erend*^ imach / Temraig 7 Tindi 
mac Conrsich 7 Eochaid Dala*; 7 adeir® aroile' sHcht® cor thoit* 
Eochaid Dala re*** Ti«di roiwe" sin fan rigi, 7 ni fir*^ ^{^ 

Tocaibther" mergi** rig Erend^^ d'indsaigid" rig*' Ulad, cor 
focrad comrac o Thi«di" mhac Cbwrach" ar Concobar. Faemais*^ 
Concob^r sin, co torla** in** tan sin ac Concobar Monod^^ Mor** 
mac ConracV dearbrathair'* Tiwdi, co n-ebrad*' ris'* Tindi do 
chose.*' Adb^rt'^ CO n-dmgnead," co tarla doib'** imsreang 
cursid, cor toif' Ti«di'* san i;;2guin co n-ebradar^' each : — ** is 
maith in'® t-echt " ar siad,'*' co n-debairf ® in'* drai*®: — " bid mac 
Cecht a ai«m co brach," conad** de** ro*' len mac Eacht" de. 

Cor mebaid** in cath" for Boi/^d ria Concobar*' for*® Eochaid 
Feidleach, condrochatr*^ and** Sraibgi«d" mac Niuil 7 a mac a 
congbaiP i;^" chatha." Gabais Eochaid Dala cuing in" chatha" 
ar fiarud*' na'® Midi" tar Si^ai^d*^ Sribuaine,®* co rue Meadb** 7 
Cond^^Ata slan leis tre nert imgona, co®' narlamad he®* o Boi^d 
CO Si^ai^d.®* Teacaid®* Domnandaich®' 7 Dail n-Druithni®® 7 
Firchraibi®' dia roibi'® Eochaid Dala co Cruachai« iar marbad 
Tinwdi" mic Ciwrach" Cais," air'* cer"bo tri h-aicmeda'® re 
scailed iadsen rob" en aicme'® iar'* m-bunudas®® iad .i. cla/ina^* 
Genaiml, m/c®* Deala,®' mic Loich, 7 do Fearaib®* Bolg®* lat®* 



* con ndechaid * i«a ^ ^loss * after " co closs co Temraig sin" this 

text continues '* o do clos do ergetar teglach rig ^rend immoif rl a Temraid 
amach " * ** 7 Eochaid Dala" is omitted • ad^mit ' araili • omit 

• cur tuit >® le " reime " ni fir >3 7 tocbaidt^r " meirgi " Eredn 
»« d'innsaigi ^' ri ^^ Xhinwi i» Con/fruch *^ Faomais ** tarrla » an 
'* Monydhur ^ omit ** Conx^ich. *• derb br&ithir ^ condebuirtt Concobar 
** fris *• coscc 5® at^^rt Mondodar ^i condingeba<f *' d6ibA ** cur tuit 
»* Tinni. '* f^mdebrodar cich ^6 a» 37 Qmit » co n-debuirt '• an 
*«dr&i "romdh *« de sin "do ** Ceacht "curmebuid 

•« an cfl/h, written over the line *' ria Conf^ohar comes before **for Boind " 

*8 bar *• ftmdorchair ^ omit ** Sraibgend •* conmail •* an 

M catha : this text inserts dia neiss after catha ^^ an ^ catha : fair is 

inserted after catha ^"^ ar fiirut ^ omit ^' midhe ^ Sinuind 

"sribhfiaiwe «« Medb «« cor «* iad «< Sinuind •« xh«i«utt : 

in the Lecan text the ** aid " is written over the line •^ Domanitaig 

Wn-Druithne «» Fir craibhe '« raibi ^i Tmm '* Conruch 

" Caiss '* ar '* g6r '• h-aicmedha ; iattsan is inserted in this text 

after h-aicmedha, not after scailed as in the Lecan text ''' rop "^ aicmi 

79 ar ^ m-banadox •* damtai ^ Genaind is omitted in this text, 

which begins with Dela •' Dcla 8* d'F^ruib •* Bolcc ^* omit 



CATH BOINDE i8i 

her there, overcame her, and violated her. When that tale was 
told in Tara,*the kings of Ireland rose forth from Tara, and 
Tindi mac Conrach and Eochaid Dala with them. Another 
version says that Eochaid Dala had fallen by Tindi before that 
(in a dispute) about the kingship, but that is not true. 

The banners of the king of Ireland are raised to attack the. 
king of Ulster ; and Tindi, the son of Conra, challenged Con- 
chobar to fight. Conchobar accepted^ that ; and Monodar M6r, 
son of Conra and brother of Tindi, who happened to be with 
Conchobar at that time, was asked*' to check Tindi. He said 
that he would do so,* and they had a champion's fight ; Tindi 
fell in the conflict, and everyone said, "Good is the deed"; and 
the Druid said, " Mac Ceacht shall be his name for ever"; hence 
" Mac Eacht " « adhered to him. 

Conchobar won the battle on the Boyne over Eochaid 
Feidleach ; and Sraibgend mac Niuil and his son fell there, 
sustaining the battle.^ Eochaid Dala took up the yoke* of 
battle across Meath, over the green-streamed Shannon, and 
brought Meadb and Connacht safe with him through dint of 
fighting, so that he was not dared^ from the Boyne to the 
Shannon. The Fir Domnand and the Dal n-Druithni* and the 
Firchraibi,^ from whom sprang Eochaid Dala, came to Cruachan 
after the slaying of Tindi, the son of Conra Cas, for though, 
they were three tribes through division they were one tribe by 
origin, namely the children of Genand,^ the son of Dil (?), the 

» " That tale was told in Tara ; and when it was told, the household of the king 
of Ireland rose forth about the king from Tara," Rawl. * For this verb, see 

Windisch*s Tdin (Index) « " Conchobar told him to check Tindi," Rawl. 

^ '* That he would ward him off," Rawl. • Cf. C6ir Anmann, Irische Texte, 

ni. 358 ' Rawlinson here inserts " after them " » For another example 

of this peculiar phrase, see BB. 33 * 55 ^ For examples of this use of lamad, 

see LU 59^*15 ; Stokes, Mariyrology of Gorman^ Index ^ This tribe is mentioned 
in O'Dubhagain's Topographical Poems (O'Donovan's Ed.) i O'Flaherty in 

Ogygia, III., cap. 9, enumerates the Gamanraidi, Fir Chraibi and Tuatha Taidhen as 
the three chief tribes of the Fir Domnand : cf. also T4in B6 Flidhisi (Irische Texte, 
II.) and Windisch's Tdin, The Gamanraidi held the modem Erris in Co. Mayo, 
k He was one of the five brothers who led the Firbolgs into Ireland. The Annals 
of Clonmacnois state that it was to him Connacht (from Luimnech t<5 Assaroe) fell 
in the division of Ireland by the Firbolg chiefs, and that he afterwards became high 
king of Ireland on the death of his brother Slainge. He was the father of Clidna, 
who gives her name to the Wave of Clidna : cf. also LL. 7, 59, FM. A.M. 3266, and 
Bodleian Dindsenchus, p. i. The nom. of his father's name may have been Dil« 
It only occurs, as far as I know, in the genitive form 



i82 JOSEPH O'NEILL 

lar n-genelach ; co rob* i comairle do-ronsad*: — rigi Condacht 
d*ai«mneochad' d*Eochaid Dala do deoin Meadba. *Do deonaid 
Meadb si«* dia m-beith na ceili* di fein* 7 cen et," cen oman,® 
cen neoidi' do beith*^ and,'* uair ba geis disi beith ac ceili na" 
m-beidis" na treideada** sin. Do rigad** Eochaid Dala /rid sin 
CO roibi** trelP® i Cruachai/^ na" cheili" ac" Meidb. Is an aimsir 
sin tainic*® Ailill, mac Mata** m/c Sraibgind, do Ernaib, co 
Cruacha/«, 7 ba leanb** 6c^ Ailill in tan sin** 7 iarsma cloi^^di** 
Sraibg^W** maraen*' ris'*® dia oileamai;^*' oc'® Meidb tre'* gaeP* 
Medba ris'*^ .i. Ele zngen EchacA Feidh^ a senmsithair.^ 
Oilter'* 1 Cru3.chazn Oilill iar sin cor bo'*' milig^® mor-menmnach'* 
he*** i cathaib** 7 hi comlondaib,*'^ 7 corbo*^ tor** chongbala*' 
catha re Conconcobar** he*' ic ditean choicid Medba,*® co rob** e 
ba*® taisech** teglaich ac Meidb na diaid'* sin, cor gradaig** 
Meadb'* ^ ar a sob^saib," cor aentaich** ria,*' cor bo*® ceili" di*** 
he** tar cend*'* Echaid*' Dala, cor edaich** Eoch^/^ imcheand®* 
in sceoil si«" 7 cor edaich" Domnandaich*® uili** tre chombaid, 
cor shamailsead'** Ailill d'indarba'* i'* Cond^rA/aib'^ imach'* 
cona roibi" do Ernaib'* mailli fris," conar leic" Medb in gnim 
sin do denuw uair robo" dili le®® Ailill na" Eochazd.^^ Odchon- 
dairc®* Eoch^w? leathrow®* Meadba focrais®* comroc®* ar Oil/// 
imcheand*' na rigi®* 7 a mna, cor comraicc** doib co h-ai;^- 
diarraid,'* co n-dorchair'* Eochaid Dala sa co^rac si«'* la 
h-Ailioll«» mac Mata tre imdilP* Meadba.** Gabais Ailill rigi 
Connacht do deoi;^ Meadba'* da eisi" sin, corob 6 ba rig'* 



* gurab * doronsat ^ d'ainmnecho^^ *-* do deonaid Meadb sin 

is omitted in this text ^ che/!e ^ dhi fen "^ 6tt ^ ormin ^ neoitt 

lobeth "an» "a »* m-beitfs " tr6e »* do riga *« raibi trell 
w ana ^^ che/e i* ice ^^ tanuicc '^ M4da *' lenam 

** maol ** anMsin ** clainni ^ Sraipginn *' m4rao» 

^ In Rawlinson the s of ** lis *' is written across over the i *• ailem^iun ^o ac 
51 tria »2 gaol 83 fris 84 Eatho^rA Fed/t^ »* shenmath^fV 

^ altuir 37 ba ^s ^ilid 3> after «• mormenmnach ** this text inserts 

•* 7 curba tr^ttill " *o omit *i cathnib ** comlunduib *' cur ba 

44 xyra ** conmala *« Cont^har ^^ € : after 6 this text inserts ** ac 

d^namh coccatd 7 " *8 Meadba *» curup e ^ (z *i to^ech 

*2 diaig *3 graduig ** Medb ^ sobhessuibh ^ cur aontaigh 

w fna : after fria this text has 6 « cur b4 ^ c6\i «« dhi «> < 

«« cheand " EochaiVf «* cur 6ttuigi " imchend «« omit 

«' cur h//aidhi «» Domiianwai^g^ «» omit '<> cur shamhails^ 

" d'in»arba " a " Cb»«a<rA/aib '4 amach " raibhi '^ Emuib 

" frjss '8 curtoirmiscc '» ba *** leisi ^^ ana ®* ^ 



CATH BOINDE 183 

son of Loch, and they were Firbolg by race. The counsel they 
-decided on was to appoint Eochaid Dala to the kingship of 
Connacht with the consent of Meadb. Meadb consents to that 
on condition that he should marry her, and that he should have 
neither jealousy, fear, nor niggardliness, for it was *geis* to her 
to marry a man who should have these three qualities.* Eochaid 
Dala was crowned through this, and was a while in Cruachan, as 
Meadb's husband. At that time Ailill, the son of Mata, the 
son of Sraibgend of the Erna, came to Cruachan, and Ailill was 
then a young child,^ and the remnant of Sraibgend's children 
were along with him that they might be reared by Meadb, 
because of Meadb's relationship to him, Le. Ele, the daughter 
of Eochaid Feidleach, was his grandmother. Ailill is reared in 
Cruachan after that until he was a great spirited warrior® in 
battles and in conflicts, and a battle-sustaining tower against 
Conchobar,* defending the province of Meadb, so that it was he 
who was chief of Meadb*s household afterwards, and Meadb- 
loved him for his virtues, and he was united to her, and became 
her lover in place of Eochaid Dala. Eochaid Dala grew 
jealous because of this, and all the Fir Domnand shared in his 
jealousy through affection, so that they thought to banish Ailill, 
and all the Erna who were with him, out of Connacht; but 
Meadb did not permit the doing of that deed, for she loved 
Ailill better than Eochaid. When Eochaid saw Meadb's 
partiality, he challenged Ailill to fight for the kingdom and his 
wife. They fought a fierce fight,® and Eochaid Dala fell in 
that conflict by Ailill mac Mata through the wiles' (?) of Meadb. 
Ailill assumed the kingship of Connacht thereafter, with the 
consent of Meadb ; and it is he who was king of Connacht at the 



83 Ottconnairc, After Ottconnairc in this text the scribe had written Aitt by 
mistake, but he has erased it by a stroke under it ®* letrom »« fogmis 

8* Comrucc 8' imchend ^^ a righi 8* curcomracc •" co h»sdniarmartach 
»i 7 dororchatV »2 sai» »3 la AUlioll »* imdill »* Meadbai 

•• Medba »^ eissi " fa „ 



* Cf. the beginning of the LL. T4m B6 Cuailnge ^ ** an unfledged child," Rawl. 
c after this Rawlinson inserts " and until he was a champion " <* Rawl. inserts 

** making war and " « The nearest approach to this idiom which I have is the 

impersonal use of do with verbs compounded with imma(n) : cf. Windisch, Wb. 515, 
LL. 256 a 37, RC. xii. 80 f I have met no other instance of this word imdill for 

* wiles.' The usual word is indill 



i84. JOSEPH O'NEILL 

Conacht^ ac rigad Chonairi Moir* 7 ic tobairt' thosaich* na 
tana** for Ulltaib, conad don Ailill sin do* rue' Meadb® na 
Maineada,' 7 nir Mai^eada,*^ a ced"an/«anda*^ acht amail seo** 
.L Y^xdXvoixd}^ \, Maine Aithreamaii, 7^^ Cairpri,** Maine Mailhre- 
amaily 7 Eochaid, Maine Andoe," 7 Feargus, Maine Tai/* 7 
Ceat Maine (m)Or(g)or/* 7 Sin, Maine Mils(c)othach,'^ 7 Dairi, 
Maine Bo-eb/>/.*^ Cid ara n-ebrad*' na Mai^^e** friu ? Ni ansu. 
Diambai^ Meadb oc aenach" Cluitheamnaich** laa n-ann, con 
darala*' dP XMr^nom^^ catha Fiwdchorad'** la Conchob^^r, dia 
n-debairt" fria drai : — " Cia lais^'* torchair'^ Concobar dom 
cloi«d'*?" ol si. ** Nisrucais'* fos^* mina*' athbaisteir^," ol in 
drai,^' " cid on la Mai^^e cowgeoidiw/*'" ol" in drai, conad airi** 
si« tuc si Mai/^e for cach^^ mac di," dia tuited Concohar les,*** 
cor fortamlaidead** na foforanma*' sin na mac for na h-anman- 
daib disli" robadar" forro, 7 ro'*^ shail Meadb cor^^ be Concobar 
Vfxac Fachtna'* Yathach rig*' \ilad adeibairt** in" drai, 7 nochor 
be,*' acht Concobar mac Arta^'r, m/c Bruidi," m/c Dungail,"* 
mac rig Alban*^ inall.*^ Is e ro hoit" and*'^ la Mai/^e Andai** 
mhac Aililla 7 Medba/* Fi^it.** 



1 Connacht ^ Co;faire M6ir. After Conaire M6ir this text inserts '* mic 

"EUrsceoil** ' ac tabatrt * omit * tdnai • omit ' nice 

8 M^db • Mai«eda ^^ Mai«edha " cet ^* anmanfra 

1' arAt is fatt a cet anmanna 1* Felim ^^ omit i« Cairpr^. In the 

Lecan text *^ Maine Aithieamail** and each of the other Maines is written over the 
name to which it corresponds *' Andioi ^^ T4oi ^•"** (m)Or(g)or is not 

given as one of the names of the Maines in this text at all. There are only six 
Maines given ; Sin is omitted and Cet is called Maine Millscotho^A ^^ Mo-idb«rtt 
^2 n-abroJ ^^ Mainedha '^ b6i ^' omit ^^ This text has occ an duichemnuigh 
*T dorala ^^ dhi 29 turcn<?m ^ Fianchorad 3i n-da>ai>tt 

^ lasa '3 iuiifid '* cloinif ^s ^i rucis *• omit '"^ muna 

38 h-aitbaist^ 39-40 After ** drai " this text inserts " Cidh sin ?" ol Medb, and 

the Droid answers ** la Maine gongeodAain " *^ or ** aire. The scribe 

omitted it when writing, and put it in the margin afterwards ^ gach ** dhi 

15 lais *« corf'ttaml! *'' foranmanna ^ disle " b&dur ** do 

61 goj. 02 Fachtnae *3 jj 64 idnbatrtt ** an *• nocar bh€. 

After this the Rawl. text inserts ch^ae " Artuir mic Bruighi ^ Dungaili 

WAlpan «Oomit «i do tuitt «*omit 63 Andaoi «* Medbai 

*' Finid d6 sin ; after this Rawl. has '* Meisi Mailechlamn ro graitApA sin" 



CATH BOINDE 185 

time of the crowning of Conaire the Great and the beginning of 
the cattle-raid against the Ultonians. It was to that Ailill that 
Meadb bore the Maines, and Maine was not their first name^ 
but thus : Feidlimid, i.e. Maine Aithreamail, and Cairpri, Maine 
Maithreamail, and Eochaid, Maine Andoe, and Fergus, Maine 
Tai, and Ceat, Maine (M)or(g)or, and Sin, Maine Milscothach^ 
and Daire, Maine Mo-epert.* 

Why are they called the Maines ? Not difficult. Of a day 
that Meadb was at the gathering of Cluitheamnach^ and 
happened to be preparing for the battle of Findchorad*' against 
Conchobar, she said to her Druid, " By whom of my children 
shall Conchobar fall ?" quoth she. " Thou hast not borne them 
yet, unless they be rechristened," quoth the Druid.^ " Anyhow, 
it is by Maine he shall fall."® And it is for that reason she called 
each of her sons Maine, in the hope that Conchobar might fall 
by him ; and these nicknames superseded^ their real names. 
Meadb thought that it was Conchobar, the son of Fachtna 
Fathach, whom the Druid meant. It was not he, however, but 
Conchobar, the son of Arthur, the son of Bruide, the son of 
Dungal, the son of the king of Scotland, from across the water. 
He it was who fell there by Maine Andai, the son of Ailill and 
Meadb.« 



»For these Maines, cf. Windisch's Tdiriy p. 22 ^1 can find no further 

mention of this place ^ There is a Fionnchorad in Thomond, the modem 

Corofin, and there is a Coradh-finne in the parish of Canuner, Co. Galway ; but it 
is hardly either of these two places * The Rawlinson text here is somewhat 

different: "Whythat.?" quoth Medb. ** By Maine he shall fall," quoth the Druid 
« I do not know this word ' cf. fortamail strong, brave, Windisch, Tdin (Index), 
LU. 95* 22, LL. 182^38, zxid fortamlaigitn, Windisch, Wb., LL. 160^46, 51,. 
BB. 263 b 30. « " I Mailechlainn wrote that,'* Rawl. 



i86 E. J. GWYNN 



THE THREE DRINKING-HORNS OF 
CORMAC UA CUINN 

(From the Liber Flavus Fergusiorum) 

FEACHT n-ann doluid Aedh Oirdnidhi mac Neill Frosaidh 
mic Fearghuile mic Maileduin do ordugud fer cuigid^ Con- 
nacht. Doluid dar Eas Ruaidh 7 dobaithed a fuis meisi 7 a 
cuirnn ann. Tainic Aedh coriacht Corca Tri, condeisidh a tigh 
righ Corca Tri. Coeca righ do riguibh Eirenn maille re hAedh. 
Longuis Aedh adhaigh domhnaidh 7 an rigraidh : 7 cia roloing 
Aed, nisib digh, uair nf bai corn lais, or dobaitheadh a cuirnn 
J a cuaich ac Ath Enaigh uas Eas Ruaidh, oc tiachtain don 
tsluadh thairis. As amlaid imorro [robai Aed]* conasibh digh 
a leastur aile o radealuigh re cich a mathar acht a curn namha. 
Ba bron tra do righ Corca Tri 7 dia seithid, each ic ol 7 righ 
Erenn gin ol. Togbuis Angal a lamha fri Dia, 7 feicis gin 
codladh gin tomailt co madain, gu n-eabert a bean fris 
arabarach, Eirg, ar si, co Dirlus Guaire mic Colmain, uair ba 
tealach feile 7 naire o aimsir Dathi anall, dus an fuigbithea 
• corn tria firta na feile ann. Cechaing Angal righ Corca Tri tar 
dorus na ratha amach, 7 tuisleas a cois deas, co ratuisil cloch 
leis isin lis .i. an cloch do bai ar belaib an tsuirn^ a rabudar na 
tri cuirn as deach robai a nEirinn .i. an Cam-corn 7 an Litan 7 
an Easgung. Cuirn sin tucad* do Cormac u Cuinn dar muir, 
7 ro folaig Niamh mac Lugna Firtri* an dara comalta do 
Cormac u Cuinn, iar ndith Cormuic, co toracht* Coirpri 
Lifeachuir dar muir 7 cia rofritha na cuirn aile la Cairpri, ni 
fritha na cuirn-siu co haimsir na naemh 7 Aeda Oirdnidi 
mic Neill, or tucad cealtar' tairsib o Dia, corusfoillsid do righ 
Corca Tri tria firta na feile. Altaigis a buidi do dia anti Angal 
7 beiris leis na cuma, cona tri Ian do mid inntibh. Dobert a 

MS. Readings — 1 Or, for cuiged 2 Omitted ^ tuim * tucaid 

» 7 trit « torrea^ A/ ' tealtair 



DRINKING-HORNS OF CORMAC UA CUINN 187 

laim Aeda Oirdnidi righ Eirenn, 7 atlaigi* do dia 7 dobert an 
Litan a laim righ* Ulad, 7 dobert an Easguing a laimh righ 
Connacht, 7 fagbuis aigi budhein an Cam-cornn. Co toracht* 
iartain^ do Mailseachloinn mac Domhnuill, co tuc sidhe do Dia 
7 do Ciaran a coitcinne co brath. Finid. 



Translation 

Once on a time Aed Oirdnide, son of Niall Frosach, son 
of Feargal, son of Maelduin, came to establish order in the 
province of Connacht. He crossed Eas Ruaid, and his table- 
servants and his drinking-horns were lost therein. Aed came 
to Corca Tri, and rested at the house of the king of Corca Tri. 
Fifty of the kings of Erin accompanied Aed. 

Aed ate a meal on Sunday night along with the kings : but 
though he ate he drank not a draught, for he had no drinking- 
horn, because his horns and his quaighs were lost at Ath Enaig, 
above Eas Ruaid, as the army was crossing. His way was, that 
he drank never a draught from any other vessel, since he was 
weaned from his mother, save only from a horn. A grief it was 
for the king of Corca Tri and his consort that all should be 
drinking, and the king of Erin refusing to drink. Angal raised 
his hands to God, and persisted (?) in taking neither sleep 
nor food till morning. And on the morrow his wife said to 
him : * Go,' said she, * to Guaire mac Colmain at Durlas 
(for that was the home of hospitality and generosity from the 
time of Dathi onward) to see if you would get a horn there 
through his hospitable bounty.* Angal, king of Corca Tri, 
stepped out through the door of the rath, and his right foot 
stumbled, so that a stone fell from its place in the fort ; and it 
was the stone that covered the mouth of the flue wherein were 
the three horns that were the best in all Ireland ; namely, the 
Twisted Horn, and the Litan, and the Eel. These were the 
cups that were brought by Cormac ua Cuinn over the sea ; and 
Nia mac Lugna Firtri, the second foster-brother of Cormac 
ua Cuinn, had hidden them after Cormac was slain ; and 
Cairbre Lifechair came over the sea, and though he found the 
other horns, these horns were not found till the time of the 



MS. Readings— * altaide ^rugh ^doraurA/ *iardam 



i88 E. J. GWYNN— DRINKING-HORNS, ETC. 

saints and of Aed Oirdnide mac Neill. For a veil was spread 
over them by God, till He discovered them to the king of Corca 
Tri, by reason of his hospitable bounty. 

Angal offered thanks to God, and bore off the horns, full of 
mead all three. He put them in the hands of Aed Oirdnide, 
king of Erin, who gave thanks to God, and put the Litan in 
the hands of the king of Ulster, and the Eel-Horn in the 
hands of the king of Connacht, and reserved to himself the 
Twisted Horn. 

Afterwards it descended to Maelsechlainn mac Domhnaill ; 
and he offered it to God and to Ciaran, jointly, till the Day of 
Judgment. FiNlT. 

NOTE 

Corca Tri is a tribal name, applied to a territory which included the present 
baronies of Gallen, in Mayo, and Leyny and Corran, in Sligo (Four Masters, 
a 885 : Martyrology of Oengus, Index). Corran is the Irish Corann (Rev. Celt., 
XV. 477). 

Our text says that Cormac's horns were hidden by Niamh macLugna 7 trit an 
dara comalta do Chormac. This is evidently corrupt. Cormac's foster-brothers 
were the sons of Lugna Firtri, king of Corann, who sheltered Cormac*s mother 
Etan (Silva Gadelica, 11. 286). I therefore emend the text by substituting Firtri 
for the meaningless 7 trit, Nia mor mac Lugna Firtri is mentioned in the Book 
of Ballymote as ** the son of Cormac's mother": see Irische Texte, ni. 185, where 
Lugdech should be Lugna, It appears, then, that Etan was taken to wife by 
Lugna, and bore him this son. The two foster-brothers mentioned in Silva 
<7adelica, 11. 288, Ochomon and Nathnach, may have been Lugna*s sons by 
another wife. 

As Corann is part of the territory of the Corca Firtri, it may be assumed that 
Lugna Firtri, king of Corann, belonged to that tribe : probably he was their king, 
and ancestor of the Angal who comes into our story. 

The ** Genealogy of the Gailenga of Corann" is given in the Book of Lecan, 
427, col. 3. Lugna Firtri is there called Lugna Fertri, and is said to have been 
grandson of Fiachu Suide, and descended from Morann mac Lir. The explanation 
of his cognomen given in the Coir Anmann (Ir. Texte, ill. 382) is evidently fanciful. 

E. J. GWYNN 



CAIN DOMNAIG 

I.— THE EPISTLE CONCERNING SUNDAY 

THE tract known as the Cdin Domnaig, or Law of Sunday/ 
as it is found in Irish MSS., consists usually of three 
parts : — 

[a) The Epistle of Jesus on the observance of Sunday. 

(b) Three examples of supernatural punishment for the trans- 

gression of Sunday. The text of the version in Harleian 

Brit. Mus. MS. 5280 has been published in Zeitschrift 

fur Celtische Philologie^ vol. iii., p. 228 (ed. Kuno Meyer). 

{c) The Cdin Domnaig proper, a highly technical law tract. 

So far as I am aware the tract, in one shape or another, 
exists in the following MSS.': — 

Leabhar Breac [B], p. 202^, which contains {a), and a small 
portion of {c). One leaf at least is missing from the 
MS. at this point. 

Harleian 5280 [H], fo. 36a, which contains (a), (^), and {c). 

23 N 10 [N], a Royal Irish Academy MS., p. 103, which 
contains {a) partly, {b), and {c). 

Yellow Book of Lecan [Y] ; two versions, one at col. 219, 
the other at col. 957 of the MS.' The former consists 
only of (a), and is illegible almost to the end of § 1 5 ; the 
latter, however, contains nearly all that is illegible in 
the other, and no more. It is possible that this version 
(which, unlike the other, is written by the scribe of the 
greater part of the Yellow Book) was added when the 

^ See Prof. Priebsch's article on "The Chief Sources of Anglo-Saxon Homilies," 
Otia Merseiana, vol. i., p. 129. 

« See ZeiUchrift fur C. Ph,, i. 495. 

3 pp. 405 a and 215 a, respectively, of facsimile. 



I90 J. G. O'KEEFFE 

first was already disappearing. The last sixteen lines 

are in the handwriting of Charles O'Conor, of Belna- 

gare. 
XL., in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, p. 71. 
Additional 4783, fo. 5^ i, in the British Museum. 
Liber Flavius Fergusiorum, Royal Irish Academy, vol. 1.^ 

fo. 45, contains a small fragment of («), and vol. ii., 

fo. 41, a version of (b). 

The Epistle, the only portion here given, has been edited 
from BHNY. B may be said to stand alone. H and N 
clearly belong to the same family, the only marked difference 
between them being the omission of the Sunday events, § 15^ 
from the latter. Y differs in a number of points from the other 
three ; but it may be said to belong to the family of H and N, 
rather than of B. Generally speaking, Y and N contain the 
oldest readings. In the sequence of the various paragraphs, 
HNY have been followed. 

On linguistic grounds the text may be said to belong to 
the Old-Irish period. It is recorded in the Annals of Ulster 
under the year 886 that " an Epistle came with the pilgrim 
to Ireland with the Cdin Domnaig and other g6od instructions." 
There is nothing in the language of our text, when purged 
from the later corruptions of the scribes, to prevent us from 
assigning it to so early a period. Mention is also made of 
the Cdin Domnaig in the notes on the F^lire of Oengus as 
follows* : — 

" Cethri cdna Erenn .i. cAin Patraic' cen clerig do marbad. 
Ocus Cdin Adamndn* cen mnd do marbad. Ocus Cdin 
Dari .i. in chaillech amra cen damu do gait Ocus Ciin 
d6mnaig cen tairmthecht ind itir, />., The four laws of 
Ireland. Patrick's rule not to slay clerics, and Adamman's rule 
not to slay women. And Darf, the marvellous nun's rule, not 
to steal oxen. And the rule of Sunday in nowise to transgress 
upon it." 

1 Fdlire Oengusso^ ed. Whitley Stokes, Henry Bradshaw Society, p. 210 
(pp. Ixiv and cxlvii of R.I.A. edition). See also Thes. pal.-hib. 11. 306. 

« SeeERiui. 216. 

3 Cdin Adamnaiftf ed. Kuno Meyer, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1905. 



CAIN DOMNAIG 191 

It is significant that in the F^lire itself two of the events 
mentioned under the dates 1 5 February and i May occur also 
in our text, in one case the expression used being identical in 
both texts.* 

The Conall mac Coelmaine, who is accredited with having 
brought the Epistle from Rome to Ireland, was Abbot of the 
island of Inis Coel, now Inniskeel, in Gweebarra Bay, Co. 
Donegal, towards the close of the sixth century.* He is still com- 
memorated in the island, his festival day being the 22nd of May. 
He was a contemporary of Columba, and like him was descended 
from Conall Gulban, the progenitor of the Cinell Conaill. I 
have not succeeded in tracing any reference to Conall's visit to 
Rome, or to his connexion with the Law of Sunday. 

I hope, on a future occasion, to be able to present an edition 
of the Cdin Domnaig proper, that is, the purely legal enact- 
ment respecting Sunday observance. 

I have to thank the editors of this Journal for much kind 
help in the preparation of this text. 

J. G. O'KEEFFE 



» See notes on p. 201 - See Notes. 



192 J. G. O'KEEFFE 

CAIN DOMNAIG 

EPISTIL isU SUNTi 

1. Intinscana eipistiP int Sldnfcceda ar Coimded-ne Isu 
Crist di laithiu' domnaig olsuide* roscrib a Idim fessin' i fiad- 
naisi fer nime co forrumad* for alt6ir Petair apstaiP hir-Rtiaim 
Letha® do s6erad* domnaig hi cech aimsir.^^ Intan donucad" 
ind epistil-sea do nim" forrabae" crith in uli talmuin^* 6 thurcbdil 
gr^ine" coa" fuined, co rolaa ind iriu a clocha 7 a cranda i 
n-arde" "ar omun a n-Diiileman 7 ar fdilti dino fri torruma^* na 
n-aingel dodechatar cusin epistil"; 7 ba sP m6t in delma" co 
n-airsoilg" ind loc" hi mb6i** corp'^' Petair apstail hi Rtiaim in tan 
sin.^* Intan" bdi abb R6mae ic oifriund conacca in epistil 
forsin alt6ir.'® 

2. Is ed tra* fofrfth** i suidiu .i. coscc na n-d6ine do thairm- 
thecht domnaig. Uair nach pldg 7 na* imned^ tdnic* in m-bith* 
is tr6 tairmthecht* in domnaig tdnic. 

3. At4t^ p^ste i n-aroile randaib' thair tuctha co d6ine 7 
is do dfgal in domnaig dorata.^ Brucha a n-anman.^ Delgi 
iamaidi* a finna* 7 siiile tenntide leo. Tiagat isna finemna* co 
teinnet' pupu® na ffne co tuitet for talmain sfs 7 atacordat 
iarum* imactiairt imon torad sin, co tiagat c6era na fine im na 
delge sin condaberat*® leo dia n-adbai." 

1. 1 Y begins : Don domnach andso. Is ead andso foros chana in domnaig dostuc 
Conall mac Caelmaine dochuaid dia oilithri co Roim 7 roscrib a lam fen asinn eibistil 
roscrib lam De for nim a fiadnaisi fer nime ' intinscanadh epistlech H 

^ sicK do latbi B do laitbe N « sic BN olsuidiu H « feisne HN 

« {orruma B forumad H foromad N rolad Y ' om. BN * om, Y 

letbae H letbai N * di soemdh H do tixor N ^o in cech aimsir B am. HN 
11 tuccad B dinuccad H donugadh N do naemad in domnaig 7 dia toerad 
dofiicad in eibisdil sea Y ^^ do nim am, HY forsa naltoir N ^^ ^ H 

formbu N do crithnaig Y rogab B ^^ sic HNY doman B ^^ am. Y 

w sic HN CO BY " anairdi Y anardai N ind airdi N >»-i» ar 

tri fathaib .i. ar namun in duileaman 7 ar failti frisna timnaib 7 ar onoir do ain^b 
dodechaid do idnocol chana domnaig do nim Y 1* frissa torramhai H frisa 

tommai N '^ robhi H ropo hi N dobai Y bahi B *^ na failti Y na dehno H 
an dealman N ^ rofoslaic Y conaurslaic H condursoilg N coro-oslaic B 

w sic HNY talam B ** aroibi Y ambo H hi rabei N imbai B ^ sicY 
m. HNB 3* in tan dn om. HNY ^ tra add. B '^ Intan bai int ab 

acan aifrind conlaca int aps 7 an aingel 'con al(t)oir 'con aifrind Y 



CAIN DOMNAIG 193 

THE LAW OF SUNDAY 

THE EPISTLE OF JESUS HERE 

1. Here begins the Epistle of the Saviour our Lord Jesus 
^Christ concerning the Lord's Day, which His own hand wrote 
dn the presence of the men of Heaven, and which was placed 

upon the altar of Peter the Apostle in Rome of Latium, to 
make Sunday holy for all time. When this Epistle was brought 
from Heaven, the whole earth trembled from the rising unto the 
setting of the sun ; and the earth cast its stones and trees on 
high, for dread of their Creator and for joy also at the atten- 
dance of the angels who had come with the Epistle ; and so 
great was the din at that time, that the place opened where 
the body of Peter the Apostle lay buried in Rome. When 
the abbot of Rome was at Mass, he saw the Epistle on the 
altar. 

2. This, then, was found therein, even to restrain men from 
transgressing Sunday. For whatsoever plague and trouble has 
come into the world, it is through the transgression of Sunday 
that it has come. 

3. There are, moreover, in certain eastern parts beasts which 
were sent to men ; and it is to avenge [the transgression of] 
Sunday they have been sent. They are named bruchae. Their 
hairs are pins of iron, and they have fiery eyes. They go into the 
vineyards and cut the branches of the vine so that they fall to 
the ground ; thereupon they roll about in the fruit, so that the 
grapes of the vine stick in these pins, and they bear them away 
to their abode. 

2. MarumHN i» frith BHN dofrith Y * <>m. B nach HN each Y 

^ sic^ imned B n-imniad H * ranic B tainic N 7 tiucfas add, Y 

^ domnaig N ^ tria thairmtecht B 

8. ^ atait Y at4t ^Sno B itad H "^ sicX biasta isna rennu B piasto isna 
rendaib N biasdae H ^ tucta H tugtha N do digail for dainib foscailfed 

fon mbith maine saerad in domnach Y ^^ anmunda MSS. ^ iaimd B ^ find 
H bfionda N findfad Y ^ fini H fine N a fineamnaib n-ithgortaib Y 

^ tenniudd H tendait H tendit Y ^ 7 a ndiasa add. Y * 7 inmaisdd 

intib Y '^^ condaberad H condoberat B ^^ adbaid H din 4dba i mbiat B 

xo leanaid na finchaera 7 na desa forsna deilgnib sin comberaid leo dia trebaib Y 

Q2 



194 J- G. O'KEEFFE 

4. Atdt and di«^ locuste .i. anmanna aile/ Etti iarnaidi' 
leo. ^Tennait tra a n-etti im cech ni* frisa comraicet Tiagait 
iarum isna cruithnechta co tendat' na dfaso co tuitet for talmain.. 
Do digal in domnaig forsna d6ine insin dino.^ 

5. Is ed timarnad 6n athair nemda isin epistil .1. tr6caire frf. 
bochtu 7 lobru 7 ailithriu. Na d6ra dol^cet* oc 6ttr6caire friu 
IS amlaid it ecnaP i n-ucht in Duileman fesin. Is 6 dofich a** 
n-olc dognfther friu.* 

6. Is amlaid timarnad do nim^ s6ire domnaig .i. 6 trdth 
espurta die^ sathairn co teirt in liiain.* 

7. Crist mac D^ bii^ roc6s croch 7 martra* dar cend in ciniuda 
d6ine* 7 asr^racht* 6 marbaib* de domnaig. Cid aire sin namd 
ba* sAertha in domnach 7 is ann ticfa dia brdtha do mess' for 
biu 7 marbu.® Is tacair' do chdch a fochell.*® "Is and miastair*' 
mess diriuch for cdch iar met 7 laiget^^ a cinad." 

8.* " Nech nit comfa in domnach," ol int athair nemdai* 
** ina crichaib c6rib, ni conricfe^ a anim nem 7 ni 'manacige'* d6 
frim-sa hi richiud* nime nd fri harchangliu nd hapstalu." 

9. ^Nach ech riadar isin domnach is ech tened bfs hi n-gabul 
a marcaig a n-iffirn.* Nach dam 7 nach mug^ 7 nach cumal 
forsa tabarthar* sdebmdm' isin domnach, 'cfit a siiile uli dera 
fola fri Dia, liair rosder Dia d6ib al-ld sin.* Ar nf piantar cid 
fir i n-iffirn and. 



4. ^ ataid dono eoin isna randaib sin tair locusta a nanmann Y • iamd B 
iarndai N *"* 7 each ni frisa comraiced a n-eiteda leadraid 7 tiagaid sen isna 
cruithnechtaib co tocaid andsa co tuitid for talmain sis 7 is do digail in domnaig^ 
inni sin Y * tenned iarum nach ni H * tendait BN tendiud H 

5. 1 dileiciud H dolecail N doslecet sin B ^ sic HN hi tecma B 
3 ind BHN * Is ed timna Issa ina espartain trocairi fria lobraib 7 fria bochtaib 
7 inti is cendus frin sin is egnaigech a n-ucht De 7 in Comdeg immorro ise aithfes- 
for each dogni olc Y 

6. ^ rotimain in Comde Y * om. B ^ Jtc H de Y int B * co fuin* 
maitne dia luain B fune H fnini N 

7. 1 om. Y ^sicY croich 7 martrai B croigh 7 martra H ^ cined daena Y 
ceneli doine H cineliu daene N doine B ^ stcY israracht BH 
asraracht N * om. Y « is Y ' doraga do meas Y ^ sic'B 
marb^-HN marbaY »jf^YN tacais B tacur H 'OfochollY 
foichill N fochaill B "-^i mestair each iama n-gnimaib Y " miast* HN 
mides B "7 laiget om. HN 

8. ^ Y has : Maine forchometaig in domnach ar dia fen ina crichaib coraib ni 
aitrebad bar n-anmanda neam 7 ni laicfithi dia ina rigsnige na aingle na archaingle 



CAIN DOMNAIG 195 

4. There are also locusts there — other animals that is. 
They have wings of iron that cut into everything which they 

-encounter. Then they go into the wheat, and cut the ears 
so that they fall on the ground. That, too, is done to punish 
men for [the transgression of] Sunday. 

5. This is what is enjoined by the heavenly Father in the 
Epistle : mercy on the poor and infirm, and on pilgrims. The 
tears which they shed when no mercy is shown them fall upon (?) 
the breast of the Creator Himself. It is He who punishes the 
evil which is done them. 

6. It is thus the observance of Sunday has been enjoined 
from Heaven, namely, from vesper-time on Saturday to tierce 
on Monday.* 

7. Christ, Son of the living God, suffered cross and martyr- 
dom on behalf of the human race, and rose from the dead on 
Sunday. Even on that account alone Sunday should be kept 
holy. And on that day He will come on the day of Doom to 
judge the quick and the dead. It is meet that everyone should 
heed it. Then, according to the greatness and the smallness of 
their sins, He will pass a just judgment on everyone. 

8. " Whosoever shall not keep Sunday," saith the heavenly 
Father, " within its proper boundaries, his soul shall not attain 
Heaven, neither shall he see Me in the Kingdom of Heaven, 
nor the Archangels, nor the Apostles." 

9. Whatsoever horse is ridden on Sunday, it is a horse 
of fire in the fork of its rider in hell. The ox and the bondman 
and bondwoman on whom wrongful bondage is inflicted on 
Sunday, the eyes of all of them shed towards God tears of blood, 
for God has freed that day for them all. For not even folk in 
hell are punished on that day. 

ana 2ipstalu na mairtire ^ condricfe B ^ mmanacighi H 

manaiccidhe N * ricech H rigtiug N richid B 

9. ^ Y has (in § 14) cech ech imriagthar i ndomnach inti immusriagha ni soera fri 
hech tenedh inna gabal i niffim. Cach mug 7 gac cumal 7 each dam forsa tabar doire 
no opair i ndom 'ciit huili fri dia ar doiri do fabairt iarna soeradh do dia Ni 
dlegar dano in dom fo laigde no scuap dar tech, &c. as in § 14 ^ inna gabail 

ind ifirad H ina gabal a n-ifirn N ^ mod N * wV; N tabar B 

tabair H ^ soebmamm H saebhmam N saebim&in B ^~* ^ B 

ciit huli fia dia :rosaer dia doib huli ilia sin H did uile fri dia ar rosaor dia doib 
alia sin N 

* To the end of Monday morning BHN 



196 J. G. O'KEEFFE 

10. " Mani forcmaid^ in domnach," ol Ffadu,- " ina crichaib* 
c6raib,^ dobicfat* anbthine' "m6ra 7 lochait immdai tenntide* 7 
torann 7 srobtene' d6idfes® na clanna 7 na cenela* 7 casra 
troma^** ailchide 7 nathraig Mamnig 7 dobicfat gennti uarn-si," ot 
Dia fessin, " .1. cen61 na pagdn nobb6rat*^ 1 m-brataib as bar 
tirib 7 atobop^rat^* dia n-deeb fesne." ^^ 

11. Atdt di«^ c6ic* biasta m6ra grannai i fudomnaib' iffim 
oc^ tochra* forsin talmain co d6ine do digal in domnaig, minas- 
berad* tr6caire De for ctilu.* 

12. Is ed 16g doberar* ar sderad' in domnaig : aroslaicfiter* 
senestri* nime remib 7 dob^ra^ Dia bendachtain* forru fessin 7 
fora tegdaisi 7 fora ferunna,^ co n& bia doma® n6 gorta ^hi tig a 
m-bia forcoim^t in domnaig.^ Nach itge gigestar^° do Dia oc 
relcib n6emaib" ernfider" do d6inib ar sderad in domnaig 7 
dob^rthaf" in talam d6ib siu 7 rosbfa nem thall "7 bid fdilid in 
Comde fria bar n-anmandaib.** 

13.^ " Mine sderaid* tra in domnach," ol in Coimdiu, "tong^- 
sa fom'* chumachta* 7 tar in mac n-6engine .i. Crist mac De 7 
tar mo n6ebaingliu,* dobicfa* fross tened hi f(6il loin^ ®7 
nobmuirbfe® uli, firu, maccu, mnd sceo ingena,** 7 beit bar 
n-anmain^^ i n-iffirn '^cin crich iarum.^^" 

14. *Cenf** tisad tra* 6 Isu Crfst fodessin^ do nim a^ timmna 
n-adamra-sai *im s6erud domnaig,* ba cdid, ba sruith, ba n6eb,* 
ba forpthi, anoraigthe* a*** Id sa' ar na hulib mirbuilib® imdaib-si 
forc6emnacair and. 

10. * lorchomad Y muna forcmad N * ar dia Y ^ sic YN etir a cricub 
coru B edir a crichai cori H * doforfiucfad Y doficfed H doficfat B 
* ainftine Y anfine B anftine H anbtine N * om. HN tenntige B 

' sroiftini N srobtenid B » doigfid H » 7 cenela am, H ^^ mora N 

mora! H ^* nosberut B nobberud H nomperat N ^* sic B 

odberad H atauiberaid N ^'-^^ mor asan a€r 7 doraga dama crichaib 7 

dcfaid gaetha luathaige 7 toraind 7 sruama tened doite 7 loisc[th]e na eland 
7 na sila 7 casracha mora 7 nathracha luaimnecha. Doficfad gente do forpbianad 

7 doberar as bar tirib cona ndeib gendtligib bodesin tre tenid 7 loscad Y 

11. 1 sic BN om. HY 2 ^ic YH fudomain B » i B * togra Y 
toccrai B ^ mainespheread Y manusberad H * cula BY eat add. B 

12. * rotimnad o Dia Y doberair B dobertAarH * saoire N saire Y 
» Uroslaicfider Y eroslaicfithir B arosailcfithir N arosluicfidir H * senistre B 
^ sicN dosbera B dobenii H * sic HN benndachtu B ^ ferond N fenmd H 

8 bochta HN gorta na nochta Y « in bar tegdaisib dia comedaigthi in dom- 
nach Y »<> gigestar HN conigestar B " noemu B " emigfider B- 
emfuidir H emfiter N i^ dobertar BN dibertur H 1*-" am. BHN 
each itche guidfithi ag bar reilgib doberthar daib o Dia 7 dobera in talom a torad 
abus daib 7 flaithius nime thall 7 bid failig, &c. Y 



CAIN DOMNAIG 197 

10. " Unless ye observe Sunday," saith the Lord, "within it^ 
proper boundaries, there shall come great tempests, and many 
fiery lightnings, and thunder, and sulphurous fire, which shall 
bum tribes and nations, and heavy stony hail-storms, and flying 
serpents, and heathens shall come to you from Me," saith God 
Himself; ** even a race of Pagans, who will carry you into bondage 
from your own lands, and will offer you up to their own gods." 

1 1 . There are, moreover, five huge beasts and hideous in the 
depths of hell, seeking to come on earth to men to avenge [the 
transgression of] Sunday, unless God's mercy should hold them 
back. 

12. This is the reward which is given for keeping Sunday 
holy : the windows of heaven will be open before them ; and God 
will bestow blessing on themselves and on their houses and 
lands, and there shall be neither poverty nor hunger in the 
house in which Sunday shall be observed. Whatsoever prayer 
shall be asked of God at the burial-places of Saints, it shall be 
granted to men for observing Sunday ; and the earth shall be 
given to them here below, and they shall get Heaven beyond, 
and the Lord will welcome your souls. 

13. " Unless ye keep Sunday holy," saith the Lord, "I swear 
by My might, and by My only begotten Son, even Christ the 
Son of God, and by My holy angels, a shower of fire shall come 
to you on the feast of John, and it shall kill you all, men, 
youths, women, and maids, and your souls shall be in hell 
thereafter without end." 

14. Now, even if this wonderful command for keeping 
Sunday holy had not come from Jesus Christ Himself out of 
Heaven, the day should be sacred, venerable, perfect, and 
honoured, on account of all the many miracles that have 
happened thereon. 

18. ^ Y has Mima saerthar, ar Dia fen, in domnach ina crichaib coraib, isbmm 
breithir fom cumachta a fiadnaise aingel doforficfa srabtenid do nim doib dilegfas 
a n-aenlo dia feil Eoin 7 Pedair 7 berthar bar n-anmanna iama. scarad fria bar 
corpaib docum pian ifrind ina n-ainfecht * saoruid N saerut B saerud H 

^ bam B tar N lugai dar mo H ^ lughao cuid. N ^ aingliu B 

6 doforficfa Y dusficfi H doficfa B ? dia feil Johain bap H diai feil hlon N 

'*-* om. HN s nosmuirbfe MSS. ^^ piad uhar nanmoin H peitt par nanmain N 
11-iMernetsechtHN 

14. 1 The following portion down to the end of § 15 does not occur in N 
I- cen CO BY gen co H « in epistil add. B » buden Y »• an H in BY 
*-* om. B 6 ba noeb add, HY « onoraigthi Y «• in BH ' 7 is 

onoraichthi 7 es airmidnichti add. H ^ duilib Y dfUib B 



198 J. G. O'KEEFFE 

15. Uair isin domnach atcess in c^tna sollsi in Idi* c6tna- 
forc6emnacair in m-bith. 

I n-domnach dorinne^ Dia^ nem 7 talmain ar tiis, 7 in mais 
n-6cruta* 7 soillsi aingel — isin c^tnai* domnach. 

I n-domnach rocetaig^ Dfa aircc N6e do thairisim for sleib 
Armenia iarna t^rnam 6 thondgar^ dilend. 

I n-domnach roarthraig® t6ag' nime iar n-dilind i comartha 
sAertha sil Adaim, ^°iiair rogell d6ib nd ticfad a ferg c6[i]n 
itcffea.^^ 

I n-domnach tdncatar maic Israel cossaib" tfrmaib tria 
muir fomair." 

I n-domnach forc6emnacair''^ Dia in sdssad nemda do mac- 
caib Isra6P* .1. in maind taitnemach" dia m-bdtar di fichif 
bliadna isin dfthrub.*** 

I n-domnach compert maic De athar ulichumachtaig" i 
m-broind" Muire 6ige*® cen lAthar^®* ferdai acht rath*' 7 tinfeth'*" 
in spirtu n6ib.'* 

I n-domnach a gein 6n 6ig" cen dith n-6ige" i m-breith n6 
ria m-breth** n6 iar m-breth. 

I n-domnach adrad in maic 6na tri driiidib cona n-ddnaib 
tr^idib'*^ leo ina ddil" .i. 6r 7 tiiis 7 mirr. 

I n-domnach bathis*' in maic 6 lohannes Pauptistai*' hi 
sruth^ lordan^n.^® 

I n-domnach robendach'* Crist na c6ic bairgena 7 in da ^cne 
comtar sdsta c6ic mile dib 7 co m-bdtar d4 clfab d6ac di 
fuidlib leo.»» 

I n-domnach tarmchruthad** diadachta 7 d6endachta maic 
D6^ i sl6ib Thaboir diambtar** testa in c6icer'* .i. Petar, loin, 
Iac6p 6 thalmandaib, Moysi 6 marbaib, Helii 6 n6emaib. 

I n-domnach a imrim*' forsin assain'*® cengailti dia rosalgid^' 
pailm d6. 



15. * 7 add. YH 2 dosgni B dorinde Y dorinee H * 7 int athair 

add, Y * neccruthaig Y neccrut H * <>m. Y « ruscedaig H 

dochedaig Y "^ om, HY ^ roartraigestar Y atraicestar H • stuag YB 

lo-w om, HY " cossa B " ruaid Y (added later) " jw: B 

docaemnacH adcoenmaccair Y ^* do-Israel om.HY ^^ n-ilblasach do maccaib 
Israel HY »»• dithreb B »« (Ww. B " bru H " ingine a<«. HY 

i**' laihair B " om. HY =*• tinfisi B tinfead Y tinfct H «• One 

Version of Y ends abruptly here 22 rogenair o muiri H ^s n-ogachtai H 

2* no-breth <m. B " Jii: H treda B «« leo-dail om, H' ^' robasAn/ H 



CAIN DOMNAIG 199 

15. For on Sunday was seen the first light of day which ever 
•came into the world.* 

On Sunday, God made Heaven and earth in the beginning, 
and the formless mass and the light of angels on the first 
Sunday. 

On Sunday, God permitted Noah's Ark to rest on Mount 
Armenia after its escape from the surge of the Deluge. 

On Sunday, the rainbow appeared after the Deluge in token 
of the redemption of Adam's seed, for He promised them that 
His anger would not come so long as it could be seen. 

On Sunday, the Children of Israel passed dryshod through 
the Red Sea. 

On Sunday, God created the Heavenly food for the Children 
of Israel, even the delightful manna, when they were forty 
years in the wilderness. 

On Sunday, the conception of the Son of God the Father 
Almighty in the womb of the Virgin Mary without man's 
presence, but the grace and inspiration of the Holy Ghost. 

On Sunday, His birth from the Virgin without loss of 
virginity at birth, or before birth, or after birth. 

On Sunday, the adoration of the Son by the three Magi with 
their threefold gifts to meet Him, even gold, and frankincense, 
and myrrh. 

On Sunday, the baptism of the Son by John the Baptist in 
the river Jordan. 

On Sunday, Christ blessed the five loaves and the two fishes^ 
so that five thousand were fed by them, and there remained 
with them twelve baskets of fragments. 

On Sunday, the Transfiguration of the Godhead and manhood 
of the Son of God on Mount Tabor, whereof were witnesses the 
iive : Peter, John, and Jacob from among the earthly, Moses 
from among the dead, and Elias from the saints. 

On Sunday, His riding on the tied she-ass,® when palms 
were strewn for Him. 

2» om, H 29 om. H 3o ordanen H ^^ bennachust H 

^* 7 leo om.H 33 tarmcrutug H ^4 deachta Isu dar doennacht H 

d 

'5 sicH am B 36 na cuicfiur B in u H 37 immrim B ^s forsin 

c. assan B for assain cengailti darasfailgid pfailmi ndo H 39 r^jfailgid H 

a Literally, which first came to the world *> Literally, salmon • ** the 

lied colt," Mark xi. 2-7, John xii. 15 



200 J. G. O'KEEFFE 

I n-domnach ^^buad mic D6 dia namaid*® .xv. Febra.*^ 

I n-domnach cet^'-proicept Crist fessin i tempul** hi calaind 
Mdi. 

I n-domnach dorinne*^ Crist" fin don usci hi Cannan Galilee** 
for banais Eoin bruinde.*® 

I n-domnach *^atcess d*Eoin .i. mac Stepedii in aslingthi 
n-adamrai 7 in fis n6emda .1. apocolipsis na riin.*' 

I n-domnach*® in es^rgi choimdeta.*® 

*°I n-domnach imrulae Crist fessin asin chengul foriata imm- 
bdi la hludaide cin scdiliud glais n6 gemli. 

I n-domnach forodail ilb^lra in talman dia desciplaib.**^ 

I n-domnach rothairind" in spirut n6eb for na hapstalu r 
n-deilb tengadh" tentide/^ 

I n-domnach^* ind es^rgi chotchend dia tora Crist do mess 
for bfu 7 marbu "do chdch ierna cdingnim.**® 

I n-domnach athnuigfither in uli diil i n-deilb **bus dille 7 
bus ferr oldds, amail dor6nta ina c^t-oirecc,**^ intan mbete*®* renna 
nime amail ^scai 7 6scai amail gr^in 7 grian amail soUsi secht 
samlathi, feib b6i isin c^tna soUsi do gr6in ".i. ria n-imarbus 
Adaim.*^ 

I n-domnach etarscarfas^^ Crist in dd tr6t*^ .1. tr6t na n-uan 
n-endac ^.i. na n6eb 7 na firian, fri gaburtr^t na pecthach** 
n-diumsach in domuin. 

16. Conid for na timnaib sin tra forrochongart* Dia *s6ire 
domnaig do choim^t,* liair roscrib 1dm De fessin a timna' sin 
dona d6inib arnd denddis gnim n6 mugsaine* isin domnach. 

17.* " Is ed aragur-sa inso," ol Dia : — " Nd derntar* isin dom- 
nach ceist, nd^ caingen, nd ddl, nd augrai,* nd cunnrad, nd slaide 
n-eich, nd sciiap dar Idr tige, nd berrad, nd folcad, nd fothnicud, 

39-39 j.j^ HY roscloi Crist diabul B The first version of Y is legible only from this 
point *o stc B hi XV Kl' Aipril H hi XV Kl" Feb" Y " om. H 

*2 add. for tds B « dosgni B dorine H ** om. HY « Gaile Y 

** for — bruinde om. HY *'-*^ adconnc Joh" mac Stebedie an fis apocolipsis 

na nm HY *» imrulaid add. B ^^ om. HY ^^^ a ndom imnilaid 

[imrula Y] Isu Crist san [isin Y] cenacoil foriatai cin aurslocc nglais dia 
rusfoduil [rolodhail Y] hilberlai dia desciplau H *i rotorind H rothorain Y 

*2 om. B «3 tened B ** tra add. B "*** om. B coinghnim H 

06-61 7 hi cnith bus berr H 7 hi cruth ba ferr Y ««» bet BH beit Y " om. 
HY <*» etarscarus B w di thret B ^'^^ stc HY 7 na noem 7 na liren 

7 tret peccthach B 

IS. ^ roforcongart Y foil orcongair B roforcongairt H ^'^om. HY *7HY 
*-* a 14m fein na timna HY * mugsainci H moghsainchi Y. 



cAiN DOMNAIG 201 

On Sunday, the i Sth of February,* the Son of God's victory 
over His enemy .^ 

On Sunday, the first teaching of Christ Himself in the 
Temple, viz. : the Kalends of May.** 

On Sunday, Christ made wine out of water in Canaan of 
Galilee, at the wedding of John of the Bosom. 

On Sunday there was seen by John, son of Zebedee, the 
wonderful vision and the heavenly revelation, viz. : the 
Apocalypse of the Mysteries. 

On Sunday, the Divine Resurrection. 

On Sunday, Christ Himself, without breaking lock or bolt, 
came forth from the captivity in which He was placed by the 
Jews. 

On Sunday, He distributed the many tongues of the earth 
to His disciples. 

On Sunday, the Holy Ghost descended upon the Apostles in 
the form of a fiery tongue. 

On Sunday, moreover, the General Resurrection when Christ 
will come to judge the quick and the dead, to all according to 
their good work. 

On Sunday there shall be a renewal of every element in a 
form fairer and better than at present, as they were made at the 
first Creation, when the stars of Heaven will be as the moon, and 
the moon as the sun, and the sun as the light of seven summer 
days,, as it was in the first sun's light, even before Adam's sin. 

On Sunday, Christ will divide the two flocks, namely, the 
flock of innocent lambs and of saints, and of the righteous 
from the goat-flock of the proud sinful ones ofi the world. 

16. Therefore, it is through these commands that God has 
enjoined Sunday to be kept holy, for God's own hand has 
written that command to men, lest they should do either work 
or servile labour on Sunday. 

17. "This is what I forbid," saith the Lord: "On Sunday 
there shall be no dispute, or lawsuit, or assembly, or strife, or 
bargain, or horse-driving, or sweeping the floor of a house, or 

17. ^ This and the following paragraph follow § 13 in B 2 jghe tra tinma in 

comded ama dentar H Is ed argaire inso ol dia na dgrntar N Ise tra timna a 
coimdedh amadenta Y ^ no Y throughout this § * add. nk agrai N creic Y 

a April H. b So in F6lire Oengusso, 15 Feb. ; H has * Christ overcame the 

devil' c So in F€lire Oengusso, i May 



202 J. G. O'KEEFFE 

nd nige,* na bleith i muilenn n& br6in, nd fuine, nd maistred, 
ni abrus, nd adaltras, nd imdecht do neoch tar crfch a tire 
sechtar,* nd rith dfan, nd dfbrucud,^ nd imrim for ech n6 assan, 
•nd berbad bfd, nd sndm, nd marcachus, nd scoltad connaid, nd 
curach for Hnn,® nd nf bus dir cl6ine."^ 

1 8. ^Nach duine^ tra dog^na' inso isin domnach, ni ricfe a 
animm nem mina derna* m6raithrige ind.^ " Tongu-sa,"* ol abb 
Roma, " tar cumachta nD6 athar 7 tar croich Crfst, nach men- 
mannrad dam-sa inso 7 nach tuscurnud nd doilbiud* acht is 6 
Dfa athair tuccad do nim' in epistil sea for alt6ir Petair® hi 
R6im Letha* do sderad in domnaig." ^^ 

19. Nach cl6rech nddairlegfa^ dia chubus do'* chlannaib 7 
cendaib in domain, ni roa' a anim nem, acht ^bieid" i n-ifBrn 
cen crich.* Nach 6in ardal^gfa® 7 nodascribfa' 7 nodacomallfa** 
iama cluais,^ sech rambia^** maith in chentair siu 7 fiaith ind 
alltair" cen crich tall. 

20. Is ed inso forus cdna in^ domnaig tuc Conall mac 
Coelmaine* anair doch6id3 dia ailithri* do R6im 7 rogdid*^ a 
theora guide ann 7 doratta* do.' It6 a® teora guide.* Nach 6en 
tarsa raga^^ liir" inna" hinnsi hitd niconaidlefa^' a anim p^[i]n" 
n-iffirn 7 niconticfet" allmaraig a chill acht 6infecht*® 7 nach tan 
bus n-islem" cech bendchopur^® Arad M6ra** is and bes ***ardam 
a chongbdil-sium 7 a bendchopur.^^ 

21. Roscrib^ Conall ierum* cona Idim fesin^ in epistil* in 
domnaig asind epistil tuccad^ do nim for alt6ir Petair apstail i 



* £>w. B. * sic HN na imdecht dar crich B imthecht a crich n-ecailsi hi 
crich tuaithi Y ' om. HN ^^ om, BHN • bus dir claine 
7 rl N bus dir cloinee H bes cil 7 rl B 

18. ^-^ Cach duine do denasin huili isin domnach is dar saghadh d^ 7 sceraidh 
immuchu fria maithib in cenntair 7 ni ricfa nem menip adhbul a aitrighi 7 meni 
pennet iar naitrighi co mdr Y ^ lugai add, H ^ dosgni B dogeni insen no H 

* deni H demai N * om. B Do tuc isa lugha Y ® na doilbiud om, HN 
nach dalb na tuscomad duine andso sin Y 'do nim om, BHN * Fedair H 

* om. HNY i<* in domain 7 dia naebaib Y 

19. ^ natauilegfa B nadurlegfa HN ^ Cach cleirech nach asairleghfa fo Y 
' sic Y condricfe B conricfi H conricfa N *-* i mbith i pianaib iflSm Y cen 
crich om. HN ^ sicti beid N « aradlegfa N ' nodoscripfa H 
nodascriptha N ^ sicJ^ nodcomuUfai H ^ sic BN cach aen 
noslegfa 7 nosscribfa 7 noscomallfa iama cloisdin Y ^^ rdmbia Y rombiad N 
*' flaith nime cen crich tall B flaith nime cin forcend HN 

20. * (7/;i. B - Colmain B ^ dicoid H dochuaidh N anair O Roim 
^ochoid B * alithri H olithre B ^ rosgaid B doguid N • tuctha B 



CAIN DOMNAIG 203 

shaving, or washing, or bathing, or washing [clothes], or grinding 
in mill or quern, or cooking, or churning, or yarn-weaving, or 
adultery, or journeying by anyone beyond the border of his own 
territory,* or racing,** or shooting with spear or arrow, or riding 
on horse or ass, or boiling food, or swimming, or horse-riding, 
or splitting firewood, or coracle on water, or anything involving 
wrong." (?) 

18. Whosoever shall do this on Sunday, unless he shall 
perform great penance for it, his soul shall not attain Heaven. 
" I swear," said the abbot of Rome, " by the might of God 
the Father, and by Christ's Cross, that this is no invention of 
mine, and no fiction or fable ; but it is from God the Father this 
Epistle was sent unto the altar of Peter in Rome of Latium to 
make Sunday holy." 

19. Any cleric who shall not read it aloud conscientiously 
to the peoples and nations of the world, his soul shall not attain 
Heaven, but it shall be in hell forever. Whosoever shall read it 
aloud, and shall write it, and shall fulfil it after hearing it, he 
shall not only have prosperity in this world, but the kingdom of 
the other world for ever yonder. 

20. This is the enactment of the law of Sunday which 
Conall Mac Coelmaine brought from the east, who had gone 
on a pilgrimage to Rome ; and he had prayed there his three 
prayers, and they had all been granted him. These are his three 
prayers : He over whom shall go the clay of the island in which, 
he is buried, his soul shall not approach the pain of hell ; and. 
foreign hordes shall not visit his church except once ; and 
whenever every other tower of Ara Mor is lowest, then it is that 
his own church and his tower shall be highest. 

21. Conall then wrote with his own hand the Epistle of 
Sunday from the Epistle which was sent from Heaven unto the 
altar of Peter the Apostle in Rome. When it was time to lift 

dirafH doratha N ^ ndo H add, uli B » na B » .i. add. B 

»o raghai H " hur HN " na B i» jwr N niconticfat B niconadlefa H 

1* om, B « niconticfat B »« aenlecht B " hisliumh H isliu B 

»^ benncobur HN mbendchopur B *» Jti: N arradh morai H arrad mora B 

bus B «o-»o This paragraph is not in Y, except the portion shown at 

note I, } I. 

21. 1 ruscrib H - fessin B ^om,'B * add, sea B « derar H, 



From Church territory into lay territory Y ** Literally, swift running 



204 J. G. O'KEEFFE 

R6im/ Intan ropo' mithig aurgabdiP na serine danarfaid* in 
n6eb i n-aslingiu^° dont saccart nobid frisin^^ alt6ir. 

22. Ba hi' in aslinge': dintir tredan' lasin eclais 7 lasin 
tiSaith, o thdnic d6ib cusin aidche sathairn lar celebradh ler- 
mergi* contuil in cl^rech, co n-acca in sollsi m6ir fair isin tech 7 
CO n-accai in cl^rech 7* cassal Hn gil imbe, 7 nf c6emnacair d^csin® 
a gniisi, 7 bachall ina Idim a dochum' 7 forruim imbe in cassal 
7 asbert® fris : " is duit douccad* 7 Conall mac Coelmaine'® ise" 
dodber^' duit." larsin*' sl^chtaid in cl^rech for dfb traigthib ind 
n6eb'* 7 asbert'* in n6eb** fris : " atrdi siias 7 cuindig in epistil in 
domnaig isin serin 7 arusl^ga*' do d6inib domain 7 sderthar lat 
in domnach cech cumang rotb6" d6. Mani'^ d^nae-siu^' sin ria 
cind mfs, bia f6en^^ isin relicc marb." 

23. It^' f^ich thairmthechta in domnaig .i.^ unga arcait for 
fer imth^it' co n-eri* and 7 a thimthach* do loscad 7 dilsi a eri. 
Leth n-unga for fer n-dilmain imt[h]dt and 7 a thimthach* do 
loscud. Nech imr^t* ech 1 n-domnach dflsi a eich 7 a thimthaig.^ 
Mleth® i* muilind '^i n-domnach iar luga chdna, mad muilend 
tiiathi/^ unga arcait ind 7 c6ic se6it 6 suidiu anund. Mad 
muilend ecalsa tra, is cumal dfri^* i mbleith ann i n-domnach.^' 
Nach br6 melar'^ i n-domnach, a brisiud 7 leth n-unga argait for 
fer no mndi" nodamela." Mad fer-amus n6 ban-amus noda- 
mela/* loscad a thimthaig" 7 a indarba" asin menduf 

24. Nech asa 'muilend n6 asa' br6 is lais a comad.^ Trfan 
ffach fair mani' comathar.* Curach berar for sdP i n-domnach 



doral N * ir-roim B ' ba B » aurgbail H » doarfaid B 

tonarf' H tanarfaithT N ^^ aislingthi B and aislingiu H " uasin B 

22. ^ Hise H Ise N * aislingti B aislingeiu N add. .i. BN 

» om. B * iarmergi B * co B « d^csiu B dexin A deicsin N 

' a dochum om, B ^ atbert B isperd H ispert N » tucad B 

tugadh N add, ol se B ^o Colmain B »» om, B " dosber B 

dodpir H *^ om. B " noem B »« atbert B espeurd H 

ispert N *® arulegai H aroslega N " rodbe H rotbia B 

>8 mine B *' demasa B denussai H denasu N 20 fofer B faon N 

28. 1 add, traJB inso Y > Colpdach is fiu add, B ^om,Y * eiriu HN 
^ imtach B ^ imrieadh H imriadha Y ? edaigh Y 

uad add. B « bleith Y Mad bleth B Mbleth H Jkfbleith N » cwi. YN 

*«-io no thuaighi Y »» din B a diri Y di N « mbleith—domnach 

om, Y " meltair Y melair B 1* for each Y ben B 

^^ sic "S nodosmeil Y nodomelu H notmelai B >• nodosm^la Y 



CAIN DOMNAIG 205 

the shrine, the saint revealed it in a vision to the priest who was 
at the altar. 

22. This was the vision : a three days' fast was held by 
clergy and laity ; when the eve of Saturday arrived, after 
celebrating nocturns, the cleric fell asleep ; and he saw a great 
light [shining] on him in the house ; and he saw the cleric,* with 
a white linen chasuble on him (He could not look upon his face)^ 
and a crozier in his hand, coming towards him ; he put the 
chasuble on him, and said to him : " It is to you it was sent and 
it is Conall Mac ^Coelmaine gives it to you." Thereupon the 
cleric prostrated himself before the feet of the saint, and the 
saint said to him : " Arise, and look for the Epistle of Sunday in 
the shrine, and read it aloud to the people of the world, and let 
Sunday be made holy by you with all your might. Unless you 
shall have done that before the end of a month you shall be on 
your back^ in the churchyard dead." 

23. Now these are the fines for transgressing Sunday : An 
ounce of silver*' on a man who travels with a load on that day, 
and his clothes to be burned, and his load to be forfeited. A 
half-ounce on a man travelling without a burden on that day, 
and his clothes to be burned. Whosoever rides a horse on 
Sunday shall forfeit his horse and his clothes. Grinding in a 
mill on Sunday after the swearing of the law, if it be a mill of 
the laity, an ounce of silver [is the fine on the first occasion] for 
it, and five seds from that out. If, however, it be a church mill, 
a cumhal is the fine for grinding in it on Sunday. Whatsoever 
quern is ground with on Sunday, it shall be broken, and a half- 
ounce of silver [imposed] on the man or woman who grinds with 
it. If it be a man-servant or woman-servant who grinds with it, 
his clothes shall be burned, and he himself driven out of the 
place. 

24. Whosoever owns a mill or a quern, it is for him to look 
after it.** A third of the [foregoing] fines on him unless it 



nodomeulae H notomela B " n^aigh Y is indarpu B indinnarpo H 

19 asin mendut om, Y 

84. 1 isa B issa H ^ comb ad H choimet N comet B ' minas B 

manus N * is leis a coimet no trian fiach fair Y * linn Y moir H 



a i.e. the saint ^ under grass B « a heifer worth an 

ounce of silver B ^ i.e. so that it shall not be worked on Sunday 



2o6 J. G. O'KEEFFE 

cid uathad cid sochaide nodmbera,*leth n-unga for cech fer' 7 Mflsf 
in churaig la' dflsi thimthaig na fer.® Cntiasach mara n6 tfre i 
n-domnach, mdd itir^^ df Idim n6 i cris doberthar," leth n-unga 
argait ind.^* Mad ere^^ for muin, unga argait ind. 

25. Ceist n6 caingen i n-domnach, n6 ddl, n6^ augrai, nd 
accra, n6 reic,* n6 creicc, n6 cunnrad, n6 slaide eich, n6 sciiap 
dar Idr tfge,' n6 berrad, n6 folccad, n6 forthracud, n6 nige,* n6- 
cor cluiche* no bunnsaige, n6 rith dfan, is trian unga argait 
*di cech di uH.* 

26. Peccad i n-domnach ^n6 i n-aidche liiain, leth n-unga 
argait ind. Maistred i n-domnach, leth n-unga ind.* Cdch hi 
crfch^ a thfre fesin n6 hi crfch ina tecmai,' nf teit nech cch 
alaile. Btiachaille 7 maic becca doairchellat* b6 7 cethra d\no 
olchena im airbetha,^ nf teit mac neich* do thig araile acht mac 
6enlis.' Nech donair® for imdecht oc ascnam' a thige^^ do 
etirchen iar m-b^im cluicc do espartain aidche domnaig c^n 
m-bes" sorchu al-ld ni hacarar ind.** 

27. Abras aidchi liiain, mad fige, a loscad etir garmain* 7 
*cech n-adbar olchena, 7 asrenar' secht n-unga ina dfri.* Mad 
abras* etir d{ Idim is leth n-unga argait* ind. "Nech immaber 
biail i n-domnach, loscad a thimthaig 7 a lomna 7 dflsi a bela 
7 unga argait ind. Nech dodrig,' is dfles d6 nf^ nddgaib' tene 
don*** thimthach sin acht nf soa^^ dondf asa" timthach." C6ic 
lethunga argait* i** tfrad i n-dith aidchi domnaig 7 loscad na 
hdtha. Oigid" neich n6 a thr6gciin nf tfagat liad** co sorcha Idi 



muir N ^ sic Y nodoberai N nodbeura H notbera B- 

' notbera add. B ^-» loscad a chleib 7 a chodia 7 a thim Y » 7 HN 

10 etir B ^^st'cN dibertur H »» ina dire H iSeriB 

eriu H eire N heiri Y 

26. * om. Y 2 no reic om, B 3 ^ar tech B * edaich add. H 
^' clechi Y cloigi H «-« diu cech ae dib sin uili H din cech at uile N 
feich gachae Y 

96. '~^ no maistreadh unga argait ind Y ' cind B ^ hi tecma H 

fesin-tecmai om, Y ^ do tairrcell^ H do thaircellat B ^ im airbetha om. B 

* fir B ^ acht-6enlis om. HN Buachailli immorro 7 maic becca do tarclodh 

ceatra ni th^it fiach foraib Ni thiagaid meic neich do thigh aroile acht mac aenlis Y 
** donfair Y donairr BH donar N ^ fascnam N ^^ a thige om. Y >> cen 
bes B cenn mbess H ^' ni accurar air no ind H ic ascnum aidhchi 

domnaig cidh iar mbeim chluicc do espartain aidhchi domnaig ni hacartar inn Y 

27. ^ gharmu B 7 ni add. N 7 nl add. Y ^' each nabras her o fighi 
unga argait a dhire Y ^ isrenaitior H asrenaigthar N ^ adbros B apms H 
^om.Y •beluH beeola N ^ sicHN dotricc B » jw: HN inni Y 



CAIN DOMNAIG 207 

is looked after. A coracle which is put out to sea on Sunday, 
whether it be one or many who carry it, a half-ounce [is the 
fine] on each man, and boat and clothes to be forfeited. Gleaning 
of sea or land on Sunday, if it be between the hands or in a 
girdle it be put, a half-ounce of silver [is the fine] for it, but an 
ounce of silver if it be a load on the back. 

25. Dispute or law-suit on Sunday, or assembly, or strife, or 
pleading, or sale, or purchase, or bargaining, or horse-driving, or 
house-sweeping, or shaving, or washing, or bathing, or washing 
[clothes*], or stone-throwing, or spear-throwing, or racing^ ; 
[the fine] is a third of an ounce of silver in respect of each of 
them. 

26. For a sin committed on Sunday or the eve of Monday 
[the fine is] a half-ounce of silver. For churning on Sunday 
it is a half-ounce. Everyone [remains] at the border of his own 
land or in the territory in which he may happen to be : he goes 
not into another. Cow-herds and youths keeping cows and 
other flocks within their pens, no one's lad goes to the house of 
another except the lad of a single steading. Whosoever comes 
journeying from afar making for his house after the ringing of 
the vesper-bell on the eve of Sunday, so long as there is clear 
day-light, he is not to be sued for it. 

27. Yarn-weaving on the eve of Monday ; if it be weaving in 
a loom, the loom-beam and all other material shall be burned^ 
and seven ounces of silver are paid as fine. If it be hand- 
weaving, a half-ounce of silver [is the fine] for it. Whosoever 
plies axe on Sunday, his clothes and his [axe-]cord shall be 
burned, and his axe forfeited, and an ounce of silver [shall be 
paid as fine] for it. Anyone who strips him, what of the dress 
the fire does not seize is his property ; but it does not go to the 
person to whom the clothing belongs. Five half-ounces of silver 
for drying in a kiln on the eve of Sunday, and the kiln to be 
burned. Anyone's guests or his poor do not leave him until 



•natgaibB ^o din HN ^^sicKN sou B » isa HB 

13-13 Nech imbres biail i ndomnach loscad a 6taidh 7 dilsi a bela 7 unga argait ind. 
Nech dodrig is diles do Y »* for B ar HN »» odghid Y Noigid H 

Noigit N 1® tiagaid uad H tiaghat co aroile Y tiagait uad N nisf&cut B 



» add. H ^ Lit. swift running 

R 



2o8 J. a O'KEEFFE 

dia" liiain. "Mad nech tra ndd^' cumangar'*' do aidbriud n6 do 
dfriuch'*^ 7 brisess glinde" na cAna 7 imteit i n-domnach, nach 
duine asidcf** dobeir** mallachtain'* fair 7 nf taimberar 7 
arcuilter,'* sech bid timdibe dia sdegul for talmain 7 n{ riccfe a 
animm nem di thairmthecht in" domnaig." 

28. Ciped^ laa* didiu^ forsa m-be* notlaic m6r* n6 notlaic 
st^ille,* is amal domnach insin' 7 nf himthfagar^ and.^ For 
cubus cech 6in^*^ dia tarat" Dfa" cond 7 c^ill," cia chollit araile 
^*cdin in domnaig,** nd ragbat a ch^ile midesmerecht n-de/* 
'•ar is de fein folil a phfan 7 is dondf noscomallfa merait a 
fochraice." 

29. Lfna^ bertar* i n-uisci etir df crfch in domnaig al-loscad 
n6 a n-dllsi do rechtairib na cdna 7 unga argait for cech fer^ 
tiodabera* 7 loscad *in chleib 7 na seched^ 7 na timthach.^ C6ic 
stoit ar^ sdrugud aitire n6 crossi^ in domnaig oc saigid na^ cdna 
in domnaig.^** Trf lethunga ar" thairimbert^* neich immathe 
ann." 

30. Colpdach didiu^ n6 al-16g isf unga chdna domnaig insin. 

31. Driiith^ 7 gobaind* 7 cdinti,^ n{ imthiagat* ann*; a 
n-dobertha' d6ib isin' tsollomain* doberar® dia ltiain.*° 

32. Turbaide* techta* i n-domnaig .i. teched^ ria n-genntib* 
n6 ^robudh ria creich n6 sliiagh.* Techt* fo egim acht ni 
tiagar* de for ciilu co n-deirgle in domnach.* Saigid fir grdidh 
fri*** comnai/^ acht^* nf segar*^ baithis^* acht menip d6ig bes marb 

CO matain B " in B »8-i8 ^^^ y i» nat B 20 cumaggar H 

comangar N ^^ direch H dirrich N 22 brissius glinne H brisseis glinde N 

»3 asadchi N isatchi H atchi B 2* dobir H tob" N dosber B 

26 mallachtu B *6 aircuiltiur H *'' om. B 

28. 1 cidped Y cipe N gebe H cip B 2 lae Y la H 3 tra NH <ww. Y 

* foTsambiae Y forsmbe NH ' .1. epifania Domini add. B • steill YN 
beucc H notlaic becc no notlaic stelle B ? sin Y ^ himthiagair Y 
imthiagait B immtiaghar H » inn Y ^o duine NH " tarath NH 
tarda Y tardad B " om. B "7 bathais add, YB **-" in canaidh 
sea Y in canaid sea B ^^ sic NH na gabar sin amail desmberecht B na gabad 
araili deismirecht Y ^^ sicY uair ise coll c4na domnaig buden fothlai na plan' 
a n-iffim cin crich cin forcend. Ocus didiu intii chomaillfes in ch&in si d6nmaig 
m6raid side tria bithu sir i flaith De athar i n-oentaid aingel 7 archaingel 7 desdpol 
D^ olchena B om, HN 

29. 1 Lin N * berar N berair B bertnr H berthnr Y ^lerB om,K 

* nodobera BN nodabenrai H beiris Y *-* ^cin na cliab 7 na codla 7 na 
timtach Y * sechi H ^ for B > crosse B crossie H croisi N 
aitire-crossi otn, Y » otn. B ^^ oc-domnaig om, Y " for B 
^^ stcY tabairt B tairbirt H tapt N i' immothe aun Y imteit i ndom N 
immetet a ndom H 



CAIN DOMNAIG 209 

'daylight on Monday. In the case, however, of one who cannot 
be sued or distrained (?), and who breaks the stipulations of the 
law and journeys on Sunday, anyone seeing him shall curse him ; 
and he is not taxed and prohibited, though his life on earth 
shall be cut short and his soul shall not attain Heaven because 
of the transgression of Sunday. 

28. On whatsoever day Great Christmas' falls, or Little 
Christmas, it counts as Sunday, and none shall travel thereon. 
It is on the conscience of each one to whom Grod has given 
sense and reason, though others violate the law of Sunday, 
that his neighbours should not take as an evil example from 
him ; for it is of himself he shall endure his pain, and it is for 
him who shall fulfil it that his rewards shall endure. 

29. Nets put into the water between the two limits of Sunday 
shall be burned, or forfeited to the stewards of the law, and an 
ounce of silver [imposed as fine] on each man who carries them 
and his basket and hide and clothes burned. Five seds [is the 
fine] for assaulting the Sunday guarantors or bailiffs, as they are 
claiming the Law of Sunday. Three half-ounces for . . . of 
anyone who travels about thereon. 

30. A heifer, then, or its value, that is the ounce of the law 
of Sunday. 

31. Jesters, however, and smiths,^ and satirists do not journey 
thereon ; that which would be given them on the festival of 
Sunday, is given to them on Monday.® 

32. Lawful exemptions of Sunday, viz. : fleeing before 
pagans ; warning before a raiding party or an army. Going 
to a cry of distress, but there is no returning therefrom until 
Sunday is past.^ Seeking a person in orders for the sake of 
communion ; but baptism is not sought unless it is likely that 

80. 1 om, YH 

81. 1 tra add, B « gobainn BH ^ cainte BN * imthiagut B 
-« nf-ann om. HN « sic YHN doberar B MB » sollamain B ^ sicY 

doberairB doberfH dobertaN ^^sicH^ anid in luain B aigluainY. 

82. 1 Taurbadu B turbuid Y turbaithi H turbuithe N ^ thairimtediU Y 
3 sic Y teiched BN tekhiumh H * naimtiu B ^^ sicY om. B no 
sluag^HN «TaideditY stegarHN tecar Y • j«: HN 
CO ndeirgle B co teirt ind luoin Y i® fir-fri om, HNB " dmirnne B 
cumniH i* 7 HNY "nistegarlnY 1* baithes B 



a Viz. the Epiphany of the Lord add. B ^ Cf. Thes. pal.-hib. ii. 357. 

' The eve of Monday BY «i Until tierce on Monday Y 

R 2 



2IO J. G. O'KEEFFE 

in gein.^* Cobair b6 hi cechar.^* Cobair thige dia loscad.** 
Cobair cethra foa tiagat coin alltai." Cobair^' guirt arbai nd 
fe6ir orgar,*** acht sedair'* isuidiu occu*' co *'diad 14i." 
Torruma lobur** fri hidna'* m-bdis.^* ^'Liaig fri hingallru.*' 

33. Fortd^ fort6rmach na cdna sa' ; nach ddl 7 nach oirechf 
conrisar* la tiiathu 7 rfgu drim* cdin domnaig c^tad^ntar ann. 
*Fortd^ a forus' ; mallacht cech duine'' for cdch conb6® in 'cdin 
si in domnaig.® Fortd^ a forus ; trfan cech thuillme ***na cAna 
sa**^ do Dia 7 a trfan n-aill do flathib 7 eclaisib" 7 a trfan n-aild^' 
do Aes tobaig" 7 do aitirib.** Fortd* a forus ; bennacht cech 
duni^* for cech cl^rech 7^^ for" cech flaith lasa comallfither^* in 
cdin si in^® domnaig.'^ Guidet in Coimdid '^co tarda fortacht 
d6ib oc comalnad** na cdna so." Nach 6en tra comallfas" in 
cdin si in domnaig'* rambfa** maith in chentair'* '^7 fot sdegail X 
mmed clainne" 7 flaith nime cen forcend. Finit.'^ 



1* acht-gein sic Y om. BHN *« ceatra a cuithi Y i^ tigi loscthi H thighi 

coa lose Y " ar connaib alta Y alltai om. B " Coim^t Y »» orggar HN 
ar orgain Y '^ sic H sedur H segar B '* sedair oca se Y **-*3 deoid 

lai B ddiad lai N diedh lai H fiiiniud grene aidchi luain Y >^ Forruma lobair B 
louhir H Torroman ind lobur Y «* himgnae B himgnao N *« fn-mb&is 

^. Y ^'''^ sicY om, BHN 

S8. > Foratha B fortha HN 2 sic Y formach na cana so B a forus HN 

' airiucht H oirechtus 7 senad B * conricfidir Y coraigther B * corob Y 



GAIN DOMNAIG 211 

the infant shall be dead. Helping cows in a swamp ; helping 
at a burning house ; helping cattle whom wolves attack ; 
help at a field of corn or hay which is being plundered — but 
they remain seated in it until the end of the day.* Tending a 
sick person in the pangs of death. A physician for the sick. 

33. There is a further enactment of this law : whatsoever 
meeting and whatsoever assembly in which tribes or kings meet, 
that it be the law of Sunday which is first passed therein. It is 
enacted : the curse of every person on all who shall break this 
law of Sunday. It is |[enacted : a third of each profit to God ; 
and the second third to princes and churches ; and the third third 
to tax-gatherers and guarantors. It is enacted : the blessing 
of each person on each cleric and on each prince by whom this 
Jaw of Sunday shall be fulfilled. Let them pray the Lord that 
He may grant help to them in fulfilling this law. Whosoever 
then shall fulfil this law of Sunday he shall have prosperity 
in this world, length of life, and a numerous offspring, and the 
Kingdom of Heaven without end. Finit. 



•6-6 J Y ' 6en Y ^ conbou B »-9 rechtge se Y 10 na-sa om, BHN 

1* 7 eclaisib om, Y " sic HN in treass trian Y " atobaigh Y 

tob'' HN I* do aitirib om, Y i* oin B each laech 7 Y " la B 

"<?»». B »8 comaillfider Y comallifidir H comaillfiUi- B " ww. B 

*^ air gac maith ninfil (?) is ar chomaludh na c4na sa 7 each olec dochuisin is tria 
coill na c4na sa dosfil add, Y ^i-ai coro congna coa comall^ Y '* o comalnad 
HN o chomallad B '3 chomallfas B ** Cach den tra noscomall" Y 

2»ronbiaB rombia HNY »« chentair B ^^'^t stcY om.BHN 287^3. 



» Until sunset on the eve of Monday Y 



212 J. G. O'KEEFFE 



NOTES 

Odftall Kac Coeluaine— His relationship to St. Columba may be shown by the 
following table. Conall's pedigree occurs in the following R.I.A. MSS. : — Book of 
Lecan, fo. $8* ; C. i. 2, fo. 36; MacFirbis' Genealogies, p. 700; also in Colgan*s 
Trias Thaura., p. 480. 

Niall N6igiallach 

Conall Gulban 
a quo Cinel Conaill 



Fergus Cennfada Bogaine 

Fedhlimidh Cathair 

Columba Coelmaine 

Ob. 597 I 

Conall 
ob. circa 590 

In the B. of Lecan he is called Conall Mor Mac Maine Chail Caelmaine ; in 
Mac Firbis, Conall mac Maine Caoil no Caolmaine ; while Colgan has Conallus de 
Iniscaoil, filius Manu Coelii, &c. In Archdall's Monasticon^ i. 100, it is stated that 
he was killed by pirates about the |year 590. I cannot trace the source of this 
statement, but the date is borne out by the genealogy. In the Martyrology of Donegal 
(p. 136) his day is given as 22nd May ; but Colgan speaks of it in one place as 
1 2th May, and in another as 20th May. Archdall, on the other hand, says that his 
festival is held in Iniscaoil on 29th January ; but the pilgrimage to the holy well, 
dedicated to Conall, in the island, takes place on 12th May. Archdall, apparently 
following Colgan (Acta SS. p. 215), says that St. Dalian wrote a work in his praise. 
I am unable to suggest a satisfactory explanation of the gap of 300 years, from the 
time of Conall to the year mentioned in the Annals of Ulster. 

Ara K6r.— Gren. Arad M6ra, not identified. The island of Aran to the N. of 
Innishkeel suggests itself, also Aran in Galway — though the latter is only met with 
as an N-stem — but I have no evidence for connecting one or other with the Ara 
H6r of our text. Similarly with the territories known as Ara Tire, or Duhara, 
Co. Tipperary, and Ara Cliach, Co. Limerick. 

Hit three prayers, } 2a — ^There are other instances in Irish literature of a promise 
of salvation similar to that mentioned in the first prayer : cf. Lismore Lives, pp. 214,. 
226, 229; also F^lire 5engusso 1R.I.A. ed.), p. Ixxxvi. 



CAIN DOMNAIG 2ij 



Glossarial Index 

[The prefixed figures refer to the sections'] 

1. olinide. For the meaning here, cf. Thes. pal.*hib. i., p. xzi. 

fomimad, pret. pass, of fuirmi; the corresponding perL is formrmedp MU 

74°20. 
forrabae. Probably from fortd, * is upon.' 

2. uair. In O. Ir. we should probably have had air: uair, I thhik, first appears 

in Mid. Ir. 

3. bmcha, < locusts,' Lat. bruchus, Kuno Meyer's Contributions. I have no 

other example, 
pnpn na fine, * branches of the vine ' : cf. RC. xii. 443, ptipa nafinemna, and 

LBr. 1 27*40. 
ataoordat = ad^da^cuardat^ from a compound ad'Cuardaitn or itt'Cuardaim, 
imactUdrt imon torad, cf. immandelg immeaiairt, Thes. pal.-hib. ii., p. 248. 

5. it ecnai, cf. ecna .i. f alius, O'Dav. Perhaps we should translate *they are 

manifest to (i n-ucht) the Creator.' Hi tecma, the reading of B, \% 
unintelligibJe to me. Ecnai occurs also in LL. 288t'i8. 

i n-ncht, * before,' * in the presence of,' see Wind. Wb. s.v. ; le h-ucht^ * facing,* 
Tribes of I., p. 38 ; a h-ucht^ * on behalf of,' C4in Adamn4in, p. 6. 

6. espnrta. I have no example of the O. Ir. genitive, 
die, cf. AU. 780 and Trip. L. 114, 120. 

7. foehell, v. n. oi fo-ciaUur^ * give heed to,* * beware of.* 

8. n£ 'manaoige d6, cf. 6 manacca ddib, LL. 256»36 ; immanaccae dun, Kuno 

Meyer's Liadain and Curither, p. 16 ; immanarlodair dd, RC. xil. 80; 
imtndndihdai dd, LU. 24*4.1 

ID. dobicfat = do'b'icfat, * there will come to you,' with infix, pron. of 2 pi, 
genti. Perhaps * Norsemen,' as in AU. 794. 

11. tochra, cf. Wind. Wb., O'Dav. no. 1506, .1. triall, also BB. 203'>57. 

12. emfider. ¥xom asren; O.Jx, asrirther, 

13. fom chnmaehta. For the use of > here, cf. AU. iioi, RC. xiv. 404, Trip. L.» 

p. 8, BB. 454*9. 

14. maiss, cf. mass, Ascoli, p. ccclxix. 



1 For the references here, and for many others in these notes, I am indebted to 
Professor Strachan. 



214 J- G. O'KEEFFE— CAIN DOMNAIG 

15. forc6emnacair. The reading of Y, adcoemnaccair, seems to point to doicom^ 
nachty *has bestowed,' from do^ind-nacim^ with perfective com. The 
peculiar form in Y is, no doubt, due to the influence oi forcoemnacair. 

zv Febra. See, however, the readings of H and Y. I have followed that of 
B because it is in agreement with the Felire of Oengus. See notes, p. 200. 

rOBalgid. For rosfalgid^ as the other readings show, cf. Wind. Wb.yfo'laigim. 
I cannot explain the form. 

17. aragnr, i sg. rel. oiar-gair, * forbids.* 

bus dir cldine. I am unable to explain this curious expression. 

18. tnscurnnd, cf. LL. I25»4i, Windisch, Ir. Texte, iii. 2, 586. 

19. nadairl^gfa. The reading of Y points to nach-a-airUgfa^ * shall not read it,' 

the correct form. 

22. 6 thanic ddib, etc. Lit. *when it came to them to the eve of Saturday,' 
cf. LU. 6o»»i6, LL. 37«>45 ; 6 thdnic ddib co dergud, Fled Br. Ch. 80 ; 
6 thainic dd dul docum neime, C4in Emine Ban, 23 P 5, fo. 16. 

33. leth-iunnga, cf. leth n-gotko, Sg. 5*4. See also Ascoli Glossarium, p. clxii. 
fer n-dilmain, cf. dilmain gl. expeditum^ Ml. 81^7; rondilmainaigset ^. vacasse^ 
Ml. 76*8. 

26. airbetha, from airbe^ see Kuno Meyer's 'Contributions,' also glossary to the 

Laws, 

donfair. Perhaps we should read, with the other mss., do-n-air, * everyone on 
whom it may come while travelling.' 

27. dodrig, * who strips him,' from direch^ see Ascoli, Gloss, ccxii. 

do dlriuch, * to strip,' * deprive.' I have translated it * distrain '; but it is 
possible that it may mean here to take from the man the instrument with 
which he was breaking Sunday. 

taimberar. My translation of this word is a conjecture ; I have no other 
instance of its use. 

areuilter. Perhaps we should read ni airchuilier, 

28. notlaic st^ille, * Little Christmas '; but see Reeves' Ciddees, p. 204, where he 

explains as follows :— ** * Christmas of the Fragment,' possibly from the 
old custom of breaking Twelfth cake on that day." Should we read 
« Christmas of the Star ' ? 

29. tliairiiiibert(?). 

eo n-deirgle, cf. co rodigld. Fled Br. Ch. 36. 

sedair. This, rather than segar of B, seems the correct reading here : cf. sedait 
LU. 59*'35, and Ir. Texte, ni. 226. 



FURTHER REMARKS ON WELSH RY- 
{See above^pp, 60, 6 1.) 

WHAT has been said above, p. 61, about the Early- Welsh 
Future requires modification and precision. In addi- 
tion to the forms in -awd^ -awr^ etc., the future sense is expressed 
by the present form as in later Welsh, or by the subjunctive, 
e.g.' :— 

P. 126. Bydinoed Katwaladyr kadyr y denant, 

Bydrychafwynt Kymry, kat a wnant. 
" The hosts of Cadwaladr, mightily will they come. The 
Cymry will rise up, they will give battle." 

On the same page and the following pages are many other 
instances of the present form. 

P. 25. Arth o Deheubarth a dirchafay. 

Ryllettaud y wir ew tra thir Mynwy. 
" A bear from the South will arise. His men will spread 
over the land of Mynwy." 

On p. 296 are found various subjunctives in 'er in a future 
sense, e.g. \—glywher^ kwyner, etc. 

In spite of the archaizing tendency of this old poetry, a 
minute investigation of the distribution of these forms, along 
with a precise determination of the uses of the subjunctive 
mood, would probably bring to light various strata in the 
development. 

With the future ry- is sometimes found with no appreciable 
force. In the Black Book the only instances* which I have 
noted are rybti p. 20, rydibit pp. 22, 24, ryllettaud p. 25. All 
these instances, except the first, occur in the same poem, which 
belongs to the end of the twelfth century ; the first is found in a 

^ For the Four Ancient Books, reference is made throughout to the pages of 
Skene's text, which is not very reliable, as it confuses ««, nu ; ww, un ; d^ cl^ etc. 
* What oi Rec rysiolaw rec a archaw, p. 6 ? Should we read Rec rys iolaw ? 



2i6 J. STRACHAN 

poem of the same kind, and probably about the same date.* 
From the Book of Taliessih we have rydrychajwynf^ 126, 129, 
ryphrydaf 137, rychynant, rychwynant^ rydysfafy rychanaf 193, 
rylyccrawTy rylyccrer^y rytharnawTy rybamawr^ ryham 194, 
rydybyd 202, ryglywhawr^ rythrychyn^^ rygyrchynt^ 211; from the 
Red Book, ryglywawr 221, 229, rygeilw 235. More instances of 
this usage are to be found in the My vyrian Archaeology ; there 
are some still in the poems of Dafydd ab Gwilym. In none of 
the instances cited above is the verb preceded by a negative. 
This restriction does not apply to the ry- of possibility. To the 
instances of the last given above, p. 60, may be added nisr[z]' 
draeth, Four Ancient Books, p. 46 ; probably also A dyweid 
riein ny ry geblir * what a lady says cannot be treated lightly/ 
Myv. Arch.* 1 59*, though the poem is too late to be of much 
weight, and the proverb ni rygelir dryglam * a bad leap cannot 
be hidden,' Myv. Arch.' 853^, though this instance also must be 
treated with caution. To the instances of ry- of possibility in a 
positive sentence should be added, Foilr Books, p. 6, Ry halt 
itaut rycheidw y nauU rac cautgelin " . . . .* his protection can 
save from an enemy's wrath." 

How then are we to explain this use of ry- with the future ? 
So far as one can judge from the evidence, it is a purely Welsh 
development, and the distribution of the forms points to its 
being a comparatively late development ; one might add, with 
probability, that it is an artificial literary development of the 
poetical style. But where are we to look for the starting-point 
of this new usage? At first it occurred to me that it might 
come from ry- with the present indicative of use and wont, if 
that usage is to be regarded as established, just as the iterative 
present byddaf supplies the future of the verb * to be.' To this^ 
however, there is a fatal objection, namely, that this ry- with the 
future is confined to positive sentences. Another path may 
lead us to the goal. Thumeysen has pointed out, KZ. xxxvii. 
87 sq., that in Breton and Cornish the particle ra-, re- is regular 
with the subjunctive in positive wishes, while after a negative it 

J cf. a phont ar Taw ac arall ar Tawuy, p. 17, with Ban vo font or Taw a^ 
arall ar Tywi^ p. 28. The last line occurs also in a poem in the Red Book, p. 226. 
2 Subjunctive forms. 

' With the primary ending -t«/ ; cf. cwydyni^ torrynt on the same page. 
^ The preceding words I cannot translate. 



FURTHER REMARKS ON WELSH RY- 217 

does not appear. In the Four Books, so far as I have observed, 
the second part of this rule is absolute, e.g., ny buve, nim naccer 
12, nyth godwyf 114, nytn gwnel 118, ny dalywyf 293. In 
positive wishes ry- is found, e.g., ryphrinom^ 47, rym gwares^ ry- 
prynwynt 109, ryprynhom 116, rydrychafom 179, rydyrchafwy 
205, rybrynhwyni 304 ; but it is often absent, e.g., diwyccom 10, 
amho^ athvendicco 12, anduchy angunel 14, dywyccviff ^^ bwyf 
109, bydwyf 1 10, bwynt 112, anrothwy 159, bTvyf 175, diwyccwyf^ 
dtgomvy/ydtgonwyni lyS, gwares 220. Now we have seen above 
that in this poetry the subjunctive is often used for the future. 
If, then, these poets could in positive wishes use the subjunc- 
tive either with or without ry-, it is not strange that they should 
have allowed themselves the same license in the future. This 
explanation is confirmed by the following fact. Later poets 
allow themselves the use of ry- with the subjunctive also after 
ny ; the same poets use ry- with the future also after ny. There 
is a good example ip a poem ascribed to Cynddelw in the 
Myvyrian Archaeology' 180: — 

O arueu pechaut lletraut Uetvryt 

Ny rygar trugar tra syberuyd 

Ny rydau anau oe anwylyd 

Ny rogoduyf ruyf rymgueryt o dygyn 

Nyt ruyd uy gynnygyn gyndiebryt 

Ny rygoUuyf duw o deured byt 

Ny rygolles nef ny bo ynvyt 

In this later poetry ry- appears also with the conditional 
e.g., rybydwn, rybydei. My v. Arch.' 1 54*. 

In the following passage in the Four Books, p. 152 : — 

Nyt mi wyf kerd uut 
Gogyfarch veird tut 
Kyt' ebrwydaf drut 
Bytalmaf ehut 
Bydohimaf dremut — 

^ In this old poeUy ry* sometimes changes a following tenuis to a spirant after 
the analogy of ny, 

2 In this poetry a is often used to infix a pronoun. Some examples will be found 
in Arch. f. Celt. Lex. i., pp. 425, 426, 454 : cf. in Mid. W./« ass-archut^ etc., 
GC.», 933-4. Cf. the Cornish examples GC, 565, sq. 

5 If Skene's text is sound, tyt would be after the analogy of nyt. 



2i8 J. STRACHAN 

the verbs are translated (vol. i. p. 533) by presents, and that is 
what the context requires. The ry- of possibility would be in 
place here. 

Of the use of ry- with the present indicative in a perfect 
sense, there seem to be two other examples. The first is in 
Four Books, p. 34 : Lleas paup pan rydigher, which seem to 
mean * it is the death of everyone when there has been a swearing.' 
The verse is cited as an adage by Pughe, s. v. rhydyngu} The 
second is on p. 180: Ti a nodyd a rygeryd pop karchar 
= * Thou savest those whom Thou hast loved from every prison.' 
In Irish, in general sentences, this usage is found also in the sub- 
junctive, e. g. mani rochoscasom a muntir intain bUs cen grdd ni 
uisse toisigecht sochuide dOy Wb. 28^28. In Welsh I have met 
with one or two cases which one is tempted to explain in the 
same way. In Four Books, p. 308, ny rydecho*' rydygir seems to 
mean * he who does not run away can (or is wont to be) carried 
away.' On p. 307 ry brynwy^ nef nyt ef synn is translated (vol. 
i., p. 598) * whoso purchases heaven will not be confounded.' 
O^ P- 39 ^^^^ rycothvy^ = * woe to him who has angered.' In 
Myv. Arch.* 191* a rygotwy glew gogeled ragtaw = Met him 
who has angered a brave man avoid him.' Thurneysen, KZ. 
XXX vii. 86, quotes an instance in which the subjunctive with ry- 
is used of an individual fact ; to this may be added kyt rywne- 
lych di sarchaedeu llawer nys gwney bellach. Red Book, I. 99, 
and also kerydus wyfna chyrbwyllwyf am rywnel day * I am to 
blame if I mention not the good that he has done to me,' Four 
Books, p. 200. Thurneysen derives this Mid.-W. use of the 
particle from its use with the perfect indicative, and it is indeed 
probable that the perf. ind. has helped here ; but in the general 
sentences quoted above it is hard to separate the use of ry- from 
ry- with the pres. ind. ; note also ry- after ny in ny rydecho. 

1 Pughe's custom is to quote the verb with rhy^ as an independent verb. 

*Davies gives Uchu = 'latere, latitare'; Pughe * to skulk, to lurk, to lie 
hidden,* but in the instances quoted by Pughe the meaning *to flee' suits the 
context ; cf. Bret. Uchet * to flee.' 

'Skene prints ry brynw, Myv. Arch.' 11 8* has ry brynnu with a variant 
ry brynwy. For the omission of a see below, p. 220. Perhaps it is worth mentioning 
that before yssyd a * what ' is not used, e.g. yssyd o wreic ueichauc yny llys^ 
Red Book, i. 104. 

♦ Cf. without ry-^ a gotkuy Crist nachisced^ * let him who angers Christ sleep 
not,' Four Books, p. 35. 



FURTHER REMARKS ON WELSH RY- 219 

The following isolated examples of ry- may perhaps be 
mentioned here : ny riwellsud (sense not clear) p. 8, rytalud 
istedlit trt seith pader beunit^ which seems to mean *thou 
shouldst have paid . . . twenty-one paters every day/ p. 8, Achin 
rillethidve llatysseint^ *and though they were slain, they had 
slain/ p. 38, Ban ryerhint^ etc. (?), p. 55, hyt pan rychaiwyf vyn 
teithi^ p. 1 10, translated (l. 546) * as long as I keep my faculties/ 

In conclusion, some remarks may be permitted on the 
use of ry- with the preterite indicative. Speaking generally, 
the meaning df the preterite with ry- in Welsh is the same as 
that of the preterite with ro- in Irish. To Thumeysen's remarks, 
KZ. xxxvii. 86, 87, should be added, that in Welsh, as in Irish, 
the preterite with ry- was also used of an indefinite past (viewed 
from the standpoint of the present). Examples are : — 

112. dan syr seint ryseilwys, 'under the stars saints He has 

planted.' 
123. Crist lessu uchel ryseilas trycha[n] mil blwydyned,. 

* Jesus Christ high has founded three hundred 

thousand years.' 
128. Bytreghis eu hoes, * their life has passed away.* But 

with a neg., p. 8, nithreghis ev hoes. 
170. Bygadwys Duw dial 
ar plwyf Pharaonus, 
* God has kept vengeance on the people of Pharaoh.' 
215. Rygoruc, * has made/ several instances. 

In another point this old poetry agrees with the Irish usage. 
As is well known, ro- is not used after mad^ * well,' madginatar^ 
etc. In Welsh mad is used in the same way pretty frequently,, 
e. g. mad dodes 17, mab ny mat anet 299, ny mad deth 36, mad 
devthoste 46, ny mat doethant 125, mat gymerth^ mat ganet^ mat 
goreu, Myv. Arch.' ^77^^ ^y ^^^ borthes i8o*, and ry- is constantly 
absent.^ Hence, this usage may be put down without hesitation 
as common to the two branches of the Celts. 

1 For this the Myv. Arch.*, p. 83^, has Wyntwyyn Had gyd as Uedaint, Professor 
Rhys has conjectured diwnon and llatason. Other variations of the verse appear in 
Four Books, pp. 73, 99. 

^ Cf. Rhys, Studies in Early Irish History, p. 40. 

3 The only exception which I have noted is nymad rianed, [22, in a late poem. 
After mady^ is used to infix a pronoun, e.g. mat yth anet (= Ir. madginarsu) Four 
Books, pp. 82, loi. 



220 J. STRACHAN 

But while the meanings of ry- and ro- are similar, the syn 
tactic usage in the two families was not in all respects the same. 
However, before the Welsh usage can be satisfactorily discussed, 
it will be necessary to have a thorough investigation of the 
usage in Cornish. The old poetry of Wales points to the 
agreement of the Welsh with the Cornish usage, so far as it has 
yet been observed, cf. Thurneysen, KZ. xxxvii. 87, 88. Thus : — 

[a] A pronoun is infixed, e. g. ri-m-artuad, * I have been 
blackened ' 8, ry-m-dywod 23, 27, mi ry-th-welas 56, 0$ do/yd 
ry-n-digones ii^^ ry-n-gwarawi 126, Duw ry-th-peris iSOyry-tA- 
golles 263, Ham ry-m-tynghity llam ry-m-daerawt, llam ry-m- 
gallaty llam ry-m-gallas 269. Exceptions are rare: — i-m-rydoded^ 
y-m-rydoded 42, Owein reged a-m ryvaeth 49, a-n-ryamuc 149. 
With the present, however, we have ni'S't\t\draeth 46, o-th 
ryledir, * if thou art slain' (a solitary instance), 262, and with the 
subjunctive a-m-rywnel 200. 

{b) Ry- is not preceded hy yd. In the Four Books the only 
exceptions which I have noted are i-m-rydoded y-m-rydoded, 
above. In the Myvyrian Archaeology we have e.g. y rydraethy- 
sunt 142*,^/ ryborthed 191*. 

{c) Ry- is not preceded by the relative particle a} To the 
examples given above may be added :--r^« rydamuneis 45, Meir 
rymaeth 46, a theyrned dews rygedwys euffyd 129, rieu ryfel 
rydiffawt 150, // rygosteis 190, y kerdeu rydraethassam 221, y 
kerdeu rydrigyassanf 233, ath dyst rylas 263. Exceptions are, 
apart from amryvaeth etc. above, gent lessu a rydarfu 174, a 
ryuu 227. After a ' what' we have ry^ in a ryweleis 214, a ry- 
dywedeis 231 ; for the usage in Cornish I have no data. Before 
the subjunctive rybrynwy above p. 218, the a is not expressed. 

{d) Ry- is not used after a negative. Exceptions are very 
rare, ny ryanet ijS, ny tywelet 173, ny rytyghit 181. In the later 
poems in the My v. Arch, exceptions are more numerous, e.g., ny 
ry golles 180^, nys ryborlhes, ny ryweleis 158^. 

{e) From the Four Books I have no instance of ry- after the 
interrogative a. The Cornish instance, a glewsyugh why^ GC* 
756, agrees. I have no other Cornish examples to hand. 

J. STRACHAN 

1 So far as I have noted, a is the exception also in the prose of the Red Book* 



A FRAGMENT OF OLD IRISH 

THE following is taken from folio 38 of a small parchment 
in the Stowe collection deposited in the Royal Irish 
Academy, marked C. I. 2. It begins in the middle of a story 
about an abbot of Bangor, who was tempted by Satan ; but the 
point of the narrative is missing. Then comes a story about 
Laisran, and a few lines about fasting, after w}iich the scribe 
suddenly winds up at the end of the page with a conventional 
appeal to the reader's indulgence. 

From a linguistic point of view the fragment is highly 
interesting. A few late forms like dena for dinaib have crept 
in ; but the language, on the whole, belongs to the period of the 
Old-Irish glosses. Thus, to take a single case, the independent 
pronoun does not occur, and the infixed pronoun is used as in 
O. Ir., ro-an-ucy d-a-chdid^ &c. The orthography is also archaic. 
With one exception, mesratghthe, aspiration is marked only in 
the case of ch^ thy and/. The acute accent is freely used as a 
distinguishing mark over short /. Palatal vowels are written 
after non-palatal consonants — rucis, hliadniy rzagily lobrCy galir. 
As far as one can judge, the scribe has not tried to modernise 
his text ; and it is not surprising that he found it a * hard little 
story.' It contains several words and phrases which I cannot 
translate ; and for an explanation of several others the credit is 
due to Professor Strachan, who first drew my attention to the 
fragment. 

O. J. BERGIN 
Berlin. 



222 O. J. BERGIN 



C I. 2. R.I. A. FOL. 38 

. . . et dixit illi, nicon fiu deitsu a n-asbeir Finnia frit. Is mor 
an aprainw foropa/Vt, 7 ni pater demnichus* deit a glanath, is nf 
rath m6r in comaircell dobeir Finnia deit. Is hed as maith 
deit, ergc co Comgell cor-ruca britA fort Docoid-som 6n dano 
7 confesw^ est illi 7 dixit Comgell, is focen dm do thfchtu, nfcon 
bia brfg hisi«nfsi«. In Satan aridralast^r* insin dot astad etir 
tuaid 7 dod breth i tech pene.' Nfpa cobuir immurgu dosum 
7 ri., 7 Comgell«x dixit eadem uerba omnia quae dixit Finnia. 
Intan doluid ab Bennchair* sech tir is an« gabais port curach 
Coluimb Chille, 7 Satanas suasit illi ut iret ad Columbam. 

Nipa iccthe-su tre Finnio 7 CAomgell, olsesom. Is hed as 
maith deit, p^rge ad Columbam. Dach6id son da«(7, foruatig- 
side dosow. Is eiside dorat a cAoibsena dosom hi tuus, 7 dixit 
illi Columba, qm.ter crucifixisti Christum, per temet ipsum 
peccando, secundo in Finnio tresanf nad rucis aithgnu 7 nad 
rocretis quod illi per Spiritum Sanctum [...], t^rtio in 
Comgello*, quarto in me. Asbiur-sa* frit-su thra, olsesom, ol 
Colum Cille, cuic bliadni deec pende fobithi« na etorisen si« 7 
na diwmicne doratais for firball Crist. 

Etag berar do aes tuattu' cotetet deman coroenastar, 7 n( 
anaich a cArothad nach a f lescad acht* a nige. 

Araile anchore robof hi Cluain macco Nois, Laisran a ainivf, 
imnocht imdilmain cen nf for a cAubus, h^ dam? hil-lobre galir. 
Namberad idirum cdch* a huair dena maccleircAib dochum a 
tige leo. Ranuc araile maccleirech*® and aidchi robul dochum 
a tige. Dobert brat foa toeb. Conatil Laisran for a brut. 
Adchf aislince cholnide, 7 nicof^dacae oa genim cosin n-aidche 
sin. Atraig isirum. Feccais for ciii 7 mairctenaich. Ro»ima[i]rc 
mas ar naidche, olsesom. Feccais for figill isirum, conrogab na 
tri coecta fri figill. Dolluid isirum taurtAim fair for a beola. 



1 MS. deiimich»j ' MS. aritralastar ' MS a techpenne ^ MS. benchar 

s Here foUows in MS. in with punctum delens over the n * ms. asbirsa 

V MS. tuath tu > MS. actA * MS. chacA 10 Ms. maccleirechib with 

poncta delentia under ib. 



A FRAGMENT OF OLD IRISH 223 



Translation 

. . . et dixit illi : " What Finnia says to thee is indeed not 
fitting for thee. Great is the evil thou hast committed, and a 
pater does not certify its cleansing to thee, and the . . . that 
Finnia gives thee is no great favour. This is what is good for 
thee — go to Comgell, that he may pass judgment on thee." He 
went therefore, et confessus est illi^ et dixit Comgell : " Thy 
coming is welcome indeed ; that will be of no consequence. It 
was Satan who sent thee thither to detain thee among the laity, 
and to bring thee into the house of pain. However, it will be 
no help to him," &c., et Comgellus dixit eadem uerba omnia quae 
dixit Finnia, When the Abbot of Bangor came past the land, 
it was then Columcille's curach came ashore, et Satanas suasit 
illi ut tret ad Columbam. 

"Thou shalt not be saved through Finnia and Comgell," 
said he. " This is what is good for thee, perge ad Columbam^ 
He went therefore ... it was he who confessed to him first. 
Et dixit illi Columba: ^^qimter crucifixisti Christum^ per temet 
ipsum peccandoy secundo in FinniOy since thou hast not . . . and 
hast not believed quod illi per Spiritum Sanctum [. . .], tertio in 
ComgellOy quarto in me, " I say to thee now," said Columcille, 
" fifteen years of penance for that unfaithfulness, and the con- 
tempt thou hast shown to a true member of Christ." 

A garment which is taken from the laity, a demon ... it till 
it has been washed ; and it serves not to shake it or beat it, but 
to wash it 

There was a certain anchorite in Clonmacnois named Laisran, 
quite bare and free (from sin ?) with nought upon his conscience, 
but enfeebled by disease. Then each of the clerical students 
would take him home in turn. One night a certain clerical 
student took him to his house. He put a mantle under him. 
Laisran slept on his mantle. He sees a carnal vision, and 
he had not seen it from his birth till that night He rises then. 
He began to weep and lament (?). " Woe to me . . . ," said he. 
Then he began to pray, and recited the three fifties (i.e. the 
Psalter) in prayer. Then a numbness came upon his lips. 

S 



224 O. J. BERGIN 

Donanic isirum in t-aingel 7 dixit illi, niba br6nach thra, olse, 
quod in hac nocte sensiste iterum in uita tua non senties, 7 is 
hed fodruair ceth anfsiu, fobithin is brat in brat forsarroa, 7 ni 
roenacht iama buith lasin la.nB.min. Cotretiguir demon iaxum 
huare nad roenacht, ar nach brat berar do a^s setrenil cot- 
nimt[h]^t demon eret ndd negar. 

Niconmolathar-som in troscuth, is ferr lais in fit mesraig^the 
dogres. Niconfil etir in riaguil hi fuirestar in troscut^ a chinaith 
. . . aurgni : • : 

Den troscuth hi rfagil Chomgill .i. in Chetain ria Caisc. 
Ordit aniiso do;^a macaib fogluma, 7 is catad in seel bee he, 7 
na tathrz. ai[th]bAir na litir orum, 7 is olc in dub, 7 in memram 
gann, 7 is dorcAa an la. 



A FRAGMENT OF OLD IRISH 225 

Then came an angel to him, et dixit illi : " Be not sorrowful," 
said he ; '' quod in hoc node sensiste iterum tn uita tua non 
senates; and what caused even this is because the mantle on 
which thou hast slept (?) is a mantle which has not been washed 
since the married couple had it. A demon has ... it then 
because it has not been washed, for every garment that is taken 
from . . . folk, a demon accompanies it as long as it is not 
washed." 

He does not praise fasting; he prefers moderate eating 
always. There is no rule in which is found fasting . . . 

Of fasting in the rule of Comgell, i.e. the Wednesday before 
Easter. 

A prayer here for the students ; and it is a hard little story, 
and do not reproach me concerning the letters, and the ink is 
bad, and the parchment scanty, and the day is dark. 



226 O. J. BERGIN— A FRAGMENT OF OLD IRISH 



NOTES 

denmiehnBy apparently for demnigeSy but the form is doubtful. 

eomaircell, apparently a compound com-air-celly but the meaning is unknown 

tome. 
doctfid-Bom (Jn, lit. *he went that (going),* so d-a-chdid sdn, in which sdn refers 

back to the infixed a. Or possibly in the latter case we should read d-a- 

chdid-sofn, 
aridralastar. Cf. Thes. pal.-hib. ii. 318, 3. 
seeh tir. Perhaps we should read sechtir * out.' 
fomatig, pf. oifo-ud-tech (?). 

^tag berar, &c. This sentence seems misplaced in the narrative, 
eotetet may represent cot-d-ett'tit, but the meaning is unknown. 
imdilmain. Cf. dilmain gl. expeditum Ml. 81^7, rondilmainaigset vacasse 

criminibus, ib, 76*8. 
namberad, either for n-am-beratf 3 pi. hist, pres., or n-am'bered, 3 sg. imperf. ind. 

aidchi robni. Cf. Ml. 55<:i, doluid duaid iarum aidchi roboi cucu innan dunad, 
where, as the present passage shows, Sarauw's ingenious explanation must 
be abandoned. 

eonatil, pf. as distinguished from the neighbouring narrative tenses, ' after he had 

slept y he sawy &c. 
adchf , Mid. Ir. for add, 

aifllince cholnide, a fem. nom. sg. for ace. aislinci colnidi. But aislingthe is masc. 
in SR. 3350, 3373. In later Mid. Ir. the word is fem., like the modern 
aisling. The variation may point to an O. Ir. neut., which would suit the 
infixed pronoun in the following nicon-d-acae. In that case the true 
reading would be aislince colnide, 

feecaifl for ctii. Cf. LU. 24^1, fecsit cadesnefor cdi^ and the modem idiom do chrom 
si ar ghdiridhe * he began to laugh.' 

mairet[]i]enaieh seems to be a derivative from tnairg, 

ro-m-ma[i]re. Cf. ro-t-mairg-seo LL. 286^23. 

maa ar naidche s massu tar n-aidchi, ' if it is after night ' (?). 

foriarroa. I can only conjecture that -roa = '*rd-/ea, 2 sg. pf. of/oaim; cf. 
the pret. 3 sg.^«, pi. ifommir, ifeoiar, 

roenacht. The reduplication is analogical after the act. -roenaig'^ cf. doroigad 
Ml. 1 23*14, by the normal dorogad 124^13. 

-ftiiroBtar, 3 sg. pres. subj. pass, oifo-ric, * finds.* 



TWO MONASTIC RULES 

THE two following Rules are found in the MS. 23 P. 3, 
R. I. A. A critical edition and translation of such a text 
from a single MS. is almost an impossibility, particularly fronl a 
MS. of the character of 23 P. 3. At the same time, it is very 
desirable that such texts should be made accessible to Celtic 
scholars. Hence I have contented myself with printing the 
text of the MS., together with some corrections and suggestions : 
many of the difficulties will be solved only when a second 
independent text is discovered. I am indebted to Mr. R. I. Best 
for a careful collation of a proof with the MS. 

RlAGUL Ci^IARAI^ AN^SO 
FO. 14^ 

Ma asbera a dAeoraidA* . armpi he6IacA a riagAlaibA 
a ndob^tAa' do d^inibA . ba ferr narA ^rtha' fiadAaib 

Dochnm ni»ie (ocertAsL • risiu nohetk^ at cAuile 
fer a dsimain^ fritt cnesdn . dogn^ lesan^ ca^A duif^ea 

AilcAe' do cAuirp a tossu:A . heth a troiscib® i «aei»ea' 
itd Id Crist in cl^rech^° . cusn?L d^rnan^aib" fae»a' 

Na tr\ cocAuill no cAetAair . isna criolaibA maitAib 
gairm cAaicA in cdbAra co*;Aras . ecus so;«bl^ do cAaithiw 

Cathrach^* m6ra iort cubus . manuicA co p^ctAaibA ilibA 
isin riag2^// dim eolach • dfa ind^otach nf lilib^^^ 

Ni ot\m^,\rc mac duiife . acan necA dsimus tacai 
sech ni beca nl noirne . ni forgli ni nataccai^* 

I leg, de6raig 2 /^^^ ^ ndobertka ; the syntax requires the subjunctive 

3 leg. ertha; cf. Sarauw, Irske Studier, p. 126 * O. Ir. robeth ^^dammain, 
Thesaurus palaeo-hibemicus, 11. 245 ® lessdn, diminutive of less, * advantage ' 

' cf. the last hne of the poem, and dlatg, Ekju, ii. 65 ? ® leg, troiscthib 

» leg. a€naib and fa^naib ? 10 leg. chl^rich " gl. .i. cro&figell ** leg. 

cathraich, * monasteries ' ^^ jf t^e text be sound, this seems = O. Ir. liliUf 

I sg. fut. of lenaim ; but the sense of the second half of the verse is obscure 
^^ t is written over the preceding a ; leg. nddaccai, *■ thou shalt not bear witness to 
what thou hast not seen ' 



228 J. STRACHAN 

FobitA Mate Maire c/'aid^s • for necA ni furme dimes 
ised logA fla/Aa nime . do cAacA a cridAe diless 

PritcAae do cAacA a p^cutA . dw5 in ktAa ga^A an/«am 
dul duit i llaitAi Do/«na^/ . nicomnini^ mart6s t'anmuin 

Kcht m^d Aochwm in tempuil . is ocuP fri ga^A m^cc 
^^«^ torruwa sruitAi . (7r«i' tiwcAelaf reilicc 

Saboft Mate D6 nf craidAea . fri huair tacrai do ghnima 
ba do« risLguil noihkghdi . ardo/^legAa* /i^cnbAa 

Is do cAoluib cletc^htdL . nocAa ceilt* riag^la reidAi 
moXad do gni/»a fei«e® . tathair gnima do cAeile 

Cia bet caillecAa at (haxtad . legtur i rfagAlaib aili' 
fri Cm/ dia/»® glan do ridAea' . biasa**^ a flaitA niwea airi 

Diamba hid^b^rtacA trocar . gu/^ba faihV/ fri had Aid A^^ 
datteasairg*' Coiwde grei^^ . AochMm kint^^ nid fdide" 

Ctim in hai»«les negalsa . tagra g6a golgaire 
is^ is b^s cXerchtchta . ainim uisci tresaili 

Gdn cu taibre ar han;«ui«" . let a talmai^ nisb^ra 
cia nosti/^na^® dod cAaraid . seccfa^'' maruid ni mera 

Do coibsen leir dosb^a . a riagAuil diai^ba heolo^A 
ailcAi do cAuirp nfscdla^^ . ma asb^ra dAo deoro^A 

Maasb^ra 



^ In the MS. the division of the line falls here ' cf. ocal Windisch, Wb., 

ocgeU LL. 224^18 3 i^g^ timchellad ^ leg, arusl^gae or atdal^gae : 

cf. Eriu, II. 203, ardottd CZ. iv. 44 « leg, niconchelt ? ; in the following, 

rtagla seems to be a gen. depending on rMe ^ ctfod^ne^ Eriu, i. 205, and 

chene Thes. pal.-hib., 11. 293 ' leg. l^icter i liagla aili ? • cf. arim Wb. 

25*9, int io*2i » leg, chride *<* = biae-su " A word is wanted to rhyme 

with /Jii^i; leg. combo fiilid frit t*6igi ? " = do-t-essairc " leg. p^e 

1* = ni-t-f6idi " « th'anmain " A Mid.-Ir. form " leg. scch cia 

^^ Ug. niscela » niscelae 



TWO MONASTIC RULES 229 

RlAGUL NA MANACJSr LlATH ANDSO 

Fo. 13d 

Coran« liatA k/Aet baisi . rolas oc losgud dnsi. 
nfpa rom6r in maisi . ce nl drosa^A/' iiid loisi.' 

Atlochur . do M^c D& uasal amra. 
ocrois' CO mbac^uil nui . beith a tai cin labra 

Cuma. limsa nf don bith . achi rop cleircigAi* rop clitA. 
is cumsL lira gidA b6* dAe . a^A/ rop clitA rop cleircAidAe 

Techf don larm^rgAi m6r saeth . loiscis in gaetA mo dk& n-o. 
munbad o/^un FiadAat find . gid biml iii clocA ni tAiagk d6 

Adhsim Ssimson Solu/^ rf . romersat' a mbanairir 
gidA b^ r(?ntuasi^ fri mnd . gen guasso^A/ nf emama* 

Disim^^ do d^/'mat deogh do bds . nf fotha gdis gni^ do t^dir. 
paier terc da cslcA oclaigA naim . mairg ricfad uaim iftm din 

Clogdn hind . Ina coth/^im os nach gli«d. 
is! toil ar FiadAad" find . uatluw/ hraihar fo aen cui«g 

O ralath«r suil dar cacA . athetr lif aidAcAei«^' fei« 
bid a Parrt«j fer gin gradh . gid fer gu ng^ad bid a p^in 

Mairc danab^s^' bitAdiulto^ . mairc nach otrzxm a liatAa 
misc^^ g^h buirb a ti^c^sc . heridh slea/^ai^ a £iiacAa 

^dicXecht insire** sddhal . is nert dflenw gadig^b^y^ 
bidA a neiw isna nellaib . feg^aidA sei« ama si^^ib" 

J. STRACHAN 



* leg, cenid rossacht ? * cf. Windisch, Tditif p. 7112 ' = oc crois * leg, 

cl^irchide ^ * leg, dpi * = O. Ir. romertatar ' cf. Thes. pal.-hib. 11., 

pp. 171, 176, Eriu, I. 197 ® = cip6 contdaissea » = ^rnaba 

^0 leg, Dia ? " corr. from fiagad *' aitA altered to aidA ^^ i^g^ dianid b6s 
^^ above the line in a later hand feall ^^ leg, ama sinaib sen ? 



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